KRS 354 exam 1

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What is the Basement Membrane? (Function, location, etc)

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1

What is the Basement Membrane? (Function, location, etc)

- Mechanical function

- Superficial to the muscle fiber

- Attaches the muscle fiber to the endomysium (structural component)

- Stops signaling of Action potential by releasing Acetylcholinesterase which breaks down ACH by hydrolysis

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2

What is the Plasmalemma? a. (Function, location, etc)

- Gate keeper (true cell membrane), allows what goes in and out of the cell

- Located deep in the muscle fiber

- Fuses with the tendon

- Transmits Action potential down the cell

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3

Where are satellite cells located?

outside of the sarcolemma under muscle basement membrane

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4

What are satellite cells?

They are undifferentiated cells that can turn into nuclei or muscle fibers to help with muscle growth (hypertrophy)

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5

what is syncytia?

When a muscle cell or fiber contains more than one nuclei in order to support the large muscle fiber and helps with muscle development

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6

what is the purpose of the sarcoplasm?

- regulates the concentration of calcium

- determines whether muscle contraction occurs

- It is a gelatin like substance that stores glycogen, myoglobin, other proteins, minerals, fats and organelles

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7

What is the purpose of T tubules?

- conduct impulses from cell surface

- calcium release for SR

- Gets rid of waste products

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8

what are 3 protein molecules that connected to actin called?

troponin, tropomyosin, and nebulin

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9

Troponin

calcium binds

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tropomyosin

covers myosin head binding site

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11

nebulin

anchoring protein, keeps actin together

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12

What is a sarcomere?

basic contractile unit comprised of thin actin and thick myosin filaments; contractile repeating unit of a striated muscle fiber of myofibril, between two z-lines

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13

what is a motor unit?

A motor unit is an alpha-motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it directly innervates

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14

I band

The light area around the Z-line consisting thin actin filaments not overlapped by thick myosin filaments

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15

A band

The dark area which spans the length of the thick myosin and I always constant

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H zone

The zone in the center of the A-band where myosin are not overlapped by the actin

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17

Z line

It forms the periphery of the sarcomere where the thin actin filaments attach; ends of sarcomere

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M line

attachment site for thick filaments, center of A band (middle of sarcomere)

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19

Summation

- the effect of several electrical impulses on a junction

- Ex. When something is heavier than it seems and you do a slight pause to gain more force

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20

Tetanus

- a muscle contraction when a motor nerve emits action potentials, it is continuous, the muscle is not relaxed

- Ex. isometric holds

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21

sarcomere during concentric contraction

muscles shorten and the myosin heads draw actin towards each other making the sarcomere shorten

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22

sarcomere during eccentric contraction

myosin cross-bridges attach and the actin move away from each other lengthening the sarcomere

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23

ion concentrations inside cell

potassium- 150 mM

sodium- 15 mM

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24

ion concentrations outside cell

potassium- 5 mM

sodium- 150 mM

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25

characteristics of type 1 fibers

-

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26

Characteristics of type 2 fibers

- >=300 muscle fibers

- fast twitch fibers

- low oxidative capacity

- high glycolytic capacity

- More developed SR = more Ca2+ released

- Second to develop

larger sized neurons

Lower resistance to fatigue

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27

is the hydrolysis of ATP an exergonic or endergonic reaction?

exergonic reaction because energy is being released

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28

is phosphorylation of ATP an exergonic or endergonic reaction?

endergonic reaction because energy is absorbed

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29

first law of thermodynamics

energy neither can be created nor destroyed, it can be converted from one form to another

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30

second law of thermodynamics

entropy always increases in an isolated system

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31

what is the purpose of enzymes?

speed up the rate of chemical reactions and aid in digestion and metabolism

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32

what is LDH?

an enzyme that catalyzes lactate to pyruvate, has an important role in the body's energy/damages tissues.

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33

what is the composition of air?

- 79% Nitrogen (N2)

- 20.93% Oxygen (O2)

- 0.03% Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

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34

what is the Haldane transformation?

- determine volume of air ventilated, measures resting and maximum oxygen consumption

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35

What are the three components to determine VO2?

- Volume air expired

- O2% in expired air

- CO2% in expired air

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36

what is RER?

respiratory exchange rate

- tells us what substrate is used during activity

- VCO2 expired/VO2 consued

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37

L O2 ---> kcal

1L O2= 5 kcal

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38

Protein calorie value

4 kcal

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39

carbohydrates (CHO) calorie value

4 kcal

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40

fat calorie value

9 kcal

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41

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) conversion (mL/kg/min)

- 3.5 ml/kg/min= 1 MET

- Energy required to maintain resting functions

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42

ventilatory threshold (VT)

- the point at which H+ production increases and the body is not able to buffer against acidosis which increases VE and CO12

- measure used to characterize endurance atheletes and predict performance

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43

What causes fatigue?

- substrate depletion

accumulation of byproduct (Pi and H+)

- failure of sarcomere

- CNS/gov theory

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44

layers of muscle

a. Muscle belly-->Fascicle-->Muscle fiber

b. Epimysium--> Perimysium-->Endomysium

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45

type 2b fibers

fastest twitch fibers

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46

what are the rate limiting enzymes for glycolysis?

- phosphofructokinase (PFK)

- Phosphorylase

- hexokinase

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47

time of exercise for phosphagen system

high intensity exercise lasting

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48

time of exercise for glycolysis

exercise lasting 2-3 minutes

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49

time of exercise for aerobic

prolonged exercise lasting 90-180 minutes

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50

DOMS

delayed onset muscle soreness, 24-48 hours after

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51

muscle spindle

a receptor parallel to the muscle that responds to a stretch

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52

automatic nervous system

controls involuntary actions

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53

somatic

voluntary

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54

Parasympathetic

- rest and digest

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55

sympathetic

- fight or flight

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56

premotor cortex

The region controlling learned motor skills.

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57

primary motor cortex

the section of the frontal lobe responsible for voluntary movement

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58

What are the rate limiting enzymes in the Krebs cycle?

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

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59

Depolarization graph

depolarization (absolute refractory period), overshoot, repolarization, hyperpolarization (relative refractory period)

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60

What is the Relative Refactory Phase and the voltage

another action potential can be sent; -50--55

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61

infrafusal muscle fibers

serve as specialized sensory organs that detect the amount and rate of change in length of a muscle

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62

extrafusal muscle fibers

surrounding muscle fibers supplied by alpha motor neurons

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63

Cholinergic deficit (? lbs deficit -> ? kcals)

1 lbs deficit -> 3500 kcal

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64

What is the body's preferred source of energy?

carbohydrates

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65

Pyruvate

end product of glycolysis

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66

What determines the type of muscle fiber?

The fiber is determined by the type of myosin ATPase

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67

Which athlete has more type II muscle fibers?

Athletes who do exercises that do exercises/actions less than 30 sec. (Gymnast, powerlifters)

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68

Which athlete has more type I muscle fibers?

Athletes who do exercises longer than 30 sec and need more endurance (Long distance runners)

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69

What are the rate limiting enzymes in the phosphagen system?

1. Creatine Kinase (CK)

2. Adeylate Kinase (AK)

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70

What are the rate limiting enzymes in the ETC?

Cytochrome C Oxidase

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71

How many ATP are produced from the complete metabolism of glucose?

- Glucose = 32 ATP

- Glycogen = 33 ATP

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72

Which reactions cost an ATP in the 1st phase of glycolysis?

- Glucose = -2 ATP

- Glycogen = -1 ATP

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73

How many NADH and FADH are produced the complete metabolism of glucose? Glycogen?

Glucose and Glycogen produces 10 NADH and 2 FADH

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74

How many ATP are derived from NADH and FADH via the ETC?

NADH produces 2.5 ATP and FADH produces 1.5 ATP

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75

What is the end product of the last step of anaerobic glycolysis? What is its fate?

The end product is pyruvate. If there is too much pyruvate, then lactic acid will occur making the body more fatigue. If the body has more time and has O2, it will enter the krebs cycle

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76

Where does glycolysis occur?

Cytoplasm

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77

Where does the Krebs cycle and the ETC occur?

mitochondria

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78

When is each metabolic system used? ie: phosphagen, glycolysis, aerobic

- Phosphagen system:

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79

When does Cori cycle occur?

when you exceed the amount of pyruvate

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80

What is the function of the dendrites?

Receive the impulses from another

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81

What is the function of the axon?

Sends the impulse away from the cell body

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82

What is the function of the myelin sheath?

Helps AP move faster

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83

What is the function of the axon terminals?

Contains numerous vesicle that contain neurotransmitters and when a stimulus has reached, they will release the neurotransmitters to communicate to the next neuron or muscle fiber

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84

What is the resting membrane potential of a neuron?

- Overall: -70 mV

- Na+ inside: 15 mM

- Na+ outside: 150 mM

- K+ inside: 150 mM

- K+ outside: 5 mM

- at rest: Na+/K+ pump- 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in

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85

What is the all or nothing principle?

If the neuron does not reach the threshold or required voltage, action potential will not occur.

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86

What is the absolute refractory period?

When a neuron is unable to respond to another stimulus

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87

What is the relative refractory period?

- When Na+ gates are closed and K+ gates are open

- The segment of the axon can potentially respond to a new stimulus but the stimulus must be have a greater magnitude to create the AP

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88

What is the differences between efferent vs. afferent nerves?

- Afferent nerves are nerves that will send signals to the brain and or sensory nerves.

- Efferent are motor nerves that activate after the CNS sends a signal.

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89

What is the order of an AP? (6 steps)

RMP--> Depolarization--> Overshoot--> Repolarization--> Hyperpolarization--> Returns to RMP

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90

What happens during depolarization?

Voltage gated ion channels are opened by an electrical stimulus

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91

What happens during repolarization?

- Na+ channels close and limits the amount entering the cell making the cell negative

- K+ channels open and K+ move out of the cell

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92

What happens in hyperpolarization?

When the membrane potential is more negative the RMP

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93

What is VO2max?

The best measurement of Maximal exercise capacity and cardiorespiratory endurance or aerobic fitness. Maximal Oxygen uptake

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94

What is the length-tension relationship?

The baseline length correlating to the amount of force. Too short or too stretched out sarcomere will reduce the force production

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95

Can AMP be used for energy?What is the role?

- AMP cannot be used as energy because of how strong the bond is

- helps with phosphorylase and PFK

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96

What is Beta-oxidation?

the process of Converting fatty acids to Acetyl-CoA (Fat metabolism in Krebs cycle)

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97

Which step represent the convergence of glycolysis and glycogenolysis?

Glucose-6-phosphate

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98

What is the function of the axon hillock?

Determines if AP should occur

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99

when is an action potential fired? How does this occur?

- Threshold at -50mV to -55mV

- dendrites are receiving stimulus

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100

Compare/contrast the function of muscle spindles and GTO.

- Muscle spindles: Located in muscle belly (intramural fibers: are not contractile, extrafusal fibers: contractile); responds to stretch; stimulatory mechanism: enhances force; always working

- GTO(Golgi tendon organ): Located in the tendon; Responds to tension or strain; inhibitory (failing PR-> looks like throwing weight on ground): IPSP to agonist, EPSP to antagonist; lifting weights

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