Heart

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cardiovascular system

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cardiovascular system

heart, blood vessels, blood

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the heart beats

about 100,000 times a day

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heart pumps

8000 L of blood a day

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pulmonary circuit

carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart

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systemic circuit

Circuit of blood that carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body.

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Each circuit begins and ends at the heart

blood travels through these circuits in sequence

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types of blood vessels

arteries, veins, capillaries

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arteries

carry blood away from the heart

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veins

return blood to the heart

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Capillaries (exchange vessels)

Interconnect smallest arteries and smallest veins, Exchange dissolved gases, nutrients, and wastes between blood and surrounding tissues

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four chambers of the heart

right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle

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right atrium

receives blood from systemic circuit

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right ventricle

pumps blood into the pulmonary circuit

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left atrium

receives blood from pulmonary circuit

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left ventricle

pumps blood into the systemic circuit

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great vessels connect at

base (superior)

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pointed tip of heart

apex (inferior)

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Mediastinum

area between the lungs containing the heart, aorta, venae cavae, esophagus, and trachea

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pericardium

surrounds the heart

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Pericardium consists of

fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium

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inner serous pericardium

outer parietal layer and inner visceral layer

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pericardial cavity

between parietal and visceral layers, contains pericardial fluid

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pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

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cardiac tamponade

restricted movement of the heart due to excess fluid in pericardial cavity

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Superficial Anatomy of the Heart

atria and sulci

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Two thin-walled atria

Each with an expandable outer auricle

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sulci (grooves)

contain fat and blood vessels

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coronary sulcus

marks the border between the atria and ventricles.

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anterior interventricular sulcus

marks the boundary between the ventricles anteriorly

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posterior interventricular sulcus

marks the boundary between the ventricles posteriorly

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The heart wall consists of three layers:

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

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epicardium (visceral pericardium)

the inner layer of the pericardium that covers the surface of the heart

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myocardium

cardiac muscle tissue

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endocardium

membrane lining the cavities of the heart

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connective tissues of the heart

provide physical support for cardiac muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves of the myocardium, help distribute the forces of contraction, add strength and prevent overexpansion of the heart, provide elasticity that helps return the heart to its original size

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cardiac skeleton

Four bands around heart valves and bases of pulmonary trunk and aorta, Stabilize valves, Electrically insulate ventricular cells from atrial cells

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internal anatomy and organization

Chambers of heart are separated by muscular partitions (septa) (Interatrial septum, Separates atria, Interventricular septum, Separates ventricles, Much thicker than interatrial septum)

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atrioventricular valves

tricuspid and mitral valves

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atrioventricular valves

Valves located between the atrial and ventricular chambers on each side of the heart, prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting.

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semilunar valves

pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta

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right atrium receives blood from

superior and inferior vena cava

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foramen ovale

Before birth, is an opening through interatrial septum , Connects the two atria, Seals off at birth, forming fossa ovalis

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pectinate muscles

prominent muscular ridges in the anterior atrial wall and the inner surface of the auricle

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blood flows from

right atrium and right ventricle

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tricuspid valve (right AV valve)

3 leaflets, Prevents backflow from the Right Ventricle to the Right Atrium

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chordae tendineae

thin bands of fibrous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting

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papillary muscles

responsible for pulling the atrioventricular valves closed by means of the chordae tendineae

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trabeculae carneae

muscular ridges on the internal surface of the ventricles

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moderator band

muscular band of heart tissue that carries a portion of the right bundle branch

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conus arteriosus (infundibulum)

the upper smooth-walled portion of the right ventricle, which leads to the pulmonary trunk

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left atrium

receives blood from pulmonary veins

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mitral valve

A valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle; prevents the blood in the ventricle from returning to the atrium. Alternative name is bicuspid valve.

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left ventricle

receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium

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aortic sinuses

saclike expansions at base of ascending aorta

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aortic arch

curve of the aorta

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Compared to left ventricle, the right ventricle

Holds and pumps the same amount of blood, Has thinner walls, Develops less pressure, Is more pouch-shaped than round

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heart valves

prevent back flow of blood

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atrioventricular valves

between atria and ventricles

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when ventricles contract

-AV valves close as blood attempts to back up into the atria > pressure rises inside of the ventricles > semilunar valves open and blood flows into great vessels

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semilunar valves

Pulmonary and aortic valves, Prevent backflow of blood into ventricles

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Valvular Heart Disease (VHD)

When valve function has deteriorated to where heart cannot maintain adequate blood flow

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carditis

inflammation of the heart

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63

rheumatic fever

A bacterial infection that can be carried in the blood to the joints

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coronary circulation

supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart

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coronary arteries

originate at the base of the ascending aorta, and each gives rise to two branches.

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Right Coronary Artery (RCA)

supplies blood to the right atrium, right ventricle, bottom portion of the left ventricle and back of the septum

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right coronary artery gives rise to

marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery

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left coronary artery (LCA)

supplies blood to the left ventricle, left atrium, and interventricular septum

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left coronary artery gives rise to

anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery

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arterial anastomoses

provide alternate pathways (collateral channels) to ensure continuous flow, even if one artery is blocked

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cardiac dominance

term referring to the origin of the posterior interventricular artery

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cardiac veins

great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, small cardiac vein

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great cardiac vein

drains blood from area of anterior interventricular artery into coronary sinus

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Empty into great cardiac vein or coronary sinus

Posterior cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, and small cardiac vein

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anterior cardiac veins empty

directly into the right atrium

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coronary artery disease

areas of partial or complete blockage of coronary circulation

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cardiac muscle cells

are maintained by an extensive capillary network.

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coronary ischemia

lack of blood flow to the heart muscle due to a blockage

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coronary artery disease cause

Exact cause unknown, Plaque begins to form because the inner lining of the artery (endothelium) becomes damaged. Three possible causes of damage to the arterial wall are:

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-Elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood

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-High blood pressure

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-Cigarette smoking

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angina pectoris

chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle

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myocardial infarction

condition characterized by dead tissue areas in the myocardium; caused by interruption of blood supply to the area.

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coronary thrombosis

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

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86

heartbeat

A single cardiac contraction, All heart chambers contract in series: First the atria, Then the ventricles

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Two types of cardiac muscle cells

autorhythmic cells and contractile cells

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autorhythmic cells

are also called pacemakers because they set the rate of the heartbeat.

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contractile cells

produce contractions that propel blood

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conducting system

consists of specialized cardiac muscle cells

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initiate and distribute electrical impulses that stimulate contraction

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autorhythmicity

heart's ability to control its own contractions

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pacemaker cells found in

SA node and AV node

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sinoatrial node location

wall of right atrium

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atrioventricular node location

junction of atria and ventricles

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conducting cells found in

Internodal pathways of atria, Atrioventricular (AV) bundle, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers of ventricles

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Electrocardiogram (ECG)

recording of the electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle

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p wave

depolarization of the atria

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qrs complex

depolarization of the ventricles

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t wave

repolarization of ventricles

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