BIOL20/20N - Exam 1 (Chapters 1-4, & 9)

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Hippocrates

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268 Terms

1

Hippocrates

-"Father of Western medicine" -Believed that diseases had natural, not supernatural, causes.

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2

Thucydides

Observed that survivors of the Athenian plague were subsequently immune to the infection

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3

Marcus Vero

-Proposed that disease could be caused by certain minute creatures -Thought swamps might have tiny, disease-causing animals

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4

Antoine van Leeuwenhoek

First to develop a lens powerful enough to view microbes (or animalcules)

"wee little beasties"

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5

Louis Pasteur

-Fermentation -Pasteurization -Vaccines for the treatment of diseases, including rabies, in animals and humans -Swan-neck flask experiment

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6

Robert Koch

-First to demonstrate the connection between a single isolated microbe and a known human disease -Established a protocol to determine the caused of infectious disease. Both scientists contributed significantly to the acceptance of the germ theory of disease -Koch postulates -Anthrax -Cholera -Tuberculosis

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7

fermentation (anaerobic respiration)

Process by which simple sugars are converted into alcohol

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8

Carl Linnaeus

-"Father of Binomial Nomenclature" -His original classification of the natural world consisted of plants, animals, and minerals

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9

Three Major Domains

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

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10

Kingdoms of Eukarya

Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

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11

Prokaryotes - Bacteria

-Genetic material (DNA) is not enclosed within a true nucleus -Most have cell walls that contain peptidoglycan

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12

Coccus

What's the shape of this bacteria?

<p>What&apos;s the shape of this bacteria?</p>
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13

Bacillus

What's the shape of this bacteria?

<p>What&apos;s the shape of this bacteria?</p>
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14

Vibrio

What's the shape of this bacteria?

<p>What&apos;s the shape of this bacteria?</p>
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15

Coccobacillus

What's the shape of this bacteria?

<p>What&apos;s the shape of this bacteria?</p>
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16

Spirillum

What's the shape of this bacteria?

<p>What&apos;s the shape of this bacteria?</p>
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17

Spirochete

What's the shape of this bacteria?

<p>What&apos;s the shape of this bacteria?</p>
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18

Prokaryotes - Archaea

-Found in every habitat on earth (including extreme habitats) -Lack peptidoglycan cell walls -No known human pathogen

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19

Eukaryotes

-Cells contain a nucleus -Uni- or multicellular

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20

Protists

-Eukaryotes that are not plants, animal, or fungi -Algae and Protozoa

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21

Algae

-Plant-like protists -Cellulose cell walls -Use photosynthesis for energy

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22

Protozoans

-Animal-like protists -May be motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella -Some are pathogens

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23

Fungi

-Yeast and Mold -Cell walls are usually made of chitin

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24

Viruses

-Don't fall under any of the Domains -Acellular (not composed of cells) -DNA and RNA core

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25

Bacteriaology

Study of bacteria

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26

Mycology

study of fungi

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27

Protozoology

study of protozoa

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28

Virology

study of viruses

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29

Pathology

study of protozoa and parasitic worms

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30

Brightfield Microscopes

When using this, microorganisms will appear colored against a bright background

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31

Darkfield Microscopes

When using this, the field will be dark and the organism will be outlined by the dark field

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32

Electron Microscopes

-Uses beams of electrons for energy -Uses a vacuum as a medium -Uses magnets for objectives -Image is shown on a screen

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33

Differences between Light & Electron microscopes

  1. Energy; LMs use plain white light while EMs use beams of electrons

  2. Medium; LMs use air while EMs use a vacuum

  3. Objectives; Glass lens in LMs while magnets in EMs

  4. Image display; LMs have ocular lens to see the image while EMs use a screen to show the image

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34

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) & Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Types of electron microscope

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35

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

Used to view thin specimens through which electrons can pass generating a projection image

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36

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to generate a variety of signals at the surface of solid specimens

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37

Reflection

The bouncing back of a wave when it hits a surface through which it cannot pass

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38

Transmission

Lightwave travels through a material

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39

Absorbance

Material captures the energy of a light wave

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40

Opaque

When most (or all) of the light is absorbed

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41

Transparent

Allowing all the light to pass through

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42

Refraction

The bending of light when it passes through one medium to another

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43

Refractive Index

a measure of the light-bending ability of a medium

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44

D

Which letter represents a refracted ray of light?

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45

C

Which letter represents a reflected ray of light?

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46

Magnification

the ability of a lens to enlarge the image of an object when compared to the real object

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47

Resolution

-Ability to tell that 2 separate points are separate -Affected by wavelength and numerical aperture

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48

Shorter wavelengths have more energy while longer wavelengths have less energy

What is the correlation between energy and wavelength on the light spectrum?

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49

Robert Hooke

-Coined the term "cell" -Observed dead cork cells under a microscope

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50

Zaccharias and Hans Janssen

-May have invented the telescope, the simple microscope, and the compound microscope -Historical evidence is inconclusive

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51
  1. Eyepiece

  2. Revolving nose piece

  3. Objective lens

  4. Coarse focus

  5. Fine Focus

  6. Stage

  7. Illuminator

  8. Condenser and Diaphragm

  9. X-Y mechanical stage knobs

  10. Rheostat

Label the following with the following terms:

Coarse focus Condenser Diaphragm Eyepiece (ocular lens) Fine focus Illuminator Objective lens Revolving nose piece Rheostat Stage X-Y mechanical stage knobs

<p>Label the following with the following terms:</p><p>Coarse focus Condenser Diaphragm Eyepiece (ocular lens) Fine focus Illuminator Objective lens Revolving nose piece Rheostat Stage X-Y mechanical stage knobs</p>
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52

Condenser

Gathers the light coming in from the illuminator and concentrates that light into a light cone on the specimen

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53

Diaphragm

Controls the amount of light passing through the opening of the stage and, consequently, the numerical aperture of the condenser

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54

Rheostat

Controls the intensity of the light source on the microscope

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55

10x, 40x, 100x

What are the magnifications of the 3 objectives in a microscope?

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56

Total Magnification

Objective lens X Ocular lens

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57

Oil Immersion Lens

Improves resolutions by reducing refractive index

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58

1000x

What is the total magnification of an object viewed using a 10x ocular lens and a 100x objective lens on a brightfield microscope?

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59

High numerical aperture and short wavelength

What is needed to see a clear image under a microscope?

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60

Stains

Used to increase contrast between the cells and the background, making them easier to see under the microscope

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Simple, differential, special

Three types of staining techniques

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62

Simple stains

Will generally make all of the organisms in a sample appear to be the same if the sample contains more than one type of organism

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63

Differential stains

Two organisms in a differentially stained sample may appear to be different colors

E.g. endospore staining, flagella staining, and capsule staining

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64

Acidic, Basic, Gram, & Acid-fast

Special stains (4)

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65

Acidic stain

Negatively charged stain -Stains positively charged molecules and structures like proteins -Result can be either a positive or negative stain, depending on the cell's chemistry

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Basic stain

-Positively charged stain -Stains negatively charged molecules and structures like nucleic acids and proteins -Results in a positive stain

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67

Crystal violet, Iodine, alcohol, safranin

What is the Gram stain order?

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68

Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)

-Uses a probe passed horizontally at a constant distance just above the specimen while the intensity of the current is measured -Can map the structure of surfaces at the atomic level -Works best on conducting materials but can also be used to examine organic materials such as DNA, if fixed on surface

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69

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

-Can be used in several ways, including using a laser focused on a cantilever to measure the bending of the tip or a probe passed above the specimen while the height needed to maintain a constant current is measured -Useful to observe specimens at the atomic level and can be more easily used with nonconducting samples

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70

AFM

This image was probably achieved with what type of microscope?

<p>This image was probably achieved with what type of microscope?</p>
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71

STM

This image was probably achieved with what type of microscope?

<p>This image was probably achieved with what type of microscope?</p>
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72

Iodine

What mordant is used in gram-staining?

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73

Alcohol

What decolorizer is used in gram-staining?

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74

Safranin

What is the last thing that is added when doing gram-stains?

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75

Blue/Purple

What color are gram-positive cells?

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76

Red/Pink

What color are gram-negative cells?

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77

Coccus

Describe the bacteria

<p>Describe the bacteria</p>
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78

Diplococci

Describe the bacteria

<p>Describe the bacteria</p>
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79

Streptococci

Describe the bacteria

<p>Describe the bacteria</p>
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80

Straphylococci

Describe the bacteria

<p>Describe the bacteria</p>
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81

Tetrad

Describe the bacteria

<p>Describe the bacteria</p>
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82

Bacillus

Describe the bacteria

<p>Describe the bacteria</p>
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83

Streptobacilli

Describe the bacteria

<p>Describe the bacteria</p>
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84

Monotrichous

Describe the following

<p>Describe the following</p>
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85

Ampithrichous

Describe the following

<p>Describe the following</p>
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86

Lophotrichous

Describe the following

<p>Describe the following</p>
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87

Peritrichous

Describe the following

<p>Describe the following</p>
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88

Theory of Spontaneous Generation

Stated that organisms arose from nonliving matter as long as it had "breath"

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89

Francesco Redi

Demonstrated that maggots were the offspring of flies, not products of spontaneous generation with his "meat in a jar" experiment

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90

Miasma Theory

Before the discovery of microorganisms, scientists believed diseases came from particles in decomposing matter that spread through the air "poisonous air"

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91

Germ Theory

States that diseases result from microbial infection. Microbes in the air cause disease and can spoil food. The way to prevent these diseases is by washing your hands

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92

John Needham

Heated broth in sealed flasks. When the broth became cloudy with microorganisms, he mistakenly concluded that they developed spontaneously from the broth

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93

Lazzaro Spallazani

Recreated Needham's experiment and obtained results that countered Needham's.

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94

Swan Flask Experiment

Louis Pasteur did this experiment to refute the long-disputed theory of spontaneous generation.

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95

Theory of Biogenesis

states that only living organisms can produce other living organisms

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96

Schleiden

Described plant tissues as being composed of cells

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97

Schwann

Observed cells in animal tissue

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98

Schleiden's and Schwann's Observation

Laid the foundation for the idea that cells are the fundamental components of plants and animals

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99

Rudolf Virchow

Popularized the cell theory in an 1855 essay entitled "Cellular Pathology"

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100

Robert Remak

Came up with the idea that all cells come from pre-existing cells

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