health psychology midterm (starting from ch 5)

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coping

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Psychology

145 Terms

1

coping

cognitive, behavioral, and emotional ways that we manage stress

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2

what is a key point of coping?

it is an ongoing process (ex. dealing with COVID)

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3

problem-focused coping

dealing directly with the stressor, which can reduce the stressor demands and increase coping resources. this approach is usually better if using just one

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4

emotion-focused coping

managing stress by trying to control our emotions; working through, clarifying, and understanding emotions that are triggered by a stressor. this type is best when little to nothing can be done about a stressful situation

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5

rumination

repetitive focus on causes, meaning, and consequences of stress that can lead to an emotional cascade. becoming focused on a negative event can lead to painful, negative emotions

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6

what is the role of SES on coping?

the lower the SES, the more emotion there is focused on coping

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7

psychological control

the perception that one can determine one’s behavior and influence the environment to create the desired outcome

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8

how can the SES of a neighborhood predict the health of its residents?

social cohesion, social control, neighborhood problems, and neighborhood vigilance

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9

social cohesion

trust and solidarity with neighbors

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10

social control

confidence that neighbors work/contribute to the neighborhood’s wellbeing

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11

neighborhood problems

things like litter or traffic

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12

neighborhood vigilance

feeling of threat and vulnerability in neighborhood

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13

resilience

ability to bounce back from difficult situations (hardiness is connected to this). there is an interaction of personality and a key of social support (ex. children surviving difficult upbringings)

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14

how can resilience help?

helps with self-image, planning, problem-solving, and emotional management. leads to forgiveness, and a lower blood pressure and cortisol

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15

personal control

ability to make our own decisions; it determines what we do and what others do to us. it leads to more problem-focused coping

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16

regulatory control

our capacity to modulate thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in response to changing circumstances. this leads to a delay of gratification

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17

what is the cardiovascular response from regulatory control?

the vagus nerve controls it. the response can lower blood pressure and calm the heart

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18

vagal tone

heart rate variability (high variability is better)

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19

regressive coping

attempt to avoid or inhibit emotional responses. does not work well

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20

dispositional affect

similar to mood; is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways. this trait is expressed by the tendency to see things in a positive or negative way

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21

what are chronic negative emotions associated with?

negative affectivity

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22

what are positive emotions associated with?

positive effectivity

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23

negative effectivity

influenced by culture. more harmful in western/individualistic societies. is linked to heredity but can be changed

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24

positive affectivity

linked to better health practices and physical activity (environment)

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25

what are the two types of personality traits?

pessimism and optimism

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26

learned optimism

can change pessimism into optimism. confidence helps with better consequences

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27

what is regressive coping linked to?

negative affectivity

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28

social support

has two ways of working that leads to a faster recovery and fewer complications

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29

direct effect of social support

enhances the body’s physical response to rise to challenging situations

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30

indirect effect of social support

buffering hypothesis

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31

buffering hypothesis

helps indirectly by helping an individual to cope better--there is less rumination happening

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32

who receives social support?

tends to be those with personal resources, or those that aren’t hostile

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33

why doesn’t social support work?

  1. the support wasn’t perceived as helpful?

  2. when the type of support isn’t appropriate (ex. emotional support is best with uncontrollable situations)

  3. too much support (too many choices, if it’s smothering, etc.)

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34

what can help with coping with stress?

gratitude and humor are valuable, as well as helping outside factors like pets and spirituality

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35

progressive muscle relaxation

form of relaxation training that reduces muscle tension through a series of tensing/ relaxing muscle groups

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36

Benson’s relaxation response

  1. a quiet place

  2. comfortable position

  3. mental device (ex. repeated words)

    1. passive

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37

mindfulness

a moment-to-moment, non-judgemental awareness. has become more popular, and is effective--recent research has emphasized its psychological benefits

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38

stress inoculation stages

  1. reconceptualization

  2. skill acquisition

    1. following through

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39

expressive writing

emotional disclosure via writing/talking that helps coping with what bothers us

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40

cognitive restructuring

replacing maladaptive, negative thoughts with healthier, adaptive thinking

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41

cognitive behavioral stress management

identifying stressors and learning ways to deal with them

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42

meaning-focused coping

when we discover meaning even in unchangeable situations, it is helpful in dealing with the situation and stress that comes with it (ex. spirituality)

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43

stress management

a variety of psychological methods designed to reduce the impact of stressful experiences. particularly appropriate for helping professions and college students

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44

what is the first stage of stress management?

education

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45

what is the second stage of stress management?

acquiring skills

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46

what is the third stage of stress management?

practicing skills

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47

disengagement-focused coping

distancing ourselves from stress

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48

health behavior

a health-enhancing behavior or habit

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49

health habit

health behavior that has become firmly fixed in our behavior

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50

what is the first health risk behavior?

smoking/other tobacco use

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51

what is the second health risk behavior?

high fat/low fiber diet

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52

what is the third health risk behavior?

not enough physical activity

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53

what is the fourth health risk behavior?

abusing alcohol and drugs

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54

what is the fifth health risk behavior?

not using proven medical methods

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55

what is the sixth health risk behavior?

engaging in violent or dangerous behavior

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56

what is the first factor of the health belief model?

perceived susceptibility

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57

what is the second factor of the health belief model?

perceived severity of the health threat

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58

what is the third factor of the health belief model?

perceived benefits of an barriers to treatment

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59

what is the fourth factor of the health belief model?

action cues (not enough about emotions)

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60

what is the first factor of the theory of planned behavior?

attitude towards behavior

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61

what is the second factor of the theory of planned behavior?

subjective norm towards behavior

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62

what is the third factor of the theory of planned behavior?

perceived degree of control over behavior. this is best in rational or goal-oriented decisions, and not as good in social relationships

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63

what are the 5 stages of the trans-theoretical model/stage theory?

precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance (not always sequential)

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64

primary prevention

health-enhancing efforts to prevent injury or disease from happening (ex. wearing a mask, getting a vaccine). this is hard to do when harm seems to be far away

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65

secondary prevention

actions taken to treat an illness early on

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66

tertiary prevention

action taken to contain the damage by a disease

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67

morbidity

the disabled, ill, or those in pain

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68

what are the 2 problems that are present in families?

overt family conflict and deficient nurturing

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69

what is the key about family problems?

health lessons are learned before adolescnece

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70

what are family barriers in promoting health?

modeling and genetics

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71

what are health system barriers in promoting health?

a lack of focus on early detection, and a lack of insurance for a great health risk

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72

who is uninsured?

79% are citizens. Hispanics are at the greatest risk

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73

what are advantages of a community health program?

  1. can do more than an individual could

  2. can reach a broader population

    1. can combine info and social support

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74

gain-framed message framing

attaining positive outcomes or avoiding bad ones

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75

loss-framed message framing

negative outcome from not performing a healthy activity (a high threat does not work well. moderate fear works best)

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76

self-monitoring

keeping track of a personal target behavior that is to be modified, including the stimuli associated and consequences that follow it

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77

contingency contract

establishes a contract for reinforcing good behavior

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78

what are the 4 dimensions of a healthy workplace?

-stress

-work in a family setting

-relations at work

-work-life balance

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79

positive psychology

the study of optimal human functioning and healthy interaction with other people and the environment

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80

allostatic overload

long-term elevation of stress; “wear and tear” of the body due to chronic stress

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81

neurobiology of resilience

the capacity to withstand challenges to homeostasis

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82

self-enhancement

the ability to recall positive associations. it helps with relationships and in dealing with stress

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83

social-integration

the number of social roles a person participates in

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84

curiosity

helps older people deal with a challenging environment

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85

self-efficacy

can perform health-related behaviors

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86

what is the limit of positive psychology?

there hasn’t been enough attention on interpersonal context

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87

physical exercise

planned, purposeful, and repetitive physical activity that is designed to improve physical fitness

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88

aerobic exercise

moderate-intensity workout done over a period of time (ex. running, swimming)

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89

anaerobic exercise

high-intensity workout (ex. weight training, sprinting)

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90

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

the minimum number of calories the body needs to maintain bodily functions while at rest

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91

what are the benefits of physical activity?

slows down the effects of aging, reduces the risk of disability, reduces the threat from a disease that is particularly age-related, lowers the risk of depression

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92

cardiovascular endurance

the ability to supply oxygen to working muscles for a long time

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93

how can weight be controlled by exercise?

exercise decreases ghrelin, of which stimulates hunger. it increases PYY, which signals satiety. it can also protects against chronic illnesses like osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes

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94

metabolic syndrome

a cluster of conditions with symptoms of:

-increased blood pressure

-high blood sugar

-excess body fat around the waist

-low HDL

-high triglyceride (increase risk for heart disease, strokes, and diabetes)

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95

why don’t more people exercise?

-exercise decline in younger people

-older people believe in myths about the loss of bone density and possible heart attacks

-beliefs that exercise can’t be enjoyable

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96

what is low SES linked to?

low levels of exercise

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97

neighborhood walkability

the ease of walking around in neighborhoods

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98

short sleep duration

less than 7 hours of sleep

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99

circadian rhythm

a biological clock that operates on a 24-hour cycle

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100

how is pain related to sleep pattersn?

can increase poor sleep patterns, and this in turn can increase pain (it becomes a cycle). stress can affect sleep patterns as well

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