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117 Terms

1

ribosomes

the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis

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2

cytoskeleton

a network of protein fibers that helps to maintain the shape of the cell, secures certain organelles in specific positions, allows cytoplasm and vesicles to move within the cell, and enables unicellular organisms to move independently

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3

phylogeny

the relationships of an organism, such as from which organisms it is thought to have evolved, to which species it is most closely related, and so forth

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4

plasma membrane

surrounds the cell and regulates the passage of some substances, such as organic molecules, ions, and water, preventing the passage of some to maintain internal conditions, while actively bringing in or removing others

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5

endoplasmic reticulum

a series of interconnected membranous tubules that collectively modify proteins and synthesize lipids

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6

ecosystem

all the living things in a particular area together with the abiotic, non-living parts of that environment such as nitrogen in the soil or rain water

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7

community

the sum of populations inhabiting a particular area

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8

nucleus

houses the cell's DNA in the form of chromatin and directs the synthesis of ribosomes and proteins. Let us look at it in more detail

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9

phospholipid

a lipid molecule composed of two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group

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10

prokaryotes

the single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea

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11

cytoplasm

comprises the contents of a cell between the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope. It is made up of organelles suspended in the gel-like cytosol, the cytoskeleton, and various chemicals

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12

atom

the smallest and most fundamental unit of matter

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13

population

all the individuals of a species living within a specific area

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14

organelles

small structures that exist within cells

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15

organs

collections of tissues grouped together performing a common function

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16

mitochondria

often called the "powerhouses" or "energy factories" of a cell because they are responsible for making adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's main energy-carrying molecule

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17

organ system

a higher level of organization that consists of functionally related organs

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18

chloroplasts

organelles that function in photosynthesis and can be found in eukaryotic cells such as plants and algae

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19

cilia

short, hair-like structures that are used to move entire cells (such as paramecium) or move substances along the outer surface of the cell (for example, the cilia of cells lining the Fallopian tubes that move the ovum toward the uterus)

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20

tissues

groups of similar cells carrying out similar or related functions

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21

lysosomes

the cell's "garbage disposal"

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22

cell wall

a rigid covering that protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell

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23

organisms

individual living entities

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24

endosymbiosis

a relationship in which one organism lives inside the other

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25

flagella

long, hair-like structures that extend from the plasma membrane and are used to move an entire cell, (for example, sperm, Euglena)

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26

molecule

a chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bonds

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27

eukaryotes

animal cells, plant cells, fungi, and protists

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28

symbiosis

a relationship in which organisms from two separate species live in close association and typically exhibit specific adaptations to each other

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29

macromolecules

large molecules that are typically formed by polymerization

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30

peroxisomes

small, round organelles enclosed by single membranes

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31

inorganic compounds

compounds that do not contain carbon

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32

nucleic acids

key macromolecules in the continuity of life that carry the genetic blueprint of a cell and carry instructions for the functioning of the cell

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33

amino acids

the monomers that make up proteins

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34

hydrocarbons

the simplest organic compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen

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35

condensation reaction

reaction in which two molecules or parts thereof combine, releasing a small molecule

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36

polysaccharide

a long chain of monosaccharides linked by covalent bonds

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37

isomers

molecules with the same atomic makeup but different structural arrangement of atoms

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38

monosaccharides

simple sugars, the most common of which is glucose

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39

stereoisomers

isomers that differ in the spatial arrangements of atoms

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40

carbohydrates

an essential part of our diet that provide energy to the body, particularly through glucose, a simple sugar

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41

hormones

chemical signaling molecules, usually proteins or steroids, secreted by an endocrine gland or group of endocrine cells that act to control or regulate specific physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction

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42

structural isomers

compounds that have identical molecular formulas but differ in the bonding sequence of the atoms

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43

essential fatty acids

fatty acids that are required but not synthesized by the human body

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44

biological macromolecules

the large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic molecules

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45

proteins

one of the most abundant organic molecules in living systems and have the most diverse range of functions of all macromolecules. Proteins may be structural, regulatory, contractile, or protective; they may serve in transport, storage, or membranes; or they may be toxins or enzymes

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46

lipids

a diverse group of compounds that are united by a common feature. Lipids are hydrophobic ("water-fearing"), or insoluble in water

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47

saturated fats

solid at room temperature

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48

alkanes

contain only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms

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49

unsaturated fats

liquid at room temperature and are called oils

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50

structural formula

a graphic representation of the molecular structure of a molecule, showing how the atoms are arranged

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51

organic molecules

molecules that contain carbon

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52

hydrolysis reactions

result in the breakdown of polymers into monomers by using a water molecule and an enzymatic catalyst

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53

polar molecule

a molecule in which one end of the molecule is slightly positive, while the other end is slightly negative

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54

starch

the stored form of sugars in plants and is made up of amylose and amylopectin (both polymers of glucose)

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55

waxes

made up of a hydrocarbon chain with an alcohol (-OH) group and a fatty acid

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56

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid

contains the genes that determine who you are and the instructions for all the proteins your body makes

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57

genome

contains the full complement of DNA within a cell and is organized into smaller, discrete units called genes that are arranged on chromosomes and plasmids

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58

the central dogma

describes the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein

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59

genotype

the full collection of genes a cell contains

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60

DNA supercoiling

refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand

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61

leading strand

strand that is synthesized continuously in the 5'-3' direction, which is synthesized in the direction of the replication fork

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62

ligase

enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester linkage between the 3' OH and 5' phosphate ends of the DNA

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63

okazaki fragment

DNA fragment that is synthesized in short stretches on the lagging strand

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64

primase

enzyme that synthesizes the RNA primer; the primer is needed for DNA pol to start synthesis of a new DNA strand

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65

primer

short stretch of nucleotides that is required to initiate replication; in the case of replication, the primer has RNA nucleotides

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66

replication fork

y-shaped structure formed during initiation of replication

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67

single-strand binding protein

during replication, protein that binds to the single-stranded DNA; this helps in keeping the two strands of DNA apart so that they may serve as templates

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68

sliding clamp

ring-shaped protein that holds the DNA pol on the DNA strand

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69

telomerase

enzyme that contains a catalytic part and an inbuilt RNA template; it functions to maintain telomeres at chromosome ends

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70

telomere

DNA at the end of linear chromosomes

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71

topoisomerase

enzyme that prevents overwinding of DNA when DNA replication is taking place

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72

transformation

process in which external DNA is taken up by a cell

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73

transition substitution

when a purine is replaced with a purine or a pyrimidine is replaced with another pyrimidine

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74

transversion substitution

when a purine is replaced by a pyrimidine or a pyrimidine is replaced by a purine

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75

HELI♡case [helicase]

during replication, this enzyme helps to open up the DNA helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds

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76

lagging strand

during replication, the strand that is replicated in short fragments and away from the replication fork

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77

3' UTR

3' untranslated region; region just downstream of the protein-coding region in an RNA molecule that is not translated

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78

5' cap

a methylated guanosine triphosphate (GTP) molecule that is attached to the 5' end of a messenger RNA to protect the end from degradation

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79

5' UTR

5' untranslated region; region just upstream of the protein-coding region in an RNA molecule that is not translated

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80

activator

protein that binds to prokaryotic operators to increase transcription

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81

catabolite activator protein (CAP)

protein that complexes with cAMP to bind to the promoter sequences of operons which control sugar processing when glucose is not available

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82

cis-acting element

transcription factor binding sites within the promoter that regulate the transcription of a gene adjacent to it

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83

dicer

enzyme that chops the pre-miRNA into the mature form of the miRNA

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84

DNA methylation

epigenetic modification that leads to gene silencing; a process involving adding a methyl group to the DNA molecule

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85

enhancer

segment of DNA that is upstream, downstream, perhaps thousands of nucleotides away, or on another chromosome that influence the transcription of a specific gene

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86

epigenetic

heritable changes that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence

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87

eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2)

protein that binds first to an mRNA to initiate translation

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88

gene expression

processes that control the turning on or turning off of a gene

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89

guanine diphosphate (GDP)

molecule that is left after the energy is used to start translation

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90

guanine triphosphate (GTP)

energy-providing molecule that binds to eIF-2 and is needed for translation

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91

histone acetylation

epigenetic modification that leads to gene expression; a process involving adding or removing an acetyl functional group

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92

inducible operon

operon that can be activated or repressed depending on cellular needs and the surrounding environment

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93

initiation complex

protein complex containing eIF-2 that starts translation

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94

lac operon

operon in prokaryotic cells that encodes genes required for processing and intake of lactose

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95

large 60S ribosomal subunit

second, larger ribosomal subunit that binds to the RNA to translate it into protein

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96

microRNA (miRNA)

small RNA molecules (approximately 21 nucleotides in length) that bind to RNA molecules to degrade them

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97

myc

oncogene that causes cancer in many cancer cells

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98

negative regulator

protein that prevents transcription

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99

operator

region of DNA outside of the promoter region that binds activators or repressors that control gene expression in prokaryotic cells

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100

operon

collection of genes involved in a pathway that are transcribed together as a single mRNA in prokaryotic cells

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