World History

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The political structure of medieval Italy was marked by

A

a series of city-states and principalities.

B

consolidated rule by the popes.

C

a tightly centralized government.

D

unification imposed from the outside by the Holy Roman Empire.

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1

The political structure of medieval Italy was marked by

A

a series of city-states and principalities.

B

consolidated rule by the popes.

C

a tightly centralized government.

D

unification imposed from the outside by the Holy Roman Empire.

A

a series of city-states and principalities.

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2

The Muslim hajj to Mecca and medieval Roman Catholic pilgrimages to churches were similar in all but which of the following ways?

A

Many Muslim and Christians spent significant sums to go on pilgrimages, thus influencing commercial activity.

B

Many Christians and Muslim pilgrims often traveled in groups, as bandits were a concern on land and pirates a concern at sea.

C

Many Christians and Muslims felt a religious compulsion to visit sites that were significant in their respective religions.

D

Many Christians and Muslims resented the fact that little was done to assist and protect them when they went on pilgrimages.

D

Many Christians and Muslims resented the fact that little was done to assist and protect them when they went on pilgrimages.

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3

Which of the following pairs of powerful new or greatly expanded trading cities from the period ca. 600 to ca. 1450 shared the geographic factor that they were surrounded by water?

A

Teotihuacan and Calicut

B

Tenochtitlan and Venice

C

Chichén Itzá and Melaka

D

Tula and Novgorod

B

Tenochtitlan and Venice

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4

One of the most important long-term effects of the crusades for Europe was

A

they helped increase trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean and helped western Europe reintegrate into the Eurasian economy.

B

the increase in fighting led to a slight decline in trade in the Mediterranean.

C

that they stopped all trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean because of the constant state of war.

D

although the crusades increased fighting, there was virtually no impact on trade.

A

they helped increase trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean and helped western Europe reintegrate into the Eurasian economy.

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5

Chinampas are most comparable to which of the following?

A

agricultural practices of the Polynesian peoples

B

the Inca waru waru system

C

latifundia farming techniques in the Roman world

D

terraced rice agriculture in East Asia

B

the Inca waru waru system

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6

Which of the following indicates a deficiency in Inca culture when compared to contemporaneous empires in the eastern hemisphere?

A

absence of any script or system of writing

B

lack of access to mineral ores

C

insufficient agricultural production

D

inadequate network of roads

A

absence of any script or system of writing

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7

All of the following reflect that European scholars rediscovered the works of Aristotle during the middle ages EXCEPT

A

key works of Aristotle were found in the Alexandrian Library and these originals were sent to Rome.

B

some copies of parts of Aristotle's works had survived in monasteries and libraries in Rome and elsewhere in Europe, and were available in Latin.

C

Muslim scholars in Al-Andalus had developed an appreciation for Aristotle's works and some were published in Arabic; Christians and Jews in Sicily then translated the works into Latin.

D

communications and trade increased between Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians, and Byzantine copies of some of Aristotle's works were sent to western Europe.

A

key works of Aristotle were found in the Alexandrian Library and these originals were sent to Rome.

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8

When the Mexica migrated to central Mexico, they

A

dramatically improved the limited cultural achievements of their Mesoamerican predecessors.

B

imposed their own traditions on the societies of Mesoamerica

C

adopted cultural and religious traditions shared by the peoples of Mesoamerica.

D

were not influenced by the traditions of the societies of Mesoamerica.

C

adopted cultural and religious traditions shared by the peoples of Mesoamerica.

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9

In a larger sense, the Investiture Controversy represented

A

the conflict between the eastern and western Christian Churches.

B

the challenge of heresies within the Catholic church.

C

the struggle between church and state for political control.

D

the struggle between Christian and Islamic forces for control of Jerusalem.

C

the struggle between church and state for political control.

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10

Historians who maintain that the date 1071 C.E. is the best choice for the transition between two major periods in Byzantine history versus historians who maintain the date 1453 C.E. is a better choice for that transition are most likely to disagree on the relative importance they assign the following?

A

whether the Orthodox Church was successful in preventing civil wars in the Byzantine empire

B

whether Greek fire was effective as an offensive and defensive weapon on land and at sea

C

whether Byzantine military practices were successful in protecting the empire from its enemies

D

whether Turkish peoples played a significant role in the decline of the Byzantine empire

C

whether Byzantine military practices were successful in protecting the empire from its enemies

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11

An agricultural historian interested in researching agricultural techniques used by Mexica farms in the region around Tenochtitlan and Lake Texcoco prior to the Spanish invasion would be most likely to use which of the following sources?

A

accounts of how to properly tend or dress grape vineyards

B

records of current waru waru agricultural production

C

descriptions of water systems necessary for appropriate rice paddy irrigation

D

summaries of fertilization practices used in chinampas farming

D

summaries of fertilization practices used in chinampas farming

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12

All of the following statements about the Inca empire ca. 1525 C.E. are factual EXCEPT

A

expansion of the empire to the east was blocked by the highest ranges of the Andes and by the Amazonian tropical rain forest.

B

the empire at that time included most of modern Peru and Ecuador, sections of Bolivia, and northern portions of Chile and Argentina.

C

an extensive road network unified the Inca empire.

D

Spanish incursions had already occurred, plunging the empire into civil war and epidemic disease that caused Inca populations to plummet.

D

Spanish incursions had already occurred, plunging the empire into civil war and epidemic disease that caused Inca populations to plummet.

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13

The lifestyles of Australian aboriginals and San peoples of southern Africa prior to contact with Europeans were similar in which of the following ways?

A

Both practiced farming.

B

Both traveled in large groups.

C

Both were pastoralists.

D

Both were hunter-foragers.

D

Both were hunter-foragers.

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14

Which of the following ranked as the largest state ever built in South America by the late fifteenth century?

A

The Mexica

B

The Inca

C

The Chucuito

D

The Maya

B

The Inca

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15

As with other regions, medieval western European population began to

A

decrease as Viking invasions became infrequent and reduced trade.

B

grow rapidly as new food items from the western hemisphere brought more calories per acre cultivated.

C

surge as agricultural techniques improved and more land was turned into farmland.

D

stabilize as more people converted to Christianity and married earlier.

C

surge as agricultural techniques improved and more land was turned into farmland.

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16

The cultural and religious traditions of the Australian aborigines

A

did not diffuse much beyond their own regions.

B

spread throughout Australia as the aborigines conquered.

C

eventually spread to the islands of Oceania.

D

died out completely before the arrival of the Europeans.

A

did not diffuse much beyond their own regions.

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17

Which of the following was effective in the networks of exchange and communications of the Roman, Chinese Han, Achaemenid Persian, and Inca empires?

A

creation and deployment of naval forces

B

development and maintenance of road networks

C

avoidance of use of bureaucracy to enforce imperial objectives

D

common languages and universalizing religions were imposed

B

development and maintenance of road networks

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18

Which factor contributed to the appearance of the Aztec empire's territorial claims ca. 1520 C.E.?

A

Epidemic diseases had caused a population crash and many areas around the empire were so depopulated that they were not annexed into the empire.

B

States neighboring the expanding Aztec empire hired Inca mercenaries to help protect them from being made tributary states to the empire.

C

Maya peoples had concluded a series of alliances with powerful states in central Mexico that were constantly at war with the Aztec empire.

D

The Mexica people, along with people from Texcoco and Tlacopan, controlled a federation including various tributary states.

D

The Mexica people, along with people from Texcoco and Tlacopan, controlled a federation including various tributary states.

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19

Ancient Egyptians and the Inca were similar in which of the following ways?

A

the use of hieroglyphics as a system of written communication

B

ritual mummification for the remains of rulers

C

dependence on the crops of maize or corn and rice

D

forging of bronze to make tools, weapons, and ritual vessels

B

ritual mummification for the remains of rulers

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20

Manufacturing in European towns and cities during the early middle ages was concentrated especially on the production of

A

olive oil.

B

glass.

C

spices.

D

wool textiles.

D

wool textiles.

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21

The single greatest obstacle to the rise of a powerful Holy Roman Empire was

A

continuous tension caused by border disputes with England.

B

the reoccurring appearance of epidemic diseases.

C

an ongoing conflict with the papacy.

D

continual invasions by the French.

C

an ongoing conflict with the papacy.

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22

Which of the following represents a significant advance in European agriculture during the high middle ages, generally agreed to be the time period ca. 1001–1300 C.E.?

A

use of oxen and camels for plowing

B

use of manure and artificial fertilizer to improve crop yields

C

use of horseshoes and improved horse collars to increase efficiency

D

use of locks and irrigation canals to expand areas of arable lands

C

use of horseshoes and improved horse collars to increase efficiency

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23

Historians often consider the period ca. 1428–1520 C.E. a turning point in the history of the Americas. Which of the following events that occurred during that period BEST supports that contention?

A

Polynesians introduced the sweet potato and pigs to South America, thus diversifying Inca food sources.

B

Mound-building peoples engaged in significant trade with both the Maya in the Yucatan and the Aztec empire.

C

The Inca empire collapsed after subject people rose against their rulers and convulsed the Inca state to civil war.

D

The Aztec empire expanded to dominate central Mexico from the Caribbean to the Pacific coast.

D

The Aztec empire expanded to dominate central Mexico from the Caribbean to the Pacific coast.

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24

Historians often consider the last years of the late middle ages—mid-fifteenth century C.E.—a turning point in European reconnections with the greater world. All but which of the following changes support this theory?

A

Significant demographic increases occurred as a result of the retreat of epidemic disease.

B

Religious reunification between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Church traditions coalesced into a new, Uniate theology.

C

Significant economic growth occurred based on expansion of manufacturing, extractive activities, and agricultural production and expanded networks of communications and exchange.

D

Forms of political organization solidified and became more stable and predictable.

B

Religious reunification between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Church traditions coalesced into a new, Uniate theology.

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25

A historian interested in researching the evolution of Mesoamerican civilization ca. 1500 B.C.E. to 1500 C.E. would most likely access sources related to which of the following sets of civilizations?

A

Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Mexica

B

Circum-Caribbean, Orinoco, Andean, and Arawak

C

Na-Dene, Muskogean, Siouan, and Iroquoian

D

Chimu, Chucuito, Inca, and Polynesia

A

Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Mexica

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26

All of the following are true of the status of Mexica women ca. 1500 C.E. EXCEPT

A

women often worked in the marketplaces of cities around Lake Texcoco and in Tenochtitlan.

B

the principal function of women in Mexica was childbearing, particularly producing sons.

C

a high degree of militarization marginalized Mexica women's involvement in political matters.

D

laws reinforced patriarchy and women could not inherit property or serve in official roles.

A

women often worked in the marketplaces of cities around Lake Texcoco and in Tenochtitlan.

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27

The Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Mexica or Aztec civilizations share all of the following EXCEPT

A

construction of stone cities.

B

cultivation of maize, beans, and squash.

C

play of the Mesoamerican ballgame.

D

worship of Huitzilopochtli, as the god of war, and Chac, as the god of rain.

D

worship of Huitzilopochtli, as the god of war, and Chac, as the god of rain.

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28

Although plagued by periodic droughts, the Pueblo and Navajo peoples of the American southwest

A

lived in agricultural settlements.

B

were under Aztec rule.

C

were nomadic peoples who hunted buffalo.

D

formed a political alliance with the Iroquois nations.

A

lived in agricultural settlements.

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29

Business practices in postclassical China, the Islamic world, and Europe were similar in which of the following ways?

A

Paper money was printed and exchanged between these trading partners.

B

Letters of credit were used in many transactions.

C

Partnerships were seldom used, as merchants felt most comfortable having exclusive control of their transactions.

D

Use of cash or bullion was the easiest and safest way to transport assets.

B \n Letters of credit were used in many transactions.

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30

Which of the following is a description of what were called the Three Estates, or divisions of society, in medieval Europe?

A

peasants, urban laborers, and merchants

B

rulers, free peasants and city dwellers, and slaves

C

the clergy, the nobility, and the rest of the population

D

the king, the nobility, and the rest of the population

C

the clergy, the nobility, and the rest of the population

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31

A historian examining the middle period of the Byzantine empire could BEST utilize information on the timeline to examine which of the following?

A

resurgence of Byzantine power in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries with the reoccupation of formerly Byzantine lands

B

intensiveness of Roman Catholic efforts to heal the Great Schism and return the Orthodox Church to a shared communion

C

challenges the Byzantines faced from Turkish invaders, Italian merchants, and western European adventurers

D

effectiveness of Byzantine naval forces in projecting state power in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins

C

challenges the Byzantines faced from Turkish invaders, Italian merchants, and western European adventurers

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32

All of the following contributed to the growth of the European agricultural economy after ca. 1300 C.E. EXCEPT

A

improved agricultural production and land use techniques.

B

new or improved tools and technologies.

C

introduction of new crops from Islamic lands.

D

changing climatic conditions provided longer growing seasons.

D

changing climatic conditions provided longer growing seasons.

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33

Which of the following represents the most significant reason behind the foundation of universities in a number of European cities between the mid-twelfth and late-thirteenth centuries?

A

Rulers of several European countries wanted to have more individuals trained to work in the rapidly expanding manufacturing facilities.

B

Students were sometimes overcharged for food and lodging in university towns.

C

Universities were the first European schools since the fall of the Roman empire to adopt curricula that used Greek as the language of instruction.

D

Both faculty and students wanted to form guilds in order to protect their respective interests and persuaded local rulers to grant charters to protect their rights.

D

Both faculty and students wanted to form guilds in order to protect their respective interests and persuaded local rulers to grant charters to protect their rights.

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34

According to the map, the rise of the Hanseatic League in the middle ages demonstrated

A

efficiency and safety of exclusively using land trade routes to move goods.

B

decline in international networks of exchange and communications during this period.

C

power of these Protestant lands to supply goods and services to other markets.

D

evolution of northern European cities as strong participants in Eurasian networks of trade.

D

evolution of northern European cities as strong participants in Eurasian networks of trade.

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35

An economic historian interested in researching the importance of Cahokia as a center of the mound-building peoples would most likely use which of the following resources?

A

oral histories compiled from native peoples about trade interactions with other groups

B

analysis of effects of geographic location on networks of communications and exchange

C

descriptions of excavations of mound-building peoples' settlements

D

logs of results of collection of flint tools found in creek banks in the Ozark Mountains

B

analysis of effects of geographic location on networks of communications and exchange

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36

As western European Christians became reacquainted with the roots of Greek philosophy, theologians such as Thomas Aquinas

A

used the mathematical concepts of Pythagoras to build more symmetrical structures.

B

tried to diminish the thinking of Socrates.

C

rediscovered Aristotle and made his writings central to scholastic philosophy.

D

used Plato to explain major biblical texts.

C

rediscovered Aristotle and made his writings central to scholastic philosophy.

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37

The events described in the timeline are most closely related to the expansion and evolution of which cultural group?

A

Australian aboriginals

B

Mesoamericans

C

Polynesians

D

Incans

C

Polynesians

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38

What served as the administrative, religious, and ceremonial center of the Inca empire?

A

Chimu

B

Quito

C

Machu Picchu

D

Cuzco

D

Cuzco

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39

The conditions of Constantinople as explained in the passage were made possible by which of the following factors?

A

The Byzantine defeat of the Seljuk Turks

B

The expansion of existing trade routes throughout Afro-Eurasia

C

An extensive merchant Muslim population integrated throughout the city

D

The close relationship between the patriarch in Constantinople and the pope in Rome

B

The expansion of existing trade routes throughout Afro-Eurasia

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40

Which of the following is true regarding the construction of public buildings and monuments such as those described in the passage?

A

All public architecture was religious in nature.

B

Religious minorities in the Byzantine Empire were not allowed to build places of worship such as temples or mosques.

C

Peasants in the Byzantine Empire were required by law to perform two years of public works for the state.

D

Public architecture often reflected the cultural values of urban government.

D

Public architecture often reflected the cultural values of urban government.

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41

Based on the passage and your knowledge of world history, which of the following could be best inferred about Constantinople and other urban areas during this period?

A

Pressure from the Seljuk Turks forced the Ottomans to crack down on religious minorities such as the Jewish population of Constantinople.

B

The Jewish population were often sold as slave labor.

C

Most inhabitants were prosperous.

D

The city had Jewish diasporic merchant communities.

D

The city had Jewish diasporic merchant communities.

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42

Pedro de Cieza de León’s description of the Inca best illustrates which of the following?

A

Commercial growth was often aided by state practices such as the building of highways.

B

The Inca legal system was harsher than most Afro-Eurasian systems during the same period.

C

The Inca were less socially stratified than most Afro-Eurasian systems during the same period.

D

Inca cooperation with the Spanish invaders led to an improved infrastructure.

A

Commercial growth was often aided by state practices such as the building of highways.

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43

Which of the following best accounts for the system of labor mentioned in the third paragraph?

A

Indentured servitude

B

The mit’a

C

The egalitarianism practiced by the Inca

D

The encomienda system

B

The mit’a

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44

Pedro de Cieza de León’s description of the Inca best illustrates which of the following continuities in world history?

A

Systems of written record keeping have existed in all societies since the invention of writing.

B

The power of states was based on the government’s willingness to use violence to enforce societal expectations.

C

States developed legal codes that facilitated the rule of governments over the people.

D

States developed social welfare programs to ensure some level of prosperity for their citizens.

C

States developed legal codes that facilitated the rule of governments over the people.

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45

The system of labor mentioned in the last paragraph is most similar to which of the following systems of labor?

A

Chattel slavery

B

The hacienda system

C

Free peasant agriculture

D

Serfdom in Europe

D

Serfdom in Europe

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46

The map of Tenochtitlán is an example of which trend in the Post-Classical period?

A

The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods

B

The growth of new powerful trading cities

C

Maritime migrations of peoples to new areas of the world

D

The development of new defensive military tactics

B

The growth of new powerful trading cities

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47

Based on the map and your knowledge of world history, the location of Tenochtitlán allowed for

A

new agricultural innovations such as the chinampas field system

B

new modes of transportation in the Americas due to the horse collar

C

the eradication of diseases due to isolation

D

new maritime technology such as the astrolabe

A

new agricultural innovations such as the chinampas field system

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48

The passage is best viewed as a description of which of the following political systems?

A

Oligarchic government

B

Parliamentary government

C

Feudal government

D

Local government

C

Feudal government

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49

The system of government described in the passage is most similar to which of the following?

A

Japan

B

The Mongols

C

The Inca

D

The Aztecs

A

Japan

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50

\n The North American Indian societies

A

possessed no form of writing.

B

invented writing that was much more complex and useful than that of the Aztecs.

C

copied their writing system from the Aztecs.

D

used a series of hieroglyphics that were very similar to the Maya script.

A

possessed no form of writing.

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51

The "chinampa system" refers to the

A

process by which the Aztecs determined victims for ritualistic sacrifice.

B

Aztec practice of dredging fertile muck from the lake's bottom.

C

core of the Inca imperial administrative structure.

D

Inca system for memorizing facts without the use of a written language.

B

Aztec practice of dredging fertile muck from the lake's bottom.

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52

In 962 C.E., Pope John XII presented the imperial crown to

A

Charlemagne.

B

Hugh Capet.

C

Otto of Saxony.

D

William of Normandy.

C

Otto of Saxony.

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53

Women in Aztec society

A

played a much more important role than in Inca society.

B

played almost no public role.

C

determined the identity of the emperor.

D

played a dominant role.

B

played almost no public role.

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54

The crusades

A

stopped all trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean because of the constant warfare.

B

had virtually no impact on trade whatsoever.

C

increased trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean.

D

led to a slight decline in trade in the Mediterranean.

C

increased trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean.

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55

All of the following contributed to the strengthening of patriarchy in India circa the first and second centuries C.E. EXCEPT \n \n A \n epic literature like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana portrayed women as emotional, silly and weak-willed, dependent upon their husbands to make decisions. \n B \n Indian moralists helped define gender roles that were well defined and rooted in Indo-Aryan traditions. \n C \n child betrothal of girls as young as eight to adult men became more common; weddings occurred when the girls reached puberty. \n D \n all nuclear families lived in separate dwellings, and women of all castes managed most aspects of family business, served as jurors in trials, and were responsible for paying taxes to the state

D \n all nuclear families lived in separate dwellings, and women of all castes managed most aspects of family business, served as jurors in trials, and were responsible for paying taxes to the state.

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56

All of the following contributed to the growth of Mahayana, or "greater vehicle," as a religion of salvation as it evolved out of the original Hinayana "lesser vehicle" Buddhism in the early centuries C.E. EXCEPT \n A \n the development of the concept of bodhisattvas, Buddhist saint-types, who had reached spiritual perfection and could pass over into nirvana but instead stayed on earth to help others. \n B \n the purging of monks who believed they could accept aspects of both Buddhism and the old Vedic religions \n C \n the decision by many leaders of Buddhist monasteries to begin to accept gifts from wealthy and poor alike, bequests seen as actions that were meritorious and helped one gain salvation. \n D \n the new reverence to Buddha as a god, which allowed followers to more closely identify with the faith and focus devotions on his memory.

B

the purging of monks who believed they could accept aspects of both Buddhism and the old Vedic religions

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57

Early Jainism and early Buddhism were similar in approaches to monasticism in all of the following ways EXCEPT which of these? \n A \n Both Buddhist and Jain monasteries offered an established, formal curriculum and educational institutions, unlike the earlier informal educational method of a sage and his followers following less established rules. \n B \n At some of the Buddhist and Jain monasteries, not only were sectarian beliefs studied, but Vedas, logic, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine were also explored. \n C \n Some of the monasteries became so famous that they attracted students and travelers from lands outside of India to study the Buddhist doctrine and practices. \n D \n Monastic institutions were exclusively inhabited by high caste individuals converted to either Jainism or Buddhism from Hinduism, Nestorian Christianity, or Islam and lower caste converts were excluded from monastic life.

D \n Monastic institutions were exclusively inhabited by high caste individuals converted to either Jainism or Buddhism from Hinduism, Nestorian Christianity, or Islam and lower caste converts were excluded from monastic life.

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58

Historians often consider the period 268-232 B.C.E. a turning point in the history of the rapid expansion of Buddhism into parts of Eurasia outside of India. Which of the following BEST represents that contention? \n A \n the life of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha \n B \n the life of Vardahamana Mahavira \n C \n the reign of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka \n D \n the reign of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka

C \n the reign of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka

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59

All of the following were important reasons for the fall of Mauryan and the Gupta empires EXCEPT \n A \n India had a tradition of governance being exercised by small, regional kingdoms rather than a tradition of large areas submitting to imperial authority. \n B \n repeated invasions by central Asian nomads, the White Huns, ended the imperial cohesion of the Mauryan and Gupta empires, who had previously shared control of the subcontinent. \n C \n the military of both empires became less and less effective in protecting against internal security threats. \n D \n expansion of bureaucracies necessary to effectively manage an empire proved too costly for either empire to maintain.

B \n repeated invasions by central Asian nomads, the White Huns, ended the imperial cohesion of the Mauryan and Gupta empires, who had previously shared control of the subcontinent.

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60

The information below applies to the question that follows. \n \n • The founder of this religion, Vardhamana Mahavira, lived 540-468 B.C.E. \n • Inspired by the Upanishads, members of this religion believed everything living and even inanimate objects possessed souls. \n • Members of this religion believed in karma and a cycle of reincarnation ending in bliss after they had shed themselves of purifying behavior. \n • A central tenet of this religion was called ahimsa, nonviolence toward living things and their souls. \n • Members of this religion often were depicted in artwork nude to reflect the asceticism of their lifestyles. \n \n Which of the following religions founded in ancient India is most closely linked to the series of facts listed? \n A \n Jainism \n B \n Theravada Buddhism \n C \n Hinduism \n D \n Mahayana Buddhism

A \n Jainism

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61

All of the following contributed to the transition of Aryan migrants from pastoralism to agriculture ca. 1000 B.C.E. EXCEPT \n A \n development of iron metallurgy allowed for the migrant Aryans to forge iron axes and tools which were used to clear the Ganges River valley jungles and open new lands to farm. \n B \n mass conversion of migrant Aryans to Buddhism revealed agricultural practices that were taught at Buddhist monasteries and helped in the transition to farming. \n C \n recently cleared lands were farmed by shudras, semifree serfs controlled by Aryans; the newly cleared lands produced rich harvests and this in turn strengthened the evolving caste system. \n D \n agricultural surpluses paid for the bureaucracy and armies of the small states that were established in northern India, and also influenced the growth of towns and networks of exchange.

B \n mass conversion of migrant Aryans to Buddhism revealed agricultural practices that were taught at Buddhist monasteries and helped in the transition to farming.

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62

The Kushan empire followed the pattern of interaction between sedentary civilizations and nomadic civilizations in which of the following ways? \n A \n It was dominated by other nomads and sought refuge in the sedentary civilizations. \n B \n It wanted to destroy sedentary civilizations such as India's in order to increase its pasturelands. \n C \n It dominated sedentary civilizations forcing all agriculturalists to become vassals to the Kushan clan leaders. \n D \n It conquered sedentary civilizations and eventually absorbed aspects of sedentary culture and spread it.

D \n It conquered sedentary civilizations and eventually absorbed aspects of sedentary culture and spread it.

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63

How did the growth in trade and industry enhance the caste system? \n A \n The craft or trade guilds functioned as subcastes, or jati, who organized courts, resolved differences, and disciplined guild members. \n B \n The vaishya and shudra castes became very wealthy as trade and industry brought prosperity. \n C \n Because mandatory donations were expected, brahmins used offerings to the gods to create wealth, something that cemented their strong standing in society. \n D \n Although wealth was frowned upon, members of the higher castes reached a compromise wherein someone could pay for salvation in order to become reincarnated as higher caste member while still alive. This ensured that wealth was congregated at the top and that high caste members also controlled the region's wealth.

B \n The vaishya and shudra castes became very wealthy as trade and industry brought prosperity.

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64

A historian specializing in Indian studies would most likely use which of the following sources to examine the decline of the Mauryan empire? \n A \n trade records that described the types of Indian products from the Mauryan empire that were considered most valuable to merchants in the network of markets in central Asia, southeast Asia, and Persia \n B \n accounts of the cost of construction of a major road through the Ganges Valley from Pataliputra in the eastern region of the empire to Taxila, a major city in the western part of the Mauryan empire \n C \n administrative records explaining the costs of maintaining a standing army and a large bureaucracy, which led later Mauryan leaders to debase the currency—adding less valuable metals to coins without changing the value of the coinage in the markets \n D \n traveler reports of the comforts provided for merchants, artisans, administrators, and others who traveled the new road system by providing a system of inns for lodging, wells, and the planting of banyan trees to shade the road

C \n administrative records explaining the costs of maintaining a standing army and a large bureaucracy, which led later Mauryan leaders to debase the currency—adding less valuable metals to coins without changing the value of the coinage in the markets

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65

In what ways did short-lived empires such as the Maurya or Gupta help unify Indian society? \n A \n They caused so much chaos that people united to overcome the horror of the imperial period. \n B \n The brutal ways empires were created and maintained meant that many people created underground networks and secret societies that unified the region. \n C \n Because the empires promoted a unified language and alphabet, people could communicate with each other even after the empires disintegrated. \n D \n Emperors promoted cultural ideals, and leaders helped religious traditions spread.

D \n Emperors promoted cultural ideals, and leaders helped religious traditions spread.

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66

Why were people in the Indian subcontinent drawn to Buddhism and Jainism? \n A \n They offered a more serene and removed reality. Men and women could choose to become monks and nuns and live in peaceful solitude. \n B \n They offered lower castes religious traditions that did not recognize the importance of social hierarchies. \n C \n Nonviolence appealed to both Buddhists and Jainists, with Buddhists sometimes sweeping the ground before walking on it so not to injure a living thing. \n D \n They offered salvation to people who were poor and lonely.

lol idk

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67

Which of the following BEST characterizes a central element in the diversification of the Indian economy ca. 600 B.C.E.? \n A \n the invasion of India by the armies of Alexander of Macedon who brought a variety of new crops and domesticated animals to the subcontinent \n B \n Indo-Aryan settlement patterns fused with those of earlier inhabitants, resulting in a growth of many cities producing specialized goods to be exchanged along extensive trade networks \n C \n the efforts of Emperor Ashoka to support Buddhism, as many of the early adherents of that religion were merchants who visited foreign lands and built networks of exchange \n D \n expansion of the Kushan empire from central Asia into northern India, bringing large herds of horses that were fitted with specialized collars to maximize their use for farming

A \n the invasion of India by the armies of Alexander of Macedon who brought a variety of new crops and domesticated animals to the subcontinent

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68

A historian researching the evolution of Minoan architecture and artisanship ca. 2200-1100 B.C.E. would be least likely to use which of the following resources? \n A \n description of excavations of Minoan colonies on various Aegean Sea islands where elaborate mines were built to extract precious ores \n B \n remains of large palace complexes the Minoans created to replace earlier palaces that had been destroyed by earthquakes or other natural disasters \n C \n ruins of the pyramid complexes found on Crete, Thera, and other Aegean Sea islands, as well as in Ionia in modern Turkey and the Peloponnesian peninsula in modern Greece \n D \n plans showing the Minoan innovation of providing indoor plumbing in some palace complexes, even at some sites with flush toilets

C \n ruins of the pyramid complexes found on Crete, Thera, and other Aegean Sea islands, as well as in Ionia in modern Turkey and the Peloponnesian peninsula in modern Greece

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69

A historian researching the most important effect of Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid empire and the development of the successor state the Seleucid empire would most likely use which of the following sources? \n A \n autobiographies of Greeks and Macedonians who settled in cities and towns founded by Alexander and who formed a cultural and economic network of Greek-speaking bureaucrats and merchants \n \n B \n records of diplomatic correspondence of the Indian Emperor Ashoka with his contemporary Seleucid ruler about diplomatic and trade matters \n C \n description of religious syncretization that occurred as the Seleucid rulers forced all of their subjects to convert to a new faith blending elements of Zoroastrianism with Buddhism \n D \n accounts of the foundation and development of the Alexandrian Library and Museum, named for the Macedonian conqueror, in the Seleucid capital city of Delhi

A \n autobiographies of Greeks and Macedonians who settled in cities and towns founded by Alexander and who formed a cultural and economic network of Greek-speaking bureaucrats and merchants

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70

Which of the following was an important factor in gender relations in earlier Anatolia towns, southwest Asian cities, and Greek poleis? \n A \n Each society was strongly patriarchal, with male heads of households able to decide whether infants born to their wives were accepted into the family or abandoned, as was the case with some female children. \n B \n Each society featured shared responsibility for family decision-making, with women and men being treated equally and having equal say. \n C \n Rural family life in each of these societies tended to be matriarchal, as each society worshipped female creation and fertility deities, whereas in urban areas, men had a more dominant role. \n D \n Each society was strongly matriarchal with women controlling household finances, business decisions, and religious rituals.

A \n Each society was strongly patriarchal, with male heads of households able to decide whether infants born to their wives were accepted into the family or abandoned, as was the case with some female children.

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71

All of the following statements are true of territory held by the Achaemenid and Seleucid empires EXCEPT \n A \n both empires had land borders with Indian kingdoms that demanded deployment of military forces to protect that frontier. \n B \n both empires were able to control the Greek city-states and exploit their resources, as well as those of their Mediterranean and Black Sea colonies. \n C \n both empires enjoyed access to Indian Ocean and Red Sea ports, providing maritime Silk Road routes for networks of exchange. \n D \n both empires were able to dominate Mesopotamia and control the agricultural and manufacturing resources of that region.

B \n both empires were able to control the Greek city-states and exploit their resources, as well as those of their Mediterranean and Black Sea colonies.

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72

A historian researching the works of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle would be most likely to utilize biographies of \n A \n Greek philosophers \n B \n Greek dramatists. \n C \n Greek architects. \n D \n Greek generals.

A \n Greek philosophers

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73

How are the Hellenistic empire and the Greek poleis related? \n A \n Poleis culture, language, and philosophy diffused throughout the empire. \n B \n Phillip and Alexander were both Greek citizens and took their polis values with them as they conquered. \n C \n Although a large empire was created, elites in the Hellenistic empire always held primary alliance to the polis where they were born. \n D \n Despite the long distances traveled, merchants returned to their polis every two years, a practice undertaken by military leaders in Hellenistic times.

A \n Poleis culture, language, and philosophy diffused throughout the empire.

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74

The Athenian leader Solon left a lasting impression on his city-state by \n A \n forging a compromise between aristocrats and commoners that gave both a voice in governing the poleis. \n B \n urging Athenians to go to war against Sparta, thus launching the Peloponnesian War. \n C \n creating a system of public education that ensured that Athens became the "education of Greece." \n D \n creating a system of military service that all members of society adopted.

A \n forging a compromise between aristocrats and commoners that gave both a voice in governing the poleis.

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75

How did ancient Greece differ from classical societies in other lands? \n A \n Because of its mountainous terrain, Greece was more isolated than other classic societies. \n B \n The ancient Greeks integrated diverse societies through economic integration rather than through political control. \n C \n The Greeks were considered more fearless than men from other societies because they successfully fought so many wars. \n D \n The Mediterranean served as a barrier for the region, requiring supreme effort and courage to cross

B \n The ancient Greeks integrated diverse societies through economic integration rather than through political control.

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76

A historian researching areas of Greek settlement or influence would be least likely to use which of the following resources? \n A \n catalogs of relics found on Greek shipwrecks in the Mediterranean and Black Seas dating from ca. 750 to 500 B.C.E. \n B \n descriptions of locations of Greek colonies in the British Isles and Scandinavia from ca. 750 to 500 B.C.E. \n \n C \n diplomatic accounts of relations between various Greek states and their colonial possessions from ca. 750 to 500 B.C.E. \n D \n trading house accounts describing the agricultural products, ores, fur, slaves, and manufactured goods exchanged along Greek networks of trade from ca. 750 to 500 B.C.E.

B \n descriptions of locations of Greek colonies in the British Isles and Scandinavia from ca. 750 to 500 B.C.E.

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77

All of the following are associated with Spartan lifestyles prior to the early fourth century B.C.E. EXCEPT \n A \n Spartan boys at the age of seven left their families and lived under extremely rigorous training conditions in military barracks. \n B \n aristocratic Spartans shared a deep belief in democratic values with free citizens of the Athenian, Theban, and Corinthian poleis. \n C \n at age eighteen, Spartan women married and occasionally had sexual relations with their husbands, but they did not establish separate households from their families until their husbands reached the age of thirty. \n D \n Spartans considered military skills, willpower, and aptitude virtues, not wealth, social status, or heredity, as in some other contemporaneous cultures.

B \n aristocratic Spartans shared a deep belief in democratic values with free citizens of the Athenian, Theban, and Corinthian poleis.

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78

A religious historian researching religious syncretization in Bactria (a state based in the modern state of Afghanistan) ca. 250 B.C.E. would be most interested in what religious practices in this time period? \n A \n Zoroastrian and Hindu \n B \n Confucian and Greek \n C \n Greek and Christian \n D \n Greek and Buddhist

D \n Greek and Buddhist

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79

Which of the following BEST characterizes a central element of life in the Greek world by the early eighth century B.C.E.? \n A \n All Greek poleis—whether on the Greek mainland, on Aegean islands, or elsewhere in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins—shared a common, standardized currency. \n B \n Greek people throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins had formed a federation in which all free adult men who were citizens were eligible to elect local leaders. \n C \n Greek religious life transitioned from polytheism to monotheism as Zoroastrianism was adopted as the state religion in many different poleis throughout the Greek world. \n D \n Greek mainland and Aegean island poleis specialized in the production of olives and olive oil, trading those agricultural products for grain, slaves, furs, and other products from their colonies.

D \n Greek mainland and Aegean island poleis specialized in the production of olives and olive oil, trading those agricultural products for grain, slaves, furs, and other products from their colonies.

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80

Which of the following changes BEST justifies the claim that the period 431-404 B.C.E. marked a turning point in Athenian history? \n A \n The Emperor Darius occupied parts of the Greek mainland after having bribed some Athenian leaders to support his expansion of the Achaemenid empire. \n B \n The Persian Wars were fought between Sparta (serving as an ally of the Achaemenid empire) and the Athenians (supported by Etruscan mercenaries). \n C \n When the Peloponnesian War occurred, Athens's reputation as the intellectual and moral leader of Greeks everywhere was damaged by tactics used by the Athenian leaders in their quest to defeat the Spartans. \n D \n The invasion of Athens by the Macedonian King Phillip reduced the Athenians to tributaries of his expanding kingdom.

D \n The invasion of Athens by the Macedonian King Phillip reduced the Athenians to tributaries of his expanding kingdom.

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81

Why did encounters between the Greek colonies and the already established Achaemenids spur hostility and conflict in the region instead of cooperation? \n \n A \n The concept of the Greek poleis was difficult to integrate with the Achaemenids' concept of empire. \n B \n The Greek poleis were used to being independent and had enough money, power, and weapons to revolt in many places. \n C \n The concept of Greek education and manhood did not mesh with the social constructs of the Achaemenids, who were much more hierarchical than the Greeks. \n D \n Athens deliberately provoked the wrath of the Achaemenids by paying for Ionian Greek city-states to revolt.

B \n The Greek poleis were used to being independent and had enough money, power, and weapons to revolt in many places.

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82

Which of the following would be the most useful source of evidence about the role of women in Roman society in about the first century B.C.E.? \n A \n descriptions of negotiations for marriage contracts between members of upper-class Roman families and foreign citizens \n B \n accounts of how some wealthy Roman women tried but failed to avoid rules that limited the ownership of property to men only \n C \n images from artwork showing roles played by Roman women as materfamilias, "mother of the family," in decisions about duties or work of children and slaves in their households \n D \n records that indicate that women were managing wealthy estates and helping to make business and financial decisions, despite the official role of men as paterfamilias, "father of the family"

D \n records that indicate that women were managing wealthy estates and helping to make business and financial decisions, despite the official role of men as paterfamilias, "father of the family"

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83

Which of the following was most significant in the development of Rome as a major trading center ca. 500 B.C.E.? \n A \n Gauls—who lived in the Po Valley of northern Italy—used Rome as their market for slaves captured from lands to the north and west. \n B \n Etruscan people who controlled Tuscany routed much of their import and export business through Rome. \n C \n Carthaginians occupied the city of Rome and surrounding countryside, forcing the Romans into tributary status and using the city as an agricultural export center. \n D \n Greek colonists in eastern Sicily and southern Italy exported their grain and olive production, with Rome serving as a stop on their caravan routes to northern Europe.

B \n Etruscan people who controlled Tuscany routed much of their import and export business through Rome.

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84

Which of the following represents the most significant cause for the growth in the number and size of western and northern Europe cities ca. mid-first century C.E.-ca. 250 C.E.? \n A \n Significant climate change caused by the little ice age enhanced the production of new types of crops. \n B \n Invasions by tribal peoples from Eurasia resulted in the recruitment of large numbers of mercenaries from north Africa to garrison the cities. \n C \n Epidemic disease drove many people out of the countryside to the relatively healthier environment found in cities. \n D \n The arrival of Roman soldiers, bureaucrats, merchants, and miners caused new towns to be founded to serve as administrative centers and expanded networks of exchange.

D \n The arrival of Roman soldiers, bureaucrats, merchants, and miners caused new towns to be founded to serve as administrative centers and expanded networks of exchange.

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85

Which of the following statements about the evolution of the Roman Republic ca.146 B.C.E. is correct? \n A \n Roman occupation of Egypt during this time period was the most important addition ever to the republic due to the agricultural production and vast wealth Egypt transferred into Roman hands. \n B \n The power of the Persian Seleucid empire based in Mesopotamia and Anatolia was broken, and it became a permanent tributary state to the Roman Republic. \n C \n The Roman Republic fought a series of wars against their great political and commercial rival, Carthage, which ended in the destruction of that city and annexation of its territories by Rome. \n D \n The conquest of Britain, Scotland, and Ireland marked the most western extension of the Roman empire.

C \n The Roman Republic fought a series of wars against their great political and commercial rival, Carthage, which ended in the destruction of that city and annexation of its territories by Rome.

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86

The following all contributed to the reputation Romans had earned by ca. 117 C.E. as efficient managers of transportation networks EXCEPT \n A \n Rome controlled all of the coastland regions around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, and also held territory along the Red Sea, part of the Caspian Sea coast, and the Atlantic Ocean. \n B \n one important Roman road ran from the coast of the modern nation of Morocco to Alexandria in the modern nation of Egypt. \n C \n Roman roads crossed Mesopotamia, the modern nation of Iraq, stimulating extensive trade with Rome's ally, the Achaemenid empire, which controlled the modern nations of Iran and Pakistan. \n D \n Romans in this period referred to the Mediterranean Sea as mare nostrum—"our sea"—and used maritime transport to connect far-flung parts of the empire, complementing the road network.

C \n Roman roads crossed Mesopotamia, the modern nation of Iraq, stimulating extensive trade with Rome's ally, the Achaemenid empire, which controlled the modern nations of Iran and Pakistan.

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87

The Romans were similar to their predecessors—the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians—in all of the following ways EXCEPT \n A \n all of these peoples dominated the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and were involved in building extensive networks of exchange and communication. \n B \n all of these peoples ruled complex, multiethnic, sprawling states that included members of many different religions whose beliefs were usually tolerated by ruling elites but sometimes were persecuted for not following the state religion. \n C \n each of these peoples developed and maintained sophisticated networks of communications and exchange. \n D \n all of these peoples developed centralized bureaucracies and administered their states from an imperial capital city.

A \n all of these peoples dominated the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and were involved in building extensive networks of exchange and communication.

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88

An economic historian interested in investigating direct trade between the Roman empire and states around the Indian Ocean ca. 250-300 C.E. would most likely use which of the following sources? \n A \n diplomatic records of missions by Roman diplomats to the courts of Indian, Chinese, Mongolian, and Japanese rulers \n B \n written accounts of Christian traders from Syria and Anatolia who were part of a network to trade Roman goods east to merchants in Persia and eastern goods west to Roman clients \n C \n slave auction accounts describing the importation of boys and girls from the Caucasus mountains for sale in Constantinople \n D \n tariff records from the Egyptian court of Berenice on the Red Sea that Roman traders active in African and Indian networks of exchange along the coasts of the Indian Ocean used as their base

D \n tariff records from the Egyptian court of Berenice on the Red Sea that Roman traders active in African and Indian networks of exchange along the coasts of the Indian Ocean used as their base

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89

All of the following apply to how amphitheaters were used in ancient Roman society EXCEPT \n A \n amphitheaters were often used for different forms of public entertainment, including gladiatorial contests between men or fights between wild animals and gladiators. \n B \n many amphitheaters were exclusively used for religious ceremonies and rituals and reserved for the use of Roman citizens. \n C \n some amphitheaters like the Roman Colosseum were constructed so the center could be filled with water for mock naval battles. \n D \n amphitheaters were built throughout the empire, and included design features like huge awnings to protect spectators from the elements; vendors sold food like they do in modern stadiums.

B \n many amphitheaters were exclusively used for religious ceremonies and rituals and reserved for the use of Roman citizens.

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90

All of the following helped intensify the migration of rural poor people to cities, especially Rome, during the 60s B.C.E. EXCEPT \n A \n as the Romans conquered new lands, elite groups set up large estates called latifundia whose economies of scale for agricultural production strained the ability of small farmers to compete. \n B \n small farmers often had to take out mortgages on their property to borrow operating costs to purchase seed and supplies to plant their crops. \n C \n the latifundia often used slave labor to produce agricultural products at prices lower than small farmers could meet, forcing some small farmers to sell their land and move to cities to find work. \n D \n Roman law protected property rights of rural freeholders and subsidized their agricultural production costs, with agricultural products they grew sold to the army as supplies for troops.

D \n Roman law protected property rights of rural freeholders and subsidized their agricultural production costs, with agricultural products they grew sold to the army as supplies for troops.

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91

The information below applies to the question that follows. \n \n • Greece produced olives and grapes for wine \n • Syria produced fruit, nuts, and wool fabrics \n • Gaul produced grains and mined copper \n • Spain produced wine, horses, and a variety of precious metals \n • Italy produced pottery, glassware, and bronze goods \n • Southern Russia produced grain and provided slaves \n • Britain produced salted fish \n • North Africa, Egypt, and Sicily produced grain \n \n An economic historian examining economic specialization in the Roman empire would BEST utilize the information in the list to analyze which of the following? \n A \n the influence of slavery on production of food and goods throughout the empire \n B \n the results of climatic change during the Little Ice Age, allowing for crop production in various parts of the empire \n C \n the effects of low-cost production and transportation of grain and economic specialization \n D \n the ability of Roman armies to move between different provinces and be supplied with specialized goods and foods

C \n the effects of low-cost production and transportation of grain and economic specialization

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92

The information below applies to the question that follows. \n \n • Plebeians threaten to secede from Rome and create a rival settlement \n • Tribunes provided a voice for the plebeians \n • Gracchi brothers tried to limit the amount of conquered land any individual could hold \n • Poverty in Roman cities led to periodic social eruptions \n \n A sociologist would come to what conclusions about the Roman republic based on the information presented in the list? \n A \n Citizens had quite a bit of input into the laws of the republic. \n B \n Lower class clamored for, and received, greater economic parity. \n C \n Upper class citizens kept control over economic and political power despite attempts to curtail both. \n D \n Lower classes were excluded from input on Roman laws and policies.

C \n Upper class citizens kept control over economic and political power despite attempts to curtail both.

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93

The Romans were similar to other empires—the Han, Persian, and Mauryan—in all of the following ways EXCEPT \n A \n all of these peoples dominated and exclusively controlled land and sea routes and were involved in building extensive networks of exchange and communication. \n B \n all of these societies ruled complex, multiethnic, sprawling states that included members of many different religions whose beliefs were usually tolerated by ruling elites; sometimes, however, subjects were persecuted for not following the state religion. \n C \n each of these peoples developed and maintained sophisticated networks of roads. \n D \n all of these peoples developed centralized bureaucracies and administered their states from an imperial capital city.

A \n all of these peoples dominated and exclusively controlled land and sea routes and were involved in building extensive networks of exchange and communication.

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94

As an important trading city and the imperial capital, Rome was known for all of the following EXCEPT \n A \n delicacies such as oysters from Britain, nuts and dates from Syria, and ham from Spain. \n B \n shopkeepers, artisans, merchants, and bankers flocked to the city attracted by its rapid growth and seemingly unlimited business opportunities. \n C \n Rome was plagued with bad water and poor sanitation, causing repeated outbreaks of dysentery. \n D \n Rome boasted ten thousand statues along with seven hundred pools, five hundred fountains, and thirty-six marble arches commemorating military victories.

C \n Rome was plagued with bad water and poor sanitation, causing repeated outbreaks of dysentery.

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95

In an empire that tolerated great religious diversity, why were Christians and Jews persecuted? \n A \n Because they were religions of salvation, Christianity and Judaism were thought of as too spiritual to support Roman laws; thus, they were seen as a threat to the fabric that held Roman culture together \n B \n Because they preached poverty and salvation for the poor, they upset the ruling and wealthy elites who pressured the emperor to destroy the power of Judaism and Christianity. \n C \n Because they were exclusivist and refused to recognize the Roman Pantheon, they were seen as a threat to the empire. \n D \n Because both Judaism and Christianity originated in Judaea rather than in Rome, they were seen as foreign imports and therefore not tolerated by the Roman political structure.

C \n Because they were exclusivist and refused to recognize the Roman Pantheon, they were seen as a threat to the empire.

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96

An economic historian researching Roman long-distance trading practices ca. 250 C.E. would most likely use all of the following sources EXCEPT \n A \n descriptions of caravan routes used by Chinese and central Asian nomads transporting goods between Bactria in the modern states of Afghanistan and China. \n B \n banking records of Armenian, Jewish, and Greek merchants residing in the Syrian Desert oasis city of Palmyra. \n C \n shipwrecks of Viking vessels used to transport Scandinavian slaves to the slave markets of Kush in the modern state of Sudan. \n D \n archeological remains of Roman trading posts in southern and western coastal regions of the modern states of India and Pakistan.

C \n shipwrecks of Viking vessels used to transport Scandinavian slaves to the slave markets of Kush in the modern state of Sudan.

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97

Which of the following was a factor influencing Chinese culture and governance in the three and a half centuries following the collapse of the Han empire in 220 C.E.? \n A \n Pirate fleets from the modern nations of Korea and Japan invaded the Huang He or Yellow River valley and occupied the old northern Chinese heartland. \n B \n Tibetan armies, allied with the Kushan kingdom and the Gupta empire and its combined armies, invaded southern China and forced the remaining Han leaders into exile in Vietnam. \n C \n Nestorian Christians converted the Han leaders to their faith and supplied gunpowder and cannons to use in fighting off attacks by hostile nomadic peoples. \n D \n Nomadic peoples from the north occupied northern China and a series of kingdoms combining steppe lands and former Han lands.

D \n Nomadic peoples from the north occupied northern China and a series of kingdoms combining steppe lands and former Han lands.

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98

Which of the following statements about differences in the territorial integrity of the Roman empire ca. 400 C.E. is correct? \n A \n Virtually all the provinces of the Roman empire had been occupied by invading nomadic peoples from northern and eastern Europe, including the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and Franks. \n B \n Angles, Saxons, Ostrogoths, and Lombards coordinated invasions of Asian and African provinces of the western and eastern Roman empires. \n C \n The Huns, Visigoths, and Vandals had all invaded different parts of the eastern and western Roman empires, but Britain, Egypt, Anatolia, and Syria had yet to be raided by northern nomads. \n D \n The Roman empire was a unified, centralized state whose defenses were adequate to ward off Arab nomads and Sasanid Persians who were attacking Palestine, Egypt, and Syria.

C \n The Huns, Visigoths, and Vandals had all invaded different parts of the eastern and western Roman empires, but Britain, Egypt, Anatolia, and Syria had yet to be raided by northern nomads.

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99

Historians often consider ca. the 470s C.E. a turning point in the history of the Roman empire. Which of the following events that occurred during that period BEST supports that contention? \n A \n The Angles and Saxons seized Britain from Rome and divided the island into the seven kingdoms that later united to form the British empire. \n B \n The last western Roman emperor was deposed and the western half of the empire was divided between various Germanic nations. \n C \n The Byzantine or eastern Roman empire only survived the western empire by a few decades, falling to a Sasanid Persian invasion that began in 536 C.E. \n D \n The western part of the empire was occupied by the Byzantine Roman empire, whose emperor expelled the Germanic peoples and forced them back north across the Rhine and Danube Rivers.

B \n The last western Roman emperor was deposed and the western half of the empire was divided between various Germanic nations

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100

The effects of epidemic diseases in the Roman and Han empires were similar in which of the following ways? \n A \n Huge numbers of Chinese people migrated to Japan and the Philippines, while large numbers of Romans migrated to western Africa in efforts to escape epidemic diseases \n B \n Both the Han and Roman empires largely escaped the wave of epidemic diseases that slashed population levels in India, Persia, and along the eastern coast of Africa. \n C \n In both cases, declines in population caused by repeated outbreaks of epidemic disease resulted in decreased interregional trade, falling taxes, and less money for government expenses. \n D \n People fled the countryside to the relative safety of cities, where they thought epidemic disease was less likely to spread as nutrition and sanitation standards were higher than in rural areas.

C \n In both cases, declines in population caused by repeated outbreaks of epidemic disease resulted in decreased interregional trade, falling taxes, and less money for government expenses.

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