hntr 1153 exam 2

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which food groups provide carb and which are nearly void of carbs?

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203 Terms

1

which food groups provide carb and which are nearly void of carbs?

mostly plants, milk only one that has some carbs

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2

no carbs in meat, fish, poultry eggs

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3

what are the complex carbohydrates?

starch, glycogen and fiber

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4

name the monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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5

name the disaccharides

lactose, maltose, sucrose

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6

which monosaccharides form which disaccharides?

lactose=galactose and glucose

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7

maltose=glucose and glucose

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8

sucrose=fructose and glucose

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9

what is lactose intolerance?

insufficient production of lactase so can't digest the sugar in milk

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10

what is the preferred fuel for most body functions?

carbohydrates

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11

what percentage of daily calories should come from carbohydrates?

45%-65%

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12

which systems rely almost entirely on carbohydrates (glucose) as an energy source?

brain and nervous system

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13

why consume whole grain over processed grain? 4 reasons

  1. nutrients and fiber

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14
  1. fill up stomach more

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  1. slow digestion

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  1. promote feeling of fulness

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  1. lower diabetes, some colon cancers, and heart disease

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18

which Nutrients are added back to enriched grain products?

iron, niacin, riboflavin thiamin

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19

NIRT

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20

how does the body regulate glucose? 2 enzymes

  1. insulin from pancreas (stimulates glucose storage as gylcogen)

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21
  1. glucagon (helps release glucose from its glycogen nest)

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22

disaccharides must first be_____before being absorbed

split

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23

insulin regulates blood glucose by...2 ways

  1. facilitating blood glucose uptake by muscles and adipose tissue

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24
  1. stimulating glycogen synthesis (glucose storage) in liver

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25

What is the minimum amount of carbohydrate body requires to provide brain with glucose?

130g

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26

explain the deal with Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies form because of an inadequate supply of carbohydrates to break down fat. Metabolism shifts. fat fragments combine with each other (instead of producing energy). Ketone Bodies are usually scarce acidic products.

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27

Ketosis

when too many Ketone Bodies accumulate in the blood, can alter the normal acid-base balance

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28

what symptoms of ketone bodies?

fruity acetone odor to the breath

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29

how do ketone bodies help us?

during starvation, ketone bodies can be used as fuel by the brain

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30

when might ketone bodies/ketosis happen? 5 times

  1. starvation and malnutrition

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  1. low carb diet

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  1. diabetic on insulin who is sick

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  1. person whose body is NOT producing insulin and has

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  1. Type 1 diabetes (will have high blood sugar and high ketones)

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35

List 5 health benefits of fiber

  1. sense of fullness

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  1. slows absorption of glucose (lower diabetes risk)

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  1. lowers blood cholesterol by binding with bile (lower heart disease risk)

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  1. prevents constipation

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  1. may reduce diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, colon cancer

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40

what are major food sources of fiber?

found naturally in plant foods that have not been processed-fruit, veg, whole grains, legumes

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fiber=plant foods

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processing decreases or eliminates fiber

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43

name two types of fiber

soluble and insoluble (foods have both)

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44

describe soluble fiber and sources

oats, barley, legumes, fruits and veggies: soluble fiber dissolve in water and become viscous or form gels (think oatmeal), fermentable by colonic bacteria

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45

describe insoluble fiber and sources

brown rice, whole wheat, fruits and veggies , not easily fermented in the colon

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46

how does soluble fiber lower cholesterol in blood? think of the vacuum

liver sucks up cholesterol to make bile, puts it into gallbladder, gallbladder empties it into small intestine: THEN...some of the cholesterol in bile associates with fiber, fiber carries cholesterol in bile out of the digestive tract with poop, cholesterol that remains is reabsorbed into bloodstream

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47

Ill effects of too much fiber?

no upper intake level established, too much insoluble fiber can limit iron absorption, too much can block intestine

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48

American Diabetic Association suggests how much fiber for men and women?

25g women, 38g men

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49

what portion of the wheat kernel is fiber rich?

the bran

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50

name symptoms of high blood sugar?

Increased thirst.

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Frequent urination.

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Fatigue.

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Nausea and vomiting.

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Shortness of breath.

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Stomach pain.

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Fruity breath odor.

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A very dry mouth

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what are characteristics of type 1 diabetes?

5-10% of cases

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onset at less than 30yrs

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autoimmune disease, viral infections., inherited factors

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destruction of pancreatic beta cells, insulin deficiency

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little or no insulin secretion so you always need extra insulin

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juvenile-onset

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what are characteristics of type 2 diabetes?

most cases are type 2 (90-95%)

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onset at less than 40yr

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obesity, aging, inherited factors

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insulin resistance, insulin deficiency

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insulin secretion varies

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diabetes mellitus

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how to prevent type 2 diabetes? 5 ways

  1. healthy body weight

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  1. nutritious eating pattern

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  1. lots of physical activity

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  1. moderate alcohol intake among drinkers

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  1. no smoking!

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what's the best diet for managing diabetes?

  1. moderate calories

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  1. low in sat fat, high in veggies, legumes, fish, poultry, whole grains

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77

define sugar alcohols

sugarlike compounds in the chemical family alcohol derived from fruits or manufactured from sugar dextrose or other carbohdrates. they are absorbed more slowly, no cavities, also called polyols

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are sugar alcohols bad for you?

safe in moderation, can have gas, diarrhea, ab pain from too much, erthyritol has no calories, others have about half calories of sugar

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79

which sugar is about half of all sugars?

fructose

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80

name the three sorts of fats

triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols

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81

how are fats useful in body? 6 ways

  1. majority of energy needed for muscular work

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  1. chief storage for energy from food eaten in excess of need 80-90%

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  1. emergency stores

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  1. padding and insulation

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  1. cell membranes

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  1. raw materials

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how are fats useful in foods?7 ways

  1. nutrients

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  1. transport (vit DAKE)

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  1. concentrated energy source

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  1. sensory appeal

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  1. stimulate appetite

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  1. satiety

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  1. texture

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94

which fat is mostly in our foods?

95% triglycerides

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in which type of fat is cholesterol found?

sterols

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96

what is primary role of phospholipids? 4 ways

  1. emulsifier

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  1. cell membrane

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  1. help fats travel back and forth

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  1. some generate signals in response to hormones

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100

define saturated fats

triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids are saturated

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