Chapter 1 Anatomy- The Human Organism

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Homeostasis

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117 Terms

1

Homeostasis

the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment

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Variables

changes in internal body conditions

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Set Point

normal value (98.6)

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Anatomy

study of body structures

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Developmental Anatomy

anatomy of the structural changes of an individual from fertilization to adulthood

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Embryology

considers changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development

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Cytology

study of the structural features of cells

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Histology

study of tissues

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Gross Anatomy

study of structures that can be examined with the aid of a microscope

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Surface Anatomy

involves looking at the exterior of the body to visualize structures deeper inside the body

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Physiology

study of processes and functions of living things

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Pathology

study of disease

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X-ray

extremely shortwave electromagnetic radiations that moves through the body

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Ultrasound

uses high frequency sound waves which strike internal organs and bounce back to the receiver on the skin

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Computed Tomography (CT)

computer analyzed x-ray images that take several scans and stack the slices to produce a 3d image of a body part

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Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)

one step beyond CT scanning, radiopaque dye is injected into blood which allows for enhanced differences

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

directs radio waves at a person lying inside a large electromagnetic field

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Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

uses radioactive isotopes, interpreted by a computer, can identify metabolic states of various tissues

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Anatomical Anomalies

physical characteristics that different from normal pattern, can vary from severity from relatively harmless to life threatening

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Chemical Level

involves how atoms, such as hydrogen and carbon, interact and combine to form molecules

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Cellular Level

basic structural and functional units of all living organisms

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Tissue Level

combined groups of similar cells and the materials surrounding them

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Organ Level

composed of 2 or more tissue types that perform one or more common functions

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Organ System Level

a group of organs that together perform a common function or set of functions and are therefore viewed as a unit

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Organism Level

any living thing considered as a whole

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Organization

refers to specific interrelationships among the parts of an organism and how those parts interact to perform specific functions

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Metabolism

the ability to use energy and to perform other vital functions

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Responsiveness

an organisms ability to sense changes in its external or internal environment and adjust to those changes

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Growth

refers to an increase in the size or number of cells, which produces an overall enlargement of all or part of an organism

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Development

includes the changes an organism undergoes through time, beginning with fertilization and ending at death

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Reproduction

the formation of new cells or new organisms

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Receptor

monitors the value of a variable by detecting stimuli (involved in feedback loops)

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Control Center

determines the set point for the variable and receives input from the receptor about the variable (involved in feedback loops)

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Effector

generates the response that adjusts the value of a changed variable (involved in feedback loops)

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Negative Feedback

“to decrease”, any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted (ex. maintenance of body temp.)

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Positive Feedback

“to increase”, any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted (ex. contractions for birth)

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<p>Anatomical Position</p>

Anatomical Position

when a person standing erect with the face directed forward, upper limbs hanging to the sides and palms of hands facing forward

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<p>Supine</p>

Supine

lying facing forward

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39
<p>Prone</p>

Prone

lying facing downward

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Right

toward the right side of the body (ex. right ear)

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Left

toward the left side of the body (ex. left eye)

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Superior (cephalic)

a structure above another (ex. chin to the navel)

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Inferior (caudal)

a structure below another (ex. navel to the chin)

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Anterior (ventral)

the front of the body (ex. navel to the spine)

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Posterior (dorsal)

the back of the body (ex. spine to the breastbone)

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Proximal

closer to the point of attachment to the body than another structure (ex. elbow to the wrist)

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Distal

farther from the point of attachment to the body than another structure (ex. wrist to the elbow)

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Lateral

away from the midline of the body (ex. shoulders to the heart)

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Medial

toward the midline of the body (ex. heart to the shoulders)

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Superficial

toward or on the surface (ex. skin to muscle)

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Deep

away from the surface, internal (ex. lungs to the ribs)

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Head

frontal (forehead), orbital (eye), nasal (nose), oral (mouth), otic (ear), buccal (cheek), mental (chin)

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Neck

cervical

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Thoracic

pectoral (chest), sternal (breastbone), mammary (breasts)

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Abdomen

abdominal (abdomen), umbilical (navel)

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Pelvis

pelvic (pelvis), inguinal (groin), pubic (genital)

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Clavicular

collarbone

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Axillary

armpit

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Brachial

arm

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Antecubial

front of elbow

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Antebrachial

forearm

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Carpal

wrist

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Manual (hand)

pollex (thumb), palmar (palm), digital (fingers)

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Coxal

hip

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Femoral

thigh

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Patellar

kneecap

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Crural

leg

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Pedal (foot)

talus (ankle), dorsum (top of foot), digital (toes), hallux (big toe)

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Occipital

base of skull

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Nuchal

back of neck

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Dorsal (back)

scapular (shoulder blade), vertebral (spinal column), lumbar

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Sacral

between hips

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Gluteal

buttock

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Perineal

perineum

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Cranial

skull

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Acromial

point of shoulder

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Olecranon

point of elbow

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Dorsum

back of hand

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Popliteal

hollow behind knee

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Sural

calf

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Plantar

sole

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Calcaneal

heel

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83
<p>Abdominal Quadrants</p>

Abdominal Quadrants

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ), Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ), Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ), Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

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<p>Sagittal/Mid-sagittal Plane</p>

Sagittal/Mid-sagittal Plane

divides left and right

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<p>Transverse Horizontal Plane</p>

Transverse Horizontal Plane

parallel to the ground, divides superior from inferior

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<p>Frontal/Coronal Plane</p>

Frontal/Coronal Plane

divides anterior from posterior

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<p>Oblique Plane</p>

Oblique Plane

angled section (not 90 degrees) to length

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<p>Dorsal Cavity</p>

Dorsal Cavity

encloses nervous system, houses cranial cavity and vertebral canal

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<p>Ventral Cavity</p>

Ventral Cavity

encloses most internal organs (viscera), contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

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<p>Thoracic Cavity</p>

Thoracic Cavity

houses primarily heart and lungs among other organs

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<p>Pleural Cavity</p>

Pleural Cavity

categorized under the thoracic cavity, but houses only the lungs that are surrounded by the ribs

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<p>Mediastinum</p>

Mediastinum

houses the heart and its major blood vessels, in addition to the thymus and esophagus

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<p>Pericardial Cavity</p>

Pericardial Cavity

specific cavity for only the heart

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<p>Abdominal Cavity</p>

Abdominal Cavity

houses most digestive organs

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<p>Pelvic Cavity</p>

Pelvic Cavity

houses urinary bladder, urethra, rectum, reproductive organs

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Parietal Serous Membrane

layer lines walls of cavities

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97

Visceral Serous Membrane

covers internal organs, directly on the organ

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98

Thoracic Cavity Membranes (Pericardial)

pericardial membrane (only for heart), parietal pericardial membrane, visceral pericardium. filled with pericardial fluid

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Thoracic Cavity Membranes (Pleural)

parietal pleura, visceral pleura. filled with pleural fluid

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Abdominopelvic Cavity Membranes (Peritoneal)

parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum. filled with peritoneal fluid

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