Tarleton Genetics 3303 Dr. Pfau FINAL EXAM

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Where do sister chromatids come from?

Homologous or non-homologous chromosomes?

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266 Terms

1

Where do sister chromatids come from?

Homologous or non-homologous chromosomes?

DNA replication, identical copies

Homologous chromosomes: (same size, shape, and gene. one from mom/dad= inheritance)

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2

Gene

A specific Stretch of DNA (only a portion) containing the info to produce an RNA molecule, which may or may not be used to make a polypeptide, which may or may not be a protein.

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3

Purines have ___ carbon rings and Pyrimidines have ___ carbon rings. which nitrogenous bases fall into each category?

Purines = 2 carbon rings and their nitrogenous bases are A & G

Pyrimidines = 1 carbon ring and their nitrogenous bases are C & T

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4

Name all 4 non-functional genetic sequences and describe each.

Pseudogenes: from ancestors

Viral Sequences: virus inserted into DNA

Repetitive Sequences: 3' CAG 5' ---> 3' CAAAGGG 5'

Transcribed Elements: "copy/paste" anywhere

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5

What are the 3 roles of DNA as a hereditary material?

Replication: (not 100%) ---> mutations

Information Content

Ability to change/adapt to environment

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6

Variations of one gene are known as

Alleles

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7

the Packaging of DNA is Hierarchical. The double stranded DNA strand is wrapped around proteins known as _____. These "beads on a string" are referred to as ________.

Histones

Nucleosomes

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Continuous Variation

complex traits

ex: hair color in humans

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Discontinuous variation

simple traits

ex: dog lab coat colors

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10

which DNA strand is Identical to

3' CAGTCCAGATC 5' ?

5' CTAGACCTGAC 3'

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11

which DNA strand is complementary to

3' CAGTCCAGATC 5'

5' GTCAGGTCTAG 3'

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12

What kind of cells have introns and exons?

Eukaryotic Cells ONLY

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intron

A stretch of DNA within a gene that does not contain info to be translated, "interfering", "no purpose"

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exon

expressed gene, "good stuff"

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loci and/or locus

A specific location on a chromosome

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Hydrogen bonds

the bonds between two complementary strands of DNA

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17

The bonds that link nucleotides on a single strand of DNA are

Phosphodiester Bonds (covalent)

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18

Heterochromatin

tightly packaged DNA

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19

Euchromatin

loosely packaged DNA

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20

Purines pair with _____

pyrimidines

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21

A strand of DNA contains 17% Thymine, what is the amount of Guanine?

33%

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22

Karyotype

A representation of chromosomes in the cell, large to small except x/y

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23

How many Hydrogen bonds are in the DNA below?

3' CATTGCCTA 5'

5' CTAACGGAT 3'

22

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24

A cell contains 3 unreplicated chromosomes. Following DNA replication, how many replicated chromosomes will it contain?

3

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25

Nuclear Genome

linear, intron

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Organelle Genome (Mitochondria/Chloroplast)

Circular, Endosymbiosis

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Viral Genome

RNA/DNA, Circular/Linear

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Prokaryotic Genome

Circular, Plasmids

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mRNA

"Messenger RNA"

sends information to ribosomes

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tRNA

"Transfer RNA"

Brings Amino Acids for translation

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rRNA

regulates gene expression

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How is DNA faithfully replicated?

template strand

double-stranded

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Telocentric Chromosome

Centromere located at end

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Acro-Centric Chromosome

Centromere located close to end

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Sub-Metacentric Chromosome

Centromere located off centered

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Metacentric Chromosome

Centromere in the middle

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37

T/F: Sex chromosomes are either X or Y

False

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38

what are the 2 ways that mutations can occur?

SNP's: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

Indels: INsertion, DEletion

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39

Where do Kinetochores attach to?

the centromere

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40

what are Base pairs (bp)

how DNA is measured

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41

A cell contains 5 unreplicated chromosomes, immediately after DNA replication how many strands of DNA would the cell contain?

10

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42

list the 3 functional regions of a gene and describe them

promoter: start region

Transcribed Region: Transcription

Termination: Stop region

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43

List the 4 ways genomes can differ among species

Number of Chromosomes

Amount of DNA

Format of DNA

Organization of genes

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44

what usually has the most DNA?

Nucleus

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45

What type of chromosomes contain different versions of the same genes?

Homologous Chromosomes

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46

The only words used to describe chromosomes are?

Homologous

non-Homologous

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47

Why must the expression of genes be regulated?

Different genes must be regulated at different times, locations, and quantities (genes get turned on and off)

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48

Compare and contrast DNA and RNA

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49

During the process of transcription, what enzyme adds nucleotides?

RNA polymerase

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50

the genetic code is nearly ____,_____, with ____ codons

universal

redundant

64 codons

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51

What monomers make up proteins?

What bonds link monomers together?

Amino Acids

Peptide bonds

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52

list the components of a ribosome and there function

A site: arrival of tRNA P

P site: paring of Amino Acids

E site: Exit of empty tRNA

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53

In the presence of lactose, a lac operon would be ______. This process occurs in _____ cells.

Transcribed

Eukaryotic Cells

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54

In a diploid cell, how many genotypes are possible in the expression of 2 genes each with 2 alleles?

9

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mRNA

contains information to make proteins

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rRNA

the structural components of the site of translation

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tRNA

clover shaped, transfers amino acids during translation

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scRNA

found in cytoplasm, regulates gene expression

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snRNA

found in nucleus, makes modifications to mRNA

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What determines the function of a protein?

its shape

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A specific amino acids sequence describes ____ structure of a protein

primary

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62

Following transcription, the strand of mRNA is identical to ____

non-template

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what produces alleles? list the 4 possible effects

Mutations

1) normal protein

2) Protein not functional

3) Different Protein Function

4) No protein produced

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what are the components of an Amino Acid

Central Carbon

Hydrogen

Amino Group

Side Carbon

Carboxylic Acid group

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Mutant Allele

Uncommon variant often the result of mutation in wild type allele

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wildtype allele

most frequent allele associated with the common phenotype

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what binds to the promoter genes to regulate gene expression?

activators

repressors

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effector molecules

molecules that can bind to transcription factors

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steps of transcription and translation

initiation, elongation, termination

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70

name the 3 stop codons

UAA

UAG

UGA

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effector molecule

stimulus that regulates transcription factors, transcription factors regulate genes

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Norm of Reaction

One genotype produces a wide range of phenotypes

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Penetrance

The Proportion of Individuals in which the genotype is expressed

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Variable Expressivity

the degree to which a trait is expressed

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environmental influences

Phenotypic variation due to factors such as sun and heat

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Epigenetics

the addition of molecules to DNA

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Polymorphism

Existence of variation

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incomplete/partial dominance

Heterozygous phenotype is intermediate of its homozygous.

ex:

LDLR gene, cholesterol

L/L = normal

L/l = moderate

l/l = high

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complete dominance/recessiveness

Heterozygous phenotype is identical to one homozygous

ex:

huntingtin gene

MC1R gene (hair color)

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Codominance

Heterozygous phenotype is a combo of both homozygotes

ex:

blood type

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Relative Allelic interaction

Environmental conditions affect gene expression

ex:

Beta-globulin gene

sickle cell anemia

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genes in different pathways

expression of one gene does not affect the expression of others

ex:

corn snake colors

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Epistasis

expression of a gene affects the expression of other genes "down stream"

ex:

dog lab coat colors

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X and Y linked genes

genes found on either the X or Y chromosome

ex:

X-linked = opsin gene (colorblind)

Y-linked = SRY gene

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85

where do you get Mitochondrial genes from?

mom ONLY

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86

What are two fundamental mechanisms for inheritance?

DNA replication

Cell Division

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87

How many origins of Genetic Diversity are there? list them

2

Mutations

Sex

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Reproduction

Production of new cells/organisms

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Sex

Production of genetic diversity by recombining from more than one source

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sexual reproduction

Reproduction with sex

(Meiosis/Union of Gametes)

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asexual reproduction

Reproduction without sex

(Binary Fission/Mitosis)

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Helicase

unzipping of DNA

"separates"

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Topoisomerase

Relieves tension on DNA Strand

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Single-Stranded Binding Proteins

Prevents the rejoining of DNA strands

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Primase

Adds RNA primer

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DNA polymerase

Adds nucleotides complementary to template strand

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Ligase

joins Okazaki fragments

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Telomerase

completely replicates DNA ends = Telomeres

(located in gametic cells)

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What are Okazaki fragments?

Short lengths of single-stranded DNA made on the lagging strand.

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100

Semi-discontinuous

lagging strand

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