AP Psych Semester 1

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John Locke

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John Locke

created the idea of Tabula Rasa

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Tabula Rasa

when babies are born, their minds are blank and the slowly gain knowledge through their experiences

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Wihelm Wundt

conducted the first reaction time experiment

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Edward Titchener

created the idea of Structuralism

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Structuralism

how the mind works, tool to figure this out is called introspection

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Introspection

looking inward, self-evaluation, asking yourself questions about why you did something

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William James

heavily influenced by Charles Darwin, developed Functionalism

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Functionalism

how the mind is adaptive, this enables us to learn new things and adapt to survive

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Psychology

scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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Behavioral perspective

rewards and punishments are the biggest influence on our behavior

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Flaw of Behavioral perspective

some people continue to do the wrong thing even though there are punishments

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Biological perspective

how your biology, hormones, brain biochemistry, etc. affects our behavior; has been the leading perspective in psychology

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Flaw of Biological perspective

you can have identical; twins yet they are completely different people and have different personalities

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Cognitive perspective

what we think and how we think, our thinking is what determines our behaviors

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Flaw of Cognitive perspective

we don't always think before we act

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Evolutionary perspective

much of our behavior and thinking ties into the idea that we want to survive so we can reproduce

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Flaw Evolutionary perspective

not everyone wants to have kids, homosexuality, doing risky things, etc.

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Humanistic perspective

you have to desire to fulfill your potential if your needs are met (grow up in a safe family, home, or environment, can explain why you do well in school: college - pathway to future jobs or careers)

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Flaw in Humanistic perspective

there are people who make poor decisions, do things to harm others, but they grew up in a supportive family

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Psychodynamic perspective

behavior based on conflict, early childhood events can have a big impact on your thinking and behavior

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Social-cultural perspective

the society and the culture you live in influences your behavior

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Flaw in social-cultural perspective

independent person, doesn't like to go by society, minimizing nature

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Nature vs. nurture

nature is all based on biology and genetic inheritance but nurture is based on external factors and life experiences

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Biological psychologist

work in a lab, research to learn more about some aspect of our biology

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Industrial/organizational psychologist

hired by companies to offer advice on how to boost employee productivity (not hired to help employees with psychological disorders

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Counseling psychologist

not school guidance counselor, help people with things like drugs and alcohol abuse/addiction, family relationships/marriage counseling

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Clinical psychologist

help people who might be helping people with psychological disorders, can diagnosis but cannot administer medicine

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Psychiatrist

same thing as clinical psychologist however they have a medical degree, can administer medicine

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School psychologists

trained to evaluate and diagnosis potential learning disabilities, then can set up a plan

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Sport psychologists

focus on the mental part of athletic performance

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Hindsight bias

I knew it all along, ties into the fact that you are overconfident

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Scientific method

theory, hypothesis, operational definition, replication (repeat)

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Case study

in-depth look at one or few individuals, hope to reveal universal truths

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Survey

questionnaire, looks at many cases at once, random sampling

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Advantage of survery

huge sample size, quick and easy

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Disadvantage of survey

might not answer truthfully, would be broader data, survey question could persuade an answer, confusing questions

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Correlation

Looks at the relationship between two variables

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Correltion coefficient

assigns a numeric value to the correlation, tells us how strong or weak the relationship is between the 2 variables, tells us if it is a positive or negative correlation

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Scatterplot

show us the data points on the graph so we can see the relationship visually

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Advantage of correlations

helps us to predict behavior

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Disadvantage of correlations

does not show cause and effect

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Random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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Random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

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Single blind

the participants are uniformed about whether they are in the experimental or control group

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Double blind

the participants and the people working with participants are unaware of what groups the participants are in

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Independent

you can manipulate

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Dependent

what are we measuring, test results

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Operational definition

precise description of dependent or independent variable

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Mean

the average

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Median

middle score

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Mode

what occurs the most

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Range

take the highest value and subtract it by the lowest value

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Statistical significance

use to evaluate the performance of the experimental group and the performance of the control group and compare them

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Informed consent

willing to participate in the experiment, can't force them participate if they don't sign off and give you their consent

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Protect from harm and discomfort

protect from physical and psychological harm and discomfort

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Maintain confidentiality

no individual names can be published

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Debriefing

tell people what actually happened in the study

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Neuron

basic unit of the nervous system

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Dendrites

receive messages from other neurons

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Axon

passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands

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Myelin sheath

covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses

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Action potential

electrical signal traveling down the axon (very very very fast)

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Axon terminals

forms junctions with other cells

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Cell body

the cell's life-support system

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Multiple sclerosis

the myelin sheath slowly deteriorates

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Selectively permeable

allows positive ions to interact with negative ion called depolarization

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Refractory period

rest period

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Threshold

the minimum stimulation required to activate a neural impulse

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All or none response

if the threshold for the neuron is met, it will fire (ALL), if the threshold is not met, there's no response from the neuron (NONE), the response will always have the same speed, but the difference would be the number of neurons activated and how often

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Synapse

a junction where you have an axon terminal of one neuron (sending) near the dendrite of a different neuron (receiving)

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Reuptake

the extra neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the terminals

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Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers

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Acetylcholine (ACh)

Enables muscle action, learning, and memory

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Malfunctions of ACh

With Alzheimer's disease, ACh-producing neurons deteriorate

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Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

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Malfunctions of dopamine

Oversupply linked to schizophrenia, undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in Parkinson's disease

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Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (alertness and/or energy levels)

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Malfunctions of serotonin

undersupply linked to depression, some antidepressant dugs raise serotonin levels

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Endorphins

act as our body's natural pain killer

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CNS

brain and spinal cord

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PNS

consists of the autonomic and somatic nervous system

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Somatic

controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles

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Afferent nerves

activates sensory neurons of the 5 senses

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Efferent nerves

anything to do with movement

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Autonomic

controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands

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Sympathetic

your fight or flight response (arousing)

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Parasympathetic

relaxes body after stress or danger, pupils contract

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Sensory neurons

receive sensory input and deliver it to the brain

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Motor neurons

gets signals from the brain to allow the body to perform actions

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Interneurons

neurons in the spinal cord and brain

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Pituitary gland

secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands

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Thyroid gland

affects metabolism

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Parathyroids

help regulate the level of the calcium in the blood

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Pancreas

regulates the level of sugar in the blood

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Adrenal glands

inner part helps trigger the fight-orflight response

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Testis

secretes male sex hormones

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Ovary

secretes female sex hormones

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Medulla

regulates heart rate and breathing, you sever the medulla - you die!

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Pons

regulates sleep and arousal

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Cerebellum "little brain"

allows you to coordinate your movements, after you have learned a movement your brain can go into autopilot (embed in the cerebellum of how to do it, muscle memory)

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