Bio Midterm-10th Grade

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6 steps of the scientific method

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Biology

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6 steps of the scientific method

Observation

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Hypothesis

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Experiment

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Data Collection

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Conclusion

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Restest

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Why does an experiment have to be retested?

To verify the results - to make sure the results are reproducible.

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What is a control variable

The control variable is something that is constant and unchanged in an experiment.

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Independent variables vs. dependent variable

The independent variable is the factor that is changed in the experiment. The dependent variable is the outcome.

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Independent variable

The factor (or variable) that is changed in the experiment.

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Dependent variable

Effect; the factor that is measured or observed

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Control Group vs expermental group

Control group is the group where no change has been made (used for comparison) and an experimental group is the group where one factor is changed.

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Control group

A group separated from the rest of the experiment where the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results

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Experimental group

In an experiment, a group of test subjects on which the independent variable is changed intentionally to see how the change affects the group.

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Define Biology

The study of life.

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What is the purpose of the scientific method?

A systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence.

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What is a theory

A hypothesis or an unproven assumption.

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A proposed explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results supported by a wide range of evidence is called

A theory

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Difference between theory and scientific law

Theory is unproven and law has been proven through experimentation

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Scientific law

a statement based on repeated experimental observations

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7 properties of living organisms

  1. Composed of cells (cellular Organization)

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  1. Are complex and ordered (ordered complexity)

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  1. Respond to their environment (sensitivity)

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  1. Can grow, develop and reproduce

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  1. Obtain and use energy (energy utilization)

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  1. maintain internal balance (homeostatsis)

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  1. allow for EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION

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is a virus considered a living thing?

No - viruses cannot reproduce on their own.

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Levels of organization (AMOCTOOO)

Atoms

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Molecules

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Organelles

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cells

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Tissues

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Organs

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Organ systems

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What is an ecosystem composed of

A physical environment with different species that interact with one another and with nonliving things.

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What is a biosphere?

Life supporting portions of earth including air, land, fresh water and salt water

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All organisms and the part of Earth where they exist is called

A biosphere.

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What is the smallest unity of life?

Cell

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Spontaneous generation vs germ hypothesis

Spontaneous generation - certain life forms can be produced by nonliving matter.

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Germ hypothesis - some diseases are caused by microorganisms.

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spontaneous generation

Living organisms can be generated spontaneously from nonliving organisms

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Germ Hypothesis

Preexisting microorganisms can create germs and bacteria

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What is Charles Darwin's contribution to biology

The theory of evolution

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What adaptation did Darwin observe in the finiches

The differences in their beaks and wing span

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What did Thomas Malthus predict in regards to population growth vs the food supply?

That population would continue to grow as long as resources were unlimited.

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Was Thomas Malthus prediction of population growth vs food supply correct?

No. Disease and a limited food supply kept population smaller.

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4 post-Darwinian evidences for evolution?

fossil record

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mechanisms of herdity

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comparative anatomy-homologous & analogous structures

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molecular evidence

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Homologous structures vs analogous structures

Homologous - same origin different structure & function.

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Analogous - Similar structure and function - different origin.

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homologous structures

Same evolutionary origin but different structure and function

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analogous structures

Similar structure and function, but different evolutionary origin.

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4 macromolecules

Carbohydrates

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proteins

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lipids

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nucleic acids

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What determines the function of a molecule

structure

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What are 3 tenets of the cell theory?

All organisms are made of cells

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all cells are produced by other living cells

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The cell is the basic unit of life

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What is the main difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

They differ greatly in structure - Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

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Eukaryotes

Animals, plants, fungi and protists

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prokaryotes

Bacteria

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Order the following from largest to smallest: Bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic cells

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What is the cell membrane composed of

phospholipid bilayer

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Cell membrane

Boundry of the cell

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Function of the nucleus

Control center of the cell; contains DNA

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function of cytoskeleton?

Acts as a skeleton and muscle

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Provides shape and structure

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helps move organelles around the cell

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Function of rough er and smooth er

Rough ER makes proteins

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Smooth ER makes lipids

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What is the function of rough ER

Makes Proteins

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What is the function of smooth ER

Makes lipids

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What does ER stand for

Endoplasmic Reticulum

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What allows the rough er to synthesize proteins?

Ribosomes

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ribosomes

Makes proteins

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Function of the nucleus?

To create ribosomes

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Function of lysomes

Contain digestive enzymes that break down waste -Garbage disposal of the cell

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Function of mitochondria

Cellular respiration which releases energy for the cell to use.

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Endosymbiotic theory?

the accepted mechanism for how eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells.

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The main organelles of the eukaryotic cell were actually primitive prokarytoic cells that had been engulfed by a different, bigger prokaryotic cell.

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Function of Chloroplast?

contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis

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Which cells have cell walls?

plants, algae, fungi and most bacteria

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What organelle is found only in animal cells?

centriole

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Which organelles are NOT found in animal cells?

cell wall, central vacuole and chloroplast

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What is genetics the study of?

Heredity

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Who is the father of genetics?

Gregor Mendel

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how to do a punnet square problems

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Genotype vs phenotype

Genotype - genetic makeup

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Phenotype - physical appearance

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Genotype

An organism's GEnetic makeup

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Phenotype

PHysical appearance

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incomplete dominance

When neither allele is dominant (a blend of each allele ex. Red and white = pink)

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