Bio 2 Final

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What is science?

1 / 181

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Biology

Ch 1 - 5

182 Terms

1

What is science?

aims to understand the natural world through observation and reasoning

  • begins with organisms

    • classification of all life

    • human genome sequencing

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2

hierarchical classification?

organisms grouped into clusters

  • Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species

  • shift from identifying and naming to constructing hypotheses to explain relatedness of species

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3

binomial scientific name?

Genus [capital], Species [lowercase]

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4

how to identify hierarchical classification?

  1. latin

  2. 2 parts

  3. lowercase

  4. capitalize

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5

Scientific Method step 1

Observations

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6

scientific method step 2

Hypothesis

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7

what is hypothesis

  • a possible explanation for an observation

  • statement

  • has dependent and independent variables (control variables)

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8

what is null hypothesis

  • no changes

  • all the same

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9

what is independent variable?

the experimenter will manipulate to see how it affects the dependent variable

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10

what is the dependent variable?

What is actually being measured/affected in the experiment

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11

scientific method step 3

experiment

  • tests the hypothesis at a time

  • includes a control (no part of the experiment)

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12

scientific method step 4

analysis

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13

scientific method step 5

draw conclusions

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14

why are many hypotheses are supported?

it is because of theory

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15

what is theory?

  • broad explanation

    • body of interconnected concepts

  • supported by lots of scientific evidence

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16

Can supernatural be studied?

No

  • it cannot be studied or explained by science

  • it cannot be measured

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17

What cannot provide value judgments?

ethics, morals, faith

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18

what is evolution?

challenge in allelic frequencies in a given population over time

  • darwin’s “descent with modification”

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19

Aristotle’s ideology: scala naturae

scale of nature

‘life may have changed gradually over time, but .. life forms arranged on a ladder of increasing complexity’

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20

Carolus Linnaeus?

  • scientist who classify life “for the greater glory of God”

  • developed Binomial nomenclature: Nested classification

  • long thought to have been created recently and to be unchanging

  • change is hard to see at the scale of a human lifetime

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21

From static worldview to an evolutionary worldview- what happened?

1700s-1800s: accumulation of fossils showed that life on earth had changed enormously

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22

what is catastrophism?

extinctions (and other major changes on earth) are due to periodic catastrophes (sudden change)

  • big change

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23

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)?

french scientist: extinct species were evidence of past catastrophes 1798

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24

James Hutton & Charles Lyell?

  • scottish geologists

  • geological evidence that current events were the key to understanding the past

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25

what is uniformitarianism?

processes operating in the world today are the same ones that have operated in the past (constant change)

  • processing change

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26

what is gradualism?

processes that result in geological change operate slowly (gradually) over huge spans of time

  • implies much time has passed and earth is VERY OLD

  • age/time… takes a while

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27

Darwin was not the first to?

propose a theory of evolution

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28

Darwin proposed?

proposed mechanism of evolution: natural selection 1859

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29

Darwin’s perception?

a radical, leftist, atheist who was happy to overthrow the existing worldview

  • facts are a little more mundane

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30

Extra facts on Darwin

  • fainted at the sight of blood

  • went to clergy school

  • naturalist

  • took notes in voyage of HMS beagle

    • in the mainland is not the same in the islands

    • with Captain Fitzroy

    • idea came out in ‘59

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31

Buffon’s theory 1749

species change as they spread from their original location

<p>species change as they spread from their original location</p>
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32

Lamarck’s theory 1809

acquired variation is passed on to descendants

  • new species come from existing species through environmental forces

  • change over time

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33

Darwin’s theory

natural selection or genetically-based variation leads to evolutionary change

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34

Darwin’s focus on adaptation

  • influenced by Thomas Malthus (most significant, made essays)

  • adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes

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35

natural selection?

the match between organisms and their environment

  • has to match environment to survive

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36

agricultural selection?

results from generations of human selection for desirable phenotypic traits, they reproduce and pass genes

  • ex: larger corn ear size

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37

Domestication?

human-imposed selection has produced a variety of cats, dogs, pigeons, etc

  • breeds developed for specific purposes

    • dachshunds for badger pursuit

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38

Evidence of evolution: direct observations

  • nature - soapberry bugs

  • evolution of drug-resistant bacteria

    • resist to penicillin 1945, 2 yrs after widely used

    • resist to methicillin, 2 yrs after widely used

      • MRSA now resistant to many antibiotics

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39

Evidence of evolution: anatomical evidence

  • homologous structures

  • vestigial structures

  • early embryonic development

  • molecular evidence

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40

homologous structures?

structures derived from same body part; may or may not have same function

  • ex: forelimb bones in mammals are same

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41

vestigial structures?

structures have no apparent function, but resemble structures their ancestors possessed

  • ex: human ear wiggling muscles

evolutionary relicts

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42

early embryonic development?

comparisons of how organisms develop

  • embryos similar early on → different as develop

    • humans: glands and ducts

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43

molecular evidence?

DNA relatedness - compare anatomy, genomes, or proteins

  • more related → less changes

  • less related → more changes

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44

Evidence of evolution: fossil record

differed from present-day organisms

  • shed light on new groups

  • support hypothesis based on DNA

  • document transition fossils

  • measured; determines how they move

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45

Animal closest relation to whales?

Hippopotamuses

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46

evidence of evolution: biogeography

  • plate tectonic

  • convergent evolution

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47

what is biogeography?

study of species geographic distribution

  • different geographical areas exhibit similar plants and animals even though organisms may be distantly related

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48

plate tectonic?

shifting continents drift isolated organisms, promoting divergence

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49

convergent evolution?

parallel evolutionary adaptation in similar environments

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50

Similar forms evolved in different, isolated areas because of?

similar selective pressures in similar environments

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51

analogous structures?

similar function, not same form (evolutionary-ancestral traits)

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52

divergence?

moving apart from each other

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53

Genetic variation?

differences in alleles of genes found within individuals in a population

  • raw material for natural selection

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54

meiosis creates variation. why?

  • independent assortment

  • recombination

  • random fertilization

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55

independent assortment?

shuffles chromosomes

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56

recombination?

shuffles genes on chromosomes

  • meiosis metaphase phase 1

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57

random fertilization?

picks two cards out of the deck at random

  • one couple can create >70 trillion unique combinations (not including crossing over)

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58

Raw material?

no selection takes place without heritable variation

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59

How do you get raw material?

Mutation & Recombination

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60

Mutation?

a heritable change in DNA

  • has to be inherited

  • 0.003 === 64== mutations per genome per cell generation

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61

recombination?

a molecule (DNA/RNA) is broken and then joined to a different one [crossing over]

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62

population genetics?

study of properties of genes in a population

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63

gene pool?

sum total of all the genes in a population at a given time

  • all alleles at all loci (locations within)

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64

who is Mendel 1860s?

he showed that inheritance is caused by “particles” that are passed unchanged from generation to generation according to the rules of probability

  • plant breeding experiments

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65

Mendel’s Laws?

  1. Law of segregation

  2. Law of independent assortment

  3. Law of dominance

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66

Law of segregation?

pair of alleles separate during cell divisions for any particular trait (assumes diploidy)

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67

Law of independent assortment?

separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another

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68

Law of dominance?

one allele masks other allele

  • RR or rr

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69

how many chromosomes combinations in humans?

8 million

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70

True breeding cross P1

1 Homo dominant, 1 Homo recessive [Rr]

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71

F1 generation

100% heterozygous

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72

F2 generation genotypic ratio

1:2:1

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73

Phenotype

physical characteristics/appearance

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74

Genotype

actual genetic typing

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75

homologous chromosomes?

2 copies of alleles of the gene for a given individual (genotype)

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76

homozygous alleles?

alleles are the same

  • AA, aa

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77

heterozygous alleles?

alleles are different

  • Aa

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78

population-level variation describe as?

  • allele frequencies (one)

  • genotype frequencies (two)

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79

Hardy-Weinberg Principle?

genotypic frequencies remain constant from generation

to generation under constant conditions

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80

Conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg Principle?

  1. No mutation takes place

  2. No gene flow (no immigration [in] or emigration [out])

  3. Random mating is occurring

  4. Large population size

  5. No natural selection = no change

    1. a way to examine changes in allele frequency = null hypothesis (no change)

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81

Hardy-Weinberg Principle Equation

p + q = 1

  • p = homo dominant

  • q = homo recessive

  • pq = heterozygous

<p>p + q = 1</p><ul><li><p>p = homo dominant</p></li><li><p>q = homo recessive</p></li><li><p>pq = heterozygous</p></li></ul>
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82

In reality, most populations will not meet all 5 assumptions/conditions. why?

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction alone will NOT change allele and genotype frequencies in a population (will NOT cause evolution)

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83

what process/processes cause changes to the frequencies?

evolution results in the change of a population’s genetic composition

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84

5 agents of evolutionary change

  1. Mutation

  2. Gene flow

  3. Genetic drift

  4. Nonrandom mating

  5. Selection

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85

Agent Mutation

  • totally random

  • ultimate source of genetic variation

  • makes evolution possible

  • rates generally low

  • other evolutionary processes usually more important in changing allele frequency

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86

Agent Gene flow

movement of alleles from one population to another

  • random

  • drifting of gametes or immature stages

  • mating of individuals from adjacent populations

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87

Agent Genetic Drift

describes how allele frequencies fluctuate unpredictably

  • random-uncommon alleles are vulnerable

  • bottleneck effect

  • founder effect

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88

Bottleneck Effect?

catastrophic event reduces population size

  • survivors are a random genetic sample of original

  • results in loss of genetic variability

  • parent population gone

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89

Founder effect?

small number of individuals drift from population

  • can lead to the loss of alleles in isolated populations

  • foundling

  • parent population is still there

  • isolation

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90

Agent Nonrandom Mating

  1. Assortative mating

  2. Disassortative mating

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91

Assortative mating?

phenotypically similar individuals mate

  • increases homozygosity

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92

Disassortative mating?

phenotypically different individuals mate

  • increases heterozygosity

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93

Agent Selection

some individuals leave behind more progeny than others

  • rate = favorable phenotype/behavior

  • non random

  • natural selection

  • artificial selection

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94

what is the result of evolution by natural selection?

populations become better adapted to their environment

  • organisms start to blend in their environment

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95

Conditions for natural selection?

  1. Variation must exist in population

  2. Variation must result in numerical differences of offspring survival

  3. Variation must be genetically inherited

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96

Natural selection is not equal to evolution. why?

  • Evolution is a subset to natural selection

  • Natural selection is a process (4 other processes)

  • Evolution = historical record of change through time

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97

what is fitness?

individuals of one phenotype leave more surviving offspring in the next generation than individuals with an alternative phenotype

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98

what relative concept is misleading?

the most fit phenotype = one that produces, on average, the greatest number of offspring

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99

components of fitness?

  • traits favored for one, a disadvantage for others - variation

  • number of offspring per mating - heritability

  • sexual selection = more successful at mates

  • survival!

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100

selection favors phenotypes with the greatest fitness. why?

phenotype with greater fitness usually increases frequency

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