Exam 1: Psych of the Offender

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Fields included in Forensic Science

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106 Terms

1

Fields included in Forensic Science

Forensic linguist

Forensic anthropology

Forensic pathology

Forensic nurses

Forensic Entomology

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Forensic linguist

analyze handwriting

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forensic anthropology

examines human remains

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forensic pathology

examining what happened to the victim

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forensic nurses

gather physical evidence of harm to the body

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forensic entomology

the study of insects (relates to real estate suits regarding termites)

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What are forensics responsible for?

Seeks to determine the what, why, and how; responsible for examining and analyzing evidence related to criminal cases and providing expert opinions in legal proceedings

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Broad definition of forensic psychology

studying the intersection of psychology and forensics (everybody)

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Specific definition of forensic psychology

clinical psychologists that work with the offender or the criminal justice system

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Catell

Eyewitness memory experiment; considered the father of psychological testing and was the first person to use psychology in the legal system

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Hugo Munsterburg

expert testimony (on the witness stand book); argued that psychology could be used to improve the legal system, including the selection and training of jurors, eyewitness testimony, and lie detection

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Consult with juvenile courts

Munsterberg also suggested that psychologists could help the juvenile offenders

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polygraph

Martson

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Screening of police officers

William Marston developed the polygraph or lie detector test which was originally used for screening police officers

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American board of forensic psychology

provides board certification in forensic psychology (2001)

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Psychologist

mental health professional who has obtained a doctoral degree in psychology and can provide psychological evaluations, testing, and counseling services

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Psychiatrist

medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and can prescribe medication

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Social worker

mental health professional who has obtained a master’s degree in social work and can provide counseling and case management services

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Psychology of crime and delinquency

Science of behavioral and mental processes of adult and juvenile, focuses on understanding the causes and prevention of criminal behavior and delinquency

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Victimology and victim services

Focuses on providing services and support to victims of crime, including counseling and advocacy

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Correctional Psychology

Focuses on the psychological assessment and treatment of offenders in correctional settings

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Legal psychology

Focuses on the intersection of psychology and the law, including issues related to witness testimony, jury selection, and trial consultation

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Police and Public Safety

Principles to law enforcement and public safety, assessment and evaluations, clinical intervention, operational support, organization consultation, history of psychology and police relationship, systemic racism, and police brutality

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Forensic School Psychology

Focuses on the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents in the legal system, also looks for juveniles that are a risk to others and self

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Actus Reus

intentional commitment of the act

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Mens Rea

conscious awareness of committing the act (guilty mind)

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Juvenile delinquency definition

behavior against the criminal code committed by non-adults

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Juvenile delinquency social definition

youthful behaviors: Aggressive, truancy, petty theft, vandalism, drug abuse

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Juvenile delinquency legal definition

juvenile delinquent

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Juvenile delinquency Psychological/psychiatric definition

conduct disorder, antisocial behavior (serious habitual behavior, harmful to others), antisocial personality disorder (18 and over)

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5 categories of unlawful acts of juvenile offending

  • Vandalism

  • Unlawful acts against people

  • Against public order (disturbing the peace ex loud music and loitering)

  • Drug offenses

  • Status offenses (drinking, curfew, smoking, truancy) can’t get in trouble for these when you get older

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Executive Function (frontal lobe, developed by the age of 25)

i. Cognitive function of the brain ii. Multidimensional:

  1. Working memory

  2. Cognitive memory

  3. Inhibitory memory a. Self-control and regulation

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How does executive function develop and play a role in juvenile delinquency?

it involves the ability to control impulses and make decisions. Deficits in executive functioning can lead to risk taking behavior and poor decision making

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Moffit Developmental Theory

LCP’s and AL’s

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LPC

life course persistent

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AL

adolescence limited

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Steinberg’s Dual Systems Model

a.     Socioemotional network

b.     Cognitive Network

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Socioemotional network

hormones in puberty

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Cognitive Network

hampered by socioemotional

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U.S. Supreme Court Cases

abolished the death penalty for juveniles and abolished life sentences; to rehabilitate juveniles

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Developmental factors in the formation of persistent criminal behaviors

  • ADHD

  • ODD

  • Conduct disorder

  • Cognitive ability

  • Social influences

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ADHD

  • attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

  • excessive motor activity, impulsivity, inattention

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ODD

operational defiant disorder

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Cognitive ability

  • Intelligence- various types and features (emotional intelligence)

  • Hostile attribution bias

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Social influences

physical abuse increases risk, emotional warmth leads to positive outcomes, poverty, powerful risk factor

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Psychopath

no conscience or feelings of guilt

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Sociopath

feelings of guilt and conscience but still continue the behaviors

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General characteristics of a psychopath

selfishness, frequent decit, callousness, failure to learn, unreliable, inability to love, lack of guilt, low anxiety, superficial charm, fail to follow life plan

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Offending patterns of psychopaths

persistent and serious offending, manifest violent behavior, psychopathy and sexual offending, high recidivism in psychopaths

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Juvenile psychopathy

  • Research is limited

  • Callousness is similar to adults

  • Delinquency is common

  • Conduct problems

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Males vs females

females are more passive-aggressive and men are typically more overtly aggressive

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Racial/ethnic differences in psychopathy

  • black males exhibit similarity to white males,

  • black males tend to be less impulsive

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Rehabilitation/treatment of psychopathy

difficult to treat, reoffend faster than non-psychopaths

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Violence

the use of physical force with intent to harm

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Aggression

any behavior intended to cause harm or injury

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Criminal trends over the last decade

four major types of crime: homicide, aggravated assault, robbery, and sexual assault. Book says that back in the 80s and 90s crime rose rapidly and began to decline in the 2000s (exam is graded on the book), in present day crime is starting to rise again.

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Gender and Race differences in criminal violence

suggest men are more likely to engage in violent crime than women, and there are disparities in the treatment and punishment of different racial and ethnic groups

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Causes of violence

  • Neurobiological

  • Socialization

  • Cognitive

  • Situational

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Neurobiological

brain damage or dysfunction

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Socialization

environment, upbringing, experience in IPV in childhood, exposure to violent media, gender (violence is accepted in society by men)

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Cognitive

thought process, thinking patterns

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Situational

stress or aggression in others

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Media violence

Observational learning through TV, video and film

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Psychological violence/hostile environment in the workplace

non-physically aggressive, intimidating, derogatory, or offensive interpersonal behavior that is psychosocial in nature (bullying,verbal mistreatment, social undermining, ostracism, harassment, and spreading rumors

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Workplace homicide and motives for it

robbery, theft and other criminal activity

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Non-fatal workplace violence

assault, sexual assault

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murder

unlawful killing with malice

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manslaughter

unintended killing from unjustifiable conduct

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First degree murder

planning and premeditation of the murder, seen as a capital offense and punishable by death or life in prison

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Second degree murder

suggests less planning and premeditation, but still requiring an intent to kill

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Serial murder (4 major typologies)

  • visionary

  • mission oriented

  • hedonistic

  • power and control

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visionary serial murder

delusions and hallucinations

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Mission oriented serial murder

to ‘rid the world’ of these individuals (ex. The guy who killed a lot of prostitutes)

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Hedonistic serial murder

involves gratification, usually sexual gratification

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Spree murder multiple different locations with cool off periods in between each murder (different from serial killers because spree murders are random victims and serial murders typically fit a type description)

multiple different locations with cool off periods in between each murder (different from serial killers because spree murders are random victims and serial murders typically fit a type description)

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Mass murder

all at once (school shootings)

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Motives for mass murder

desire for fame, attention, or infamy among todays public mass shooters

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Reasons for increases in frequency of mass murder

a substantial increase in the availability of semiautomatic and assault weapons has occurred in recent years

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3 types of stalking

Erotomanic, love obsessional and simple obsessional

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Erotomanic

one that does it for sexual gratification

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Love obsessional

developed feelings for the victim and want them to love them back

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Simple obessional

not a romantic reason but still obsession

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Motive of stalking

to control, intimidate, or frighten their victims

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Characteristics of stalking

stalkers are male 87% of the time, victim is female 80% of the time, half of the female victims were stalked by a current or former marital or cohabitating partners who they’ve been physically assaulted by

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ways stalking stops

stalker finds new love interest or victim relocates

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prediction of violence in stalking

highest rate is intimate stalkers, stalkers with mental illness are less violent, juvenile stalkers are more violent

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Cyber stalking

online so it provides anonymity

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Physical bullying

hitting, spitting, kicking, punching, pushing, or taking/destroying personal items

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psychological bullying

blackmail

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verbal bullying

insults

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cyberbullying

bullying online

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Effects of cyberbullying

self-esteem issues, anxiety disorders, sleep problems, loneliness, depression, substance abuse, low academic achievement, low life satisfaction, and suicide attempts

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Family Violence

domestic violence (intrafamilial)

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Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

abuse by current or former girlfriend, boyfriend, or spouse

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Prevalence of IPV

high, women more likely victims than men

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Motivation for Domestic violence

  • Men- power and control

  • Women- self-defense, acting out of frustration

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Characteristics of batterers

experience with IPV in the past, impulsive, no coping skills, fewer resources, drug and alcohol addiction

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Treatment for batterers

Bipp- Intervention program and Denton County friends of the family for offenders of

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Warning signs of domestic violence

physical injuries, controlling behavior, and isolation from friends and family

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Similarities and differences between Same-sex IPV vs Opposite-sex IPV

similar in terms of prevalence and dynamics, but it may be more difficult for victims to seek help due to social stigma and lack of awareness

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