ANATOMY LECTURE TEST 2

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A primary active transport process is one in which __________.

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1

A primary active transport process is one in which __________.

molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP

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2

Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____.

facilitated diffusion

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3

The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to ____.

facilitated diffusion

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4

The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes _____.

primary active transport

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5

A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid. This statement describes _____.

exocytosis

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6

Solution A and solution B are separated by a semipermeable membrane. Solution A contains 1% glucose, solution B contains 5% glucose. By diffusion:

glucose will move from solution B to solution A.

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7

Solution A and solution B are separated by a semipermeable membrane. Solution A contains 1% glucose, solution B contains 5% glucose. By osmosis:

water will move from solution A to solution B.

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8

If the ECF is more concentrated than the cytosol, then the ECF is:

hypertonic.

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9

If the ECF is hypotonic, the cell will:

swell

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10

Which of the following best explains diffusion?

movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

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11

Which of the following is most likely to move through the cell membrane by facilitated diffusion?

Na+

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12

What is the basic difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane?

In facilitated diffusion, molecules only move with the aid of a protein in the membrane.

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13

Which of the following is least likely to increase the rate of diffusion?

small concentration gradient

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14

Which of the following lists, in correct order, the phases of interphase?

G1, S, and G2

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15

Which of the following lists, in correct order, the phases of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

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16

During which of the following phases does DNA replication occur?

Synthesis

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17

During which of the following phases does chromatin condense and become chromosomes?

prophase

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18

Splicing causes:

the exons to join back together

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19

During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA duplication, or replication, take place?

Interphase

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20

When a double helix of DNA is replicated, two complete helices are formed. Together, these helices are called sister __________.

chromatids

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21

During which phase of mitosis do sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell?

Metaphase

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22

During which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids move apart?

Anaphase

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23

During which phase of mitosis do nuclear envelopes and the nucleoli reappear?

Telophase

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24

During which phase of mitosis do the nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear?

Prophase

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25

What is the name of the process by which the cytoplasm divides in two?

Cytokinesis

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26

The cell cycle is divided into two main parts: interphase and cell division. Interphase is the period in which the cell is performing normal functions and not actively engaged in cell division. Most of your body’s cells spend a lot of their time in interphase. Before a cell can divide, what must occur during interphase?

Each chromatin fiber is duplicated in the nucleus.

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27

What happens in prophase?

chromosomes move to opposites sides of the cell, mitotic spindle fibers form and attach to centromeres, DNA condenses into chromosomes, nuclear envelope breaks up

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28

What happens in metaphase

chromosomes align in the center of the cell

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29

What happens in anaphase?

Sister, kids separate into chromosomes, chromosomes move from the center along the spindle fibers

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30

What happens in telophase?

Chromosomes as it ends of the cell, chromosomes, relax, and nuclear envelope form

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31

Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of a typical eukaryotic cell?

ribosome

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32

Which of the following acts as the digestive system of the cell, breaking down materials?

lysosome

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33

Where in a typical eukaryotic cell would you expect to find genes?

in the DNA within the cell’s nucleus

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34

Which of the following statements about cells is FALSE?

Cells join together to form organelles, which then form our organs and organ systems.

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35

Which of the following is not required for osmosis to occur?

cellular energy

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36

Which of the following solutions contains the most solute?

hypertonic

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37

In general, to maintain homeostasis the relationship between our intracellular and extracellular fluids should be which of the following?

isotonic to each other

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38

If a person is severely dehydrated, their extracellular fluids will become hypertonic to the intracellular fluid. What do you predict will happen to the person’s cells?

The cells will lose water and shrink.

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39

Which of the following is the main component of the cell membrane?

phospholipids

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40

Which of the following is a characteristic of the cell membrane?

semipermeable

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41

Which of the following is not a major function of proteins in the cell membrane?

forming the entire glycocalyx

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42

What part of a cell membrane is usually in contact with the interstitial fluid?

phosphate heads of phospholipids

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43

Solution A and solution B are separated by a semipermeable membrane. Solution A contains 1% glucose; solution B contains 5% glucose. Which of the following answer choices best describes diffusion?

Glucose will move from solution B to solution A.

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44

Solution A and solution B are separated by a semipermeable membrane. Solution A contains 1% glucose; solution B contains 5% glucose. Which of the following answer choices best describes osmosis?

Water will move from solution A to solution B.

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45

Which of the following statements about osmosis is correct?

By osmosis, water will always move from the side with lower solute concentration to the side with higher solute concentration

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46

Osmosis is driven by

the friction between solute and solvent.

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47

Solution A and solution B are separated by a semipermeable membrane, which is permeable to NaCl and water. Solution A contains 10% NaCl, and solution B contains 2% NaCl. By osmosis, __________.

water will move from solution B to solution A

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48

What is active process?

primary active transport, secondaerry active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis

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49

What is passive process?

simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion

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50

Which of the following events occurs during transcription?    

A molecule of RNA is formed based on the sequence of nucleotides in DNA.        

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51

Which of the following is a correct statement about mRNA?    

mRNA moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm following RNA processing.    

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52

The site of translation is    

ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm.

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53

Which one of the following does not play a role in translation?  

DNA  

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54

Which of the following does not occur during RNA processing?  

mRNA attaches to the small subunit of a ribosome.  

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55

A sequence of three nucleotides on mRNA is called:

a codon

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56

The initiator tRNA always brings the amino acid:

methionine

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57

Which of the following occurs as a result of ribosomal translocation?

The tRNA that was in the A site moves into the P site.

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58

The toxin ricin rapidly and completely deactivates the ribosome. It is lethal to humans, because it will:

inhibit translation

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59

The enzyme that synthesizes the RNA strand during transcription is:

RNA polymerase

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60

Transcription factors bind to the ___________ on DNA.

promoter sequence

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61

The RNA base complementary to A in DNA is:

U

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62

Predict the meaning of the term "reverse transcription."

synthesis of DNA using RNA as a template

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63

Which of the following builds new strands of DNA?

DNA polymerase

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64

Which statement best describes strand characteristics as it relates to DNA replication?

The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.

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65

During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the original or parental DNA strand?

T

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66

Which protein joins together the Okazaki fragments of DNA in the lagging strand?

DNA ligase

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67

In order for a cell to divide, all of its chromosomes must be duplicated in a process called DNA replication. During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?

interphase

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68

RNA polymerase binds to

promoter

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69

What is the template strand?

it is used to generate MRNA

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70

What does RNA polymerase read from?

3’ to 5’

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71

What does mRNA read from?

5’ to 3’

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72

What is a set of three in mRNA?

codon

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73

What is a set of three in tRNA?

anticodon

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74

What are the functions of cell membrane?

Physically, separate intercellular fluid from extracellular fluids, regulate exchange with environment, sensitivity to environment, structural support of tissues

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75

What do glycolipids do?

recognition

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76

What does cholesterol do?

stability

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77

What is peripheral protein?

surface

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78

What is integral protein?

transmembrane

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79

What do membrane proteins do?

Attachment (cytoskeleton anchors); desmosomes (attached to other cells), recognition, enzymes, receptors, transport proteins

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80

What is a membrane carbohydrate?

glycocalyx

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81

What is glycocalyx function?

recognize and receptor

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82

What is microvillii?

fingerlike projections of the membrane for increased surface area

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83

What are the three types of membrane permeability?

impermeable, selectively permeable, freely permeable

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84

What is three types of gradients

concentration, pressure, and electrochemical

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85

what is simple diffusion?

through the membrane and through channels

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86

what is osmosis?

diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane

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87

What are the three types of tonicity?

hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic

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88

What are the three types of endocytosis?

phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor meiated endocyotis

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89

What is phagocytosis?

solid (cell eating)

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90

what is pinocytosis?

liquids (cell drinking)

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91

What is receptor medicated endocysis?

selective

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92

What are some characteristics of cytosol/ intracellular fluid?

gel like colloid, high concentration of K+, may contain insoluble inclusions

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93

What does the cytoskeleton do?

maintains cell shape and allows movement

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94

What are the components of cytoskeleton?

microtubules, microfilament, intermediate filament

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95

What do microtubules do?

centered on centrosomes, continually re-arranging

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96

What do microfilament do?

cross linked network, attached to cell membrane proteins

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97

What do intermediate filament do?

hold loose objects in place

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98

What are centrosomes?

acts as a microtubule organizing device

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99

What do ribosomes do?

site of protein synthesis

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100

What is Rough ER?

has ribosomes attached, processes proteins

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