BLG 311 ch 1

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hydrocarbons

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105 Terms

1

hydrocarbons

molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen

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2

functional groups

specific groups of atoms attached to carbon backbones (C-C)

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3

types of functional groups

Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, methyl

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4

isomers

organic molecules having the some molecular or empirical formula can exist in different forms

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5

structural isomers

where the differences are in the actual structure of their carbon skeleton

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6

stereoicomers

have the same carbon skeleton but differ in how the groups attached to this skeleton are arranged in space.

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7

macromolecules

extremely large molecules, consisting of polymers of similar smaller molecules (monomers) linked by covalent bonds

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8

monomers

when ____ are covalently linked together, they form a polymer

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9

polymers

a long molecule built by linking together a large number of small, similar chemical subunits called momomers

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10

carbohydrates

starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin

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11

nucleic acids

DNA, RNA

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12

proteins

functional, structures

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13

lipids

fats, phospholipids, prostaglandins, steroids, terpenes

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14

starch and slycogen

subunit: glucose

function: energy storage

example: potatoes

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15

cellulose

subunit: glucose

function: structural support in plant cell walls

Example: paper or strings of celery

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chitin

subunit: modified glucose

function: structural support

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17

DNA

subunit: nucleotides

function: encodes genes

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18

RNA

subunit: nucleotides

function: needed for gene expression

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19

functional

subunit: amino acids

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function: catalysis and transport

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example: hemoglobin

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structural

subunit: amino acids

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function: support

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example: hair and silk

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fats

subunit: glycerol and three fatty acids

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26

function: energy storage

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example: butter and corn oil and soap

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phospholipids

subunit: glycerol, two fatty acids, phosphate, and polar R groups

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function: cell membranes

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example: prostidylcholine

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prostaglandins

subunit: five-carbon rings with two nonpolar tails

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function: chemical messengers

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33

example: prostagladin E (PGE)

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steroids

subunit: four fused carbon rings

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function: membrtanes and hormones

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example: cholesterol and estrogen

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terpenes

subunit: long carbon chains

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function: pigments and structural support

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example: carotene and rubber

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dehydration synthesis

removes OH and H during synthesis of a new molecule. this is how monomers form polymers.

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41

hydrolysis

breaks a covalent bond by adding OH and H. This is how polymers can also be broken back down into monomers

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42

protein functions

enzyme cataysis, defense, transport, support, motion, regulation, storage

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enzyme catalysis

facilitates chemical reaction

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defense

that recognize foreign cells

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transport

transports small molecule and ions

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support

form the matrix of skin, tendons, etc.

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motion

by sliding or contracting allow movement inside the cells

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regulation

hormones that are intercellular regulations

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storage

Ca++ and iron are stored by binding to proteins

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50

proteins

are polymers of amino acids

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51

peptide bonds

a protein is composed of one or more long chains of amino acids linked by ______

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52

polypeptidtes

these are the chains that hold the protein together

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nonpolar and nonaromatic

Alanine (Ala), valine (val), isoleucine (ile), leucine (leu), glycine (gly)

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54

nonpolar and aromatic

phenylalanine (phe)

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tryptophan (trp)

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nonpolar and special function

proline (pro)

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methionine (met)

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polar uncharged and nonaromatic

serine (ser)

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threonine (the)

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asparagine (asn)

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glutamine (gln)

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polar uncharged and aromatic

tyrosine (tyr)

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polar uncharged and special function

cysteine (cys)

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charged and nonaromatic

glutamic acid (glu)

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aspartic acid (asp)

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distidine (his)

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lysine (lys)

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arginine (arg)

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shape

protein function is determined by its _____

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70

primary

specific amino acid sequence

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secondary

folding of amino acid chains primary due to H--H

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72

motifs

folds or creases (super secondary structure)

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foiling and coiling

due to interactions among R groups and surrounding water

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Interactions between R groups

Hydrogen bonds

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Di- sulfide bridges

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ionic bonds

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van der waal's forces

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hydrophobic exclusion

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tertiary

final folded shape of globular protein (3-D)

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80

domains

functional units coded by an exon

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quaternary

forms when two or more polypeptide chains (subunits) associate to form a functional protein.

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domains

functional units within a larger structure

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Chaperone proteins

help other proteins to fold correctly

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84

monosaccharides

the simplest of the carbohydrates

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85

dissaccharide

two monosaccharides linked together

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polyaccharides

are longer plyners made up of monosaccharides that have been joined through dehydration reactions

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starch

a storage polysaccharide, consists entirely of alpha-glucose molecules linked in long chains

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cellulose

a structural polysaccharide, also cosists of beta- glucose molecules linked in chains

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glysogen

the comparable molecule to startch in animals

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90

chitin

the structural material found in arthropods and many fungi

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RNA

ribonucleic acid

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nucleic acid

a chain of five-carbon sugars linked together b phosphodiester bonds with nitrogenous base protruding from each sugar

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adenosine triphosphate

the energy currency of the cell

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amino acids

contain an amino group and an acidic carboxyl group

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helix

peptides that are coiled into a spiral

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beta sheet

a secondary structure can occur between regions of peptide aligned next to each other to form a planar structure

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tertiaty structure

the final folded shape of a globular protein

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98

denaturation

if a proteins environment is altered, the protein may change its shape or even unfold completely

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99

dissociation

for quartnary structure, that may be dissociated without losing their individual tertiary structure

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100

lipids

a somewhat loosely defined group of moecules with one main chemical characteristic. they are insoluble in water.

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