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372 Terms

1

Buercracy

A complex structure of offiacls and adminstated the work of a large goverment

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2

Civil Service Exam

Exam used to identify and appoint skilled bureaucrats (scholars) to position of power in the government

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3

Confuciusm

Belief that ethnic is about fulfilling the obligations for those above and below you in the social hierarchy (ex filial party) it values education,ethnocentrism,consevitism,and patriarchy.

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4

Buddhism

The human life is one with suffering and that meditation, spiritual and physical labor and good behavior are the ways to achieve enlightenment or nirvana

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5

Daoism

Humans living in a simple state in balance with nature

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6

Song Dynasty (960-1279)

During its time created many innovations such as the compass, gunpowder,and paper.It was large Confucianism, but also coexisted with Taoism and Buddhism also the wealthiest dynasty between 1200-1450

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7

What other two empire were great centers of intellectual achievements in the Islamic world

Baghdad and Spain

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8

What effect did the growth of regional trade have on regions

Created larger and more complex states

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9

Why would increase trade in Eurasia intensity global interaction

Trade flourished with new ideas

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10

What improvements made by the tang led to rapid prosperity and population growth during the song

Agriculture and trade

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11

What is protoindustrialization?

A set of economic changes in which people in rural areas made more goods than they could sell

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12

What was the role of artisans in song china

Produce steel and other products

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13

What dynasties was known for violence and oppression but was responsible for initaing the building of the grand canal to connect northern cities and southern china (agriculture centers)

Sui dynasty

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14

One result of foot binding during the Song Dynasty was that...

The partriachal system grew stronger, particularly among aristocrats

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15

Patriarchy

A form of social organization in which males dominate females

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16

What is the vijayanagara empire?

Hindu kingdom that arose in 1336 on the southern Deccan peninsula responding to penetration into South Asia from islam

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17

What is the Bhakti movement?

Emphasized single-minded intense devotion to god

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18

What is the caste system?

The Hindu class system of social distinctions determined by birth

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19

What is the Majapahit empire?

Short lived empire that was a trading kingdoms in SE asia that was sea-based established 1293

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20

What is the Khmer Empire?(802-1369)

Powerful empire which resisted chinese influence and is in the Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam area. It also converted people from Hinduism to Buddhism was land based

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21

What water water was the most important in Song Dynasty for trade which also connected to many major cities

Grand canal

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22

A new strain of rice that caused massive population increase in Song Dynasty

Champa rice

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23

The ruler of caliphate controls both political and religious power. Thought to be the descendant of Mohammed

Caliph

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24

The empire that dominated the Middle East during the 1000's. Incredibly influential: instated the Jizya tax and contained the House of Wisdom. However, it started to dwindle in size by the 1200's because it simply had too much land to look after.

Abbasid(750-1258)

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25

Muslim dominated areas

Dar Al-Islam

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26

All of Arabia was under Islamic control by what year

633

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27

Umyaad Dynasty

Was the first Muslim dynasty who were also sunni

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28

Rebel group from Iran joined with the shi to overthrow the umyaad caliphs in what year

750

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29

Carvanseir

Like a modern day inn

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30

Shia

the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad

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31

Sunni

A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad

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32

We're tolerant of other religions but required jizya tax (tax on non Muslim) which encouraged conversion

Umyadd caliphate

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33

Originaly enslaved Turks this group of people seized control of the government and prospered through trading cotton and sugar between the Islamic world and Europe

The mamaluks and also established mamaluks sultanate from 1250-1517

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34

state

An organized political community under one government

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35

What help the Song Dynasty to flourish

Confucianism help the Song Dynasty flourish by establishing principles of the rigid power dynamic between ruler and ruled to justify their rule over there people

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36

What religion unified the regions of Africa,Europe, and Asia by developing a system of shared beliefs and languages

Islam

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37

What religions did rulers rely on to maintain power in south Asia and south east Asia hint (caste system)

Hinduism and Buddhism

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38

What was the effect of Buddhism

Created neo-confucnism, intercultural exchanges

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39

early African government

Chiefdom,self governing, kinship based groups, communal land but could individuality own people,multiple chiefs

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40

Bantus

1.000 bce to 1500 ce,west/central Africa, spread of language, farming techniques,iron

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41

What impact did monsoon winds

They affect trade in the Indian ocean

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42

Trans-Sharan Trade

Limitation of Sahara desert,volume of trade increased with Muslim-merchants,7 north-south routes,2 east-west routes, camel saddle Somali versions,gold,slave,horses,salt, increased wealth of Ghana and Mali,camals were brought as techniques

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43

What was sometimes called the gold-salt trade

Trans sharan trade

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44

How and why did states develop in Africa and change over time?

Over time Africa would develop many centralized Orginize governments(great Zimbabwa,Axum(Ethiopia)

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45

Axum

7th c to the 12th century, Christian led kingdom although not a pure form of Christianity,11 rock churches, blended religions

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46

What country was also called island of Christianity

Axum(Ethiopia)

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47

What were the causes and effect of the growth of the trans-Saharan trade

Introduction of Muslim merchant(camel saddle) effect gave wealth to ghana and Mali and increase of luxury good(salt,good)

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48

Mali

12th century, sold gold, ivory and slaves. Currency was shells,cloth,gold,glass beads and salt. Drew people into there economy utilizing them for labor. Replaced ghana.protected trade routes, and protected production areas of good.

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49

Who gets people interested In Africa

Mansa musa

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50

What was one of the largest migrations in history

Bantus

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51

What was the result of the Bantus

Growth of local government as a result to the Bantus

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52

Hausa kingdom

a collection of states started by the Hausa people.spread Islam.modern day Nigeria. Utilized trans sharan trade no king or sultanate. Because not one leader prone to attacks

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53

Ghana(700-1240)ce

Wealthy west African kingdom.centralized government with a king.sold gold and ivory.Muslim got more profitable deals.Ghana tax

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54

Great Zimbabwe

12-15th century taxed gold coming or going.does not directory connect to trans sharan trade instea.connect to Swahili city-state.Zimbabwe has stone dwelling. Disappear because of over grazing

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55

What's the first large scale civilization in North America

Mississippian culture

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56

Aztecs

Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. We're hunter-gathers who migrated to Mexico

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57

Inca

Andes Mts. in Peru; expansionist with a professional army; bureaucracy; a complex system of roads and tunnels; adapted very well to the environment; divided empire into 4 provinces, each respectively governed

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58

Tenochtitlan (Mexico City)

Capital of the Aztec Empire; built aqueducts to provide water for the city

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59

Mayan city-states

Cities that shared the Mayan culture but were independent of each other. Located near or on trade routes and good farmland.

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60

Who incorporated the concept of 0 into their number system

The mayans

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61

Tenochtitlan

Located on an island in the middle of a swampy lake in order to protect it from getting attacked grew to 200,000 people making it one of the largest city

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62

Who developed a tribute system in the America's

The Aztec

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63

Who did human sacrifice

Aztec

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64

What did Pachacuti do?

He started conquering tribes and combining small tribes and turning them into states

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65

How did the Aztec assert dominance

Using the tributary system the Aztecs required conquered peoples to surrender lands, perform military service, and give practical goods (e.g. food,cloth, but also feather, jewelry); allowed old political leaders to stay as tax collectors so Aztecs could still maintain political dominance without direct administration

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66

The mita system

Incan system; subjects had to provide mandatory public service (e.g. construction of roads, labor, etc)

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67

Animism

Belief that elements of that natural world would have super natural powers

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68

Central Mexico to upper parts of Central America. Populated by the Mayans, Aztecs, and more.

Mesoameria

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69

Matrilineal society

a society in which descent & inheritance come through the mother's kinship line

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70

Temple of the sun

Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas

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71

Who did mound building

Cahokia

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72

How did the Chaco built housing

Using stone and clay

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73

How did the mesa build housing

Brick and sandstone

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74

Which khan attacked the city of zhongdu present day bejing

Genghis khan

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75

What is a Khanate?

The land that a Khan rules over

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76

What's a pony express

Instead of written letters riders carried oral messages

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77

What siege weapons were use

Portable towers,catapults that hurled stones or other objects

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78

What is Pax Mongolica?

Mongolian peace

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79

What did Genghis Khan do to unify his empire

Adapted the ughur alphabet to represent mongol

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80

What was a result of each khan conquest

New people absorbed into its economy and networks of exchange

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81

What did Batu Khan do?

Bantu and his army(Golden Horde) conquered small parts of Europe and forced them to of tributes the capital city Kiev was looted and destroyed

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82

What did rulers of the city state Moscow do to resist the mongols

Set asides additional tributes to develop an army and defeat the mongols

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83

What did hulegu khan do

Led mongols into the Abbasid territories where they destroyed the city of Baghdad and killed the caliph along with 200,000 residents

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84

How was hulegu khan defeated

A temporary alliance between the Muslim mamaluks under their military leader baubles and Christian crusaders in Palestine.

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85

What did Kublai Khan do?

established the Yuan dynasty

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86

What khan alienated the Chinese

Kublai

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87

What organization helped put an end to the yuan dynasty

White lotus society

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88

Who founded the ming dynasty

Zhu yuanzhang

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89

What happened during the pax Mongolia with trade

Revitalize interregional trade and built a system of roads and continued to maintain and guard the trade routes

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90

What happen as a result of the mongols with walled cities in Europe

Proved to be useless against the Mongolia siege technology

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91

How was the cannon invented

Cobbled together using Chinese gunpowder, Muslim flamethrowers,and European bell casting techniques

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92

improvement in transportation technology during the Han dynasties

Developed the magnetic compass and improve the rudder Borge of which helped aid navigation ship control along the seas.

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93

What was the effect of the Silk Road due to the mongols

For the first time unified in a system under the control of an authority

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94

What's a caravanserai

An inn that was often 100 miles apart were there for travelers who needed water could rest themselves and their animals and sometimes trade their animals for fresh ones

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95

Commercial innovation along the Silk Road

Flying cash allowed merchants to deposit and with draw paper money,

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96

Increase in demand all for the Silk Road

The growing demand for luxury goods from Afro-Eurasia,China Persia and India led to corresponding increase in the supply of those goods through expanded production motivating its proto-industrializion

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97

How did land based empire in the early modern period

The consolidated there power in central government,collected tributes from weaker states and taxes their citizens.

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98

What did Mehmed II do?

Created largest version of Ottoman Empire, Conquered Constantinople, used Devershmire system

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99

What did the Safavids do?

Rose at beginning of 16th century, Persia and Asia fell to anarchy. they were shiites surrounded by sunnis, two islamic groups. They reached their high point at Shah Abbas who moved against ottomans with help of shiites

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100

What happen in Mughal India

One of the richest and best governed states in the world,over seas trade flourished,the empire was carried on merchant caste

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