Honors World History Exam

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Henry the Navigator

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1

Henry the Navigator

portuguese who took the initial lead in exploration by organizing expeditions on the African Coast, leading Protugal to discover a route around Africa ultimately to India

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2

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer who reached India and opened up trade for spices

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3

Bartolomé de las Casas

Dominican priest who argued against using native populations for slave labor and advocated for Indian rights

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4

Henry VIII

started the Church of England when he was denied an annulment

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5

Martin Luther

Catholic monk that wrote the 95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion

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6

John Calvin

French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education

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7

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator

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8

Queen Elizabeth I

English Queen and politique who united Protestants and Catholics through compromise and oversaw the height of the English Renaissance (last tudor of England and created highest cultural and economic period for england after defeating the spanish armada)

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9

Nicholas Copernicus

Developed the heliocentric model. Idea introduced the theory that earth is not the center of the universe

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10

Tycho Brahe

Scientist that followed Copernicus with increased use of data to support his theories and establish ideas on planetary motion→ planets go around sun in elliptical motion

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11

Galileo Galilei

Following Copernicus, he confirmed Copernicus' findings through the use of a telescope and also created laws of inertia & gravity

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12

Caravel

sailing ships from Portuguese

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13

Hacienda

Spanish colonists formed large, self-sufficient farming estates known as these

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14

Encomienda

a system of labor the Spanish used in the Americas; Spanish landowners had the right, as granted by Queen Isabella, to use Native Americans as laborers

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15

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

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16

Triangular Trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

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17

Silver

found in the New World and dominated the new world economy as the new global currency

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18

Treaty of Tordesillas

agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal

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19

Viceroy

a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch

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20

Caste System

Colonial racial classification of people according to skin color and parental lineage (peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattoes, natives and africans)

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21

Gunpowder empires

Muslim empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and the Mughals that employed cannonry and gunpowder to advance their military causes

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22

British East India Company

A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years

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23

Predestination

some people had been chosen by God for salvation

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24

Divine right

Belief that a rulers' authority comes directly from go

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25

Indulgences

Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation

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26

Edict of Nantes

document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots

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27

Constitutional monarchy

A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution

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28

Mercantilism

stressed exports over imports or a favorable balance of trade (Government controlled the market and constantly intervened to protect investments and commerce → Subsidies of export industries to give a competitive advantage in global markets)

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29

Absolutism

a political system in which one ruler or leader has complete power and authority over a country

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30

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages

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31

The Renaissance

cultural and social rebirth from classical greece and rome (individualism, humanism, secularism, skepticism)

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32

Wars of Religion

series of wars waged in Europe during the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517; disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe, or Christendom

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33

King Philip's War

a coalition of Native American tribes organized under the command of the chief of the Wampanoag Confederacy - Metacom (aka King Philip) (has been called United States' most devastating conflict; one in 10 soldiers on both sides was killed, 1,200 colonists' homes were burned, and vast stores of foodstuffs destroyed

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34

Beaver Wars

Iroquois Confederacy/League began a campaign during which they fought other American Indian groups, including those in the Ohio Country, for their lands and territories in order to gain access to their fur-bearing game animals, especially the beaver and deer

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35

The Glorious Revolution

James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange

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36

The Reformation

Power of the Church is undermined by Martin Luther's 95 Theses; political leaders take advantage of Church's weakness to advance their own power

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37

The Scientific Revolution

Period of scientific advances; people apply logic and reasoning to the laws of the universe instead of faith/theology

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38

John Locke

17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property (tabula rasa)

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39

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy --> social contract

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40

Catherine the Great

ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations

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41

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism (regarding free trade and free markets→ little to no government involvement or laissez-faire→ Rejects the ideas of mercantilism and favored individual competition)

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42

Maximillien Robespierre

Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution; "the Incorruptible"; led the Committee of Public Safety; his execution ended the Reign of Terror

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43

Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

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44

Karl Benz

German engineer that developed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine

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45

Niklaus Otto

invented a gasoline powered internal combustion engine

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46

Henry Ford

United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production and made the car more affordable for members of the middle class through his Model T

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47

Jose de San Martin

South American creole general and statesman, born in Argentina; leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru; preferred monarchal styles of authority

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48

Simon Bolivar

Venezuelan creole statesman who led the revolt of South American (particularly in the north) colonies against Spanish rule; inspired by the democratic ideals pioneered in the US

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49

Toussaint L'Ouverture

led first major slave revolt that succeeded in Haiti

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50

King Louis XIV

french absolute leader that continued plunging france into unprecedented debt (sun king, established mercantilism, built versailles, revoked edict of nantes)

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51

King Louis XVI

King of France, weak leader, executed during the French Revolution (diamond necklace affair, great fear of 1789, storming of the bastille)

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52

Marie Antoinette

Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband

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53

Social contract

A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules

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54

State of nature

The basis of natural rights philosophy; the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws

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55

Natural rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

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56

Laissez-faire

Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs

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57

Consent of the governed

he idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is justified and lawful only when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised

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58

Free market economy

Capitalism, private ownership, law of supply and demand (an unregulated system of economic exchange, in which taxes, quality controls, quotas, tariffs, and other forms of centralized economic interventions by government either do not exist or are minimal)

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59

Articles of Confederation

original constitution of the US, replaced by US Constitution

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60

Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson wrote it and it embodies Consent of the governed/Popular sovereignty, Natural rights, Civil liberties, Equality before the law (the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain)

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61

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution; said that all men were equal and granted freedom of the press and freedom of speech

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62

Scorched earth policy

Russia used it in the winter when Napoleon tried to invade and it worked

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63

The Continental System

large-scale embargo against British trade by Napoleon Bonaparte against the British Empire from 21 November 1806 until 11 April 1814, during the Napoleonic Wars

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64

Cottage industry

Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution

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65

Temperance Movement

A social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages

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66

Slums

an overcrowded, dirty area of a city where the housing is usually in very poor condition

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67

The Estates General

was under the monarchy in france and it had three eestates with equal votes (clergy, nobility, everyone else)

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68

The National Assembly

3rd estate group that issued declaration on the rights of man

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69

Diamond Necklace Affair

when Louis XVI purchased a necklace for Marie Antoinette, caused people to blame the crown for their problems

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70

French Revolution

French liberals overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and established a constitutional monarchy

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71

Storming the Bastille

Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille was destroy by revolutionaries; its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic

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72

Agricultural Revolution

A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster; the production of food rose dramatically

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73

Enclosure Movement

The 18th century privatization of common lands in England, which contributed to the increase in population and the rise of industrialization

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74

The Industrial Revolution

beginning in Great Britain in the 1780s, which gave rise to textiles, railroads, iron, and coal

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75

The Seven Years' War

worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land

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76

The American Revolution

This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.

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77

The Haitian Revolution

Toussaint l'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves

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78

Otto Von Bismarck

Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Confederation; promoted German militarism and industrialization

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79

King Leopold II

King of Belgium who set off a scramble among European powers for African colonies in the late 1800s

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80

Karl Marx

19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary; often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society

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81

Principle of intervention

the idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments

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82

Liberalism

A political ideology that emphasizes rule of law, representative democracy, rights of citizens, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes

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83

Conservatism

associated with Edmund Burke; reaction to excessive violence of French Revolution; tempered many Enlightenment values

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84

Nationalism

arose as a result of people identifying (or imagining) themselves as part of a community, a "nation"; feeling of membership to a nation with a desire for action to enhance the status, power, and well-being of that nation

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85

Constitutionalism

government ruled by a document/constitution; believed these would guarantee the protection of people's rights

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86

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion

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87

Congress of Vienna

Following Napoleon's exile, this meeting of European rulers in Austria established a system by which the balance of power would be maintained, liberal revolutions would be repressed, as would imperial expansion, and the creation of new countries in Europe

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88

Sepoy Rebellion

also known as the "Great Rebellion," a revolt by Indian soldiers against British rule between 1857 and 1858 over the rumors of the use of pig and cow fat used on weapons; ended the reign of the British East India Company and ushered in the British Raj

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89

The Berlin Conference

A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa

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90

The Scramble for Africa

Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts

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91

The Opium Wars

War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories; the victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China

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92

Irish Potato Famine

A famine in 1845 when the main crop of Ireland, potatoes, was destroyed by disease. Irish farmers grew other food items, such as wheat and oats, but Great Britain required them to export those items to them, leaving nothing for the Irish to live on. As a result, over 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease, while millions of others migrated to the United States

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93

Unification of Germany

In the 19th-century, various independent German-speaking states, led by the chancellor of Prussia Otto von Bismarck, unified to create a Germanic state. The state expanded with von Bismarck's military exploits against Austria, France and Denmark. Unification was complete by 1871 with the Prussian king, Wilhelm, named the first leader of Germany

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94

The Sino-Japanese War

War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895 over control of the Korean Peninsula; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaodong peninsula (gave it to Russia), but Japan maintained control of Korea (protectorate), Taiwan, and Penghu Islands; special trading privileges in China

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95

Unification of Italy

During 1848, Italy was separated into many states. Cavour worked to unify the North then helped Giuseppe Garibaldi unify the South starting with Sicily. Garibaldi eventually stepped aside and handed over all of Southern Italy to Victor Emmanuel II (King of Sardinia) rule all of the now unified Italy

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96

The Spanish-American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence; results in the Treaty of Paris, in which the US gains control of Cuba (American protectorate), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines; marks the end of the Spanish Empire

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97

The American-Philippine War

-Filipinos revolt against American control in 1899-70,000 US troops are sent-It takes 3 yrs to put down rebellion-The Philippines would not be free until 1946

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98

Banana Wars

conflicts in Latin American countries in which the US attempted to protect its commercial interests, sometimes involving their major crop (leading export- bananas) in the early 20th century (early 1900's)

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99

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere

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100

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic

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