motivation and emotion

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101 Terms

1

instincts

need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal

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2

drive reduction theory

physiological need → drive → drive reducing behaviors

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3

primary v secondary drives

primary satisfy biological needs, secondary satisfy learned needs

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4

incentive theory

people do things becaue they are motivated by external rewards and punishments, behaviorist perspective, incentive is external reward

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5

arousal theory/yerkes dodson

we are motivated to do things by seeking optimum levels of excitement or arousal, an organism’s performance can be improved if that organism is aroused in some manner

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6

maslow’s hierarchy of needs

physiological, safety, love, esteem, self actualization

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7

physiological motives (primary)

food and water

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8

hunger motivation

if you are extremely hungry, nothing else really matters

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9

lateral v ventromedial hypothalamus

lateral- feeding center, causes sensation of hunger

ventromedial- causes the sensation of fullness

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10

ancel keys experiment

cut caloric intake in half, the people developed anxiety and depression, they could only think about food, suported maslow’s hierarchy of needs

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11

set point theory

theory that the hypothalamus wants to maintain a certain ideal body weight

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12

anorexia nervosa

characterized by a strong desire to low weight and habitually restrictive eating

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13

bulimia nervosa

characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating

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14

obesity

severely overweight, often over 100 pounds the weight they should be, threatens health

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15

thirst

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16

pain

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17

sexual orientation, nature v nurture

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18

sexual response cycle, masters and johnson

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19

neurology of sexual behavior

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20

sex traits males v females

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21

imagined stimuli

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22

social motives

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23

achievement motivation

meeting personal goals and acquiring new skills/knowledge

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24

affiliation motive

the need to belong, we need to have community, as a result we try to make favorable impressions

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25

intrinsic motivation

when we do something because we want it and not for some external reward

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26

extrinsic motivation

we do something because we expect some external reward or punishment such as money or praise

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27

over justification effect

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28

social conflict situations

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29

approach-approach conflicts

have to choose one option between two desirable outcomes

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30

avoidance-avoidance conflicts

have to choose between two unattractive outcomes

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31

approach avoidance conflicts

one event has attractive and unattractive features

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32

emotions

physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, conscious experiences

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33

evolutionary theories (adaptive and survival skills)

believe the pleasure of sex is our genes’ way of preserving and spreading themselves, males tend to seek mates who appear fertile is a general assumption

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34

james lange theory

stimulus → arousal → emotion

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35

cannon bard theory

stimulus → emotion and arousalf

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36

opponent process theory of emotion

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37

schechter singer two factor theory

stimulus → arousal and cognitive label → emotion

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38

zajonc and ledoux and emotion

stimulus → brain (thalamus and amygdala)

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39

fear

is adaptive, can bind people, fear of injury can protect from harm, can learn through conditioning

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40

aggression

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41

anger

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42

empathy

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43

happiness

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44

love

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45

health psychology

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46

stress

any circumstance that may be real or perceived and threatens one’s well being, psychological states cause physical illness, physical or mental changes that occur in response to a challenging or threatening situation

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47

selve’s general adaption sydrome

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48

holmes and rahe’s social readjustment rating

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49

type a personalities

a term used for competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, anger prone people that stress easily

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50

type b personalities

easygoing, relaxed people that deal with stress easily and don’t get too worked up

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51

coping strategies for stress

problem focused coping- changing events that cause stress

emotion focused coping- cannot change a stressful situation, respond by attending to emotional needs

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52

washburn and cannon experiment

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53

hormones and hunger

leptin, orexin, pyy

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54

basal metabolic rate

an estimate of how much energy in calories when at rest

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55

hunger and memory

paul rozin, part of knowing when to eat is our memory of our last meal

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56

external v internal cues about hunger

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57

how does body chemistry and environment impact hunger

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58

motivation and work

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59

industrial organizational psychology

application of psych concepts and methods to optimize human behavior in the workplace

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60

personnel v organizational psych

personnel- focused on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, development

organizational- examines an organization’s impact on worker satisfaction and seeks to produce and facilitate organizational change

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61

amygdala and emotion high route and shortcut

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62

spillover effect

our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event

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63

men v women ability to read emotions

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64

paul ekman’s 6 universal facial expressions

surprise, happiness, anger, disguist, fear, sadness

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65

emotion can be a social phenomena

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66

facial feedback hypothesis

expressions amplify our emotons by activating muscles associated with specific states

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67

what 7 emotions do infants express

joy, anger, interest, disguist, surprise, sadness, fear

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68

phobias

intense fears of specific objects or situations that disrupt one’s ability to cope

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69

catharsis hypothesis

releasing or venting aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges

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70

feel good do good phenomenom

people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood, more helpful to strangers

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71

mood cycles

positive emotions rise from the early to the mid part of the day

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72

does money buy happiness

only for a short period of time, then people realize that there is even more stuff out there

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73

more people seek to be __ vs developing a meaningful life philosophy these days

well of financially

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74

people who value money highly tend to be __ happy than those who value love

less

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75

adaptation-level phenomenon

tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we previously experienced, tendency to quickly adapt to a new situation until it becomes the norm, after that a new experience is needed and this constantly raises the level for what is new or exciting

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76

relative deprivation

perception that one is worse offo relative to those with whom one compares oneself

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77

interviewer illusion

people think they’re awesome at interviewing and choosing the right employee, but then that employee ends up being an awful fit for that job

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78

unstructured v structured interviews

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79

magic number

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80

theory x v theory y managers

x- managers employees are only extrinsically motivated

y- managers believe employees are intrinsically motivated

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81

common sense theory

stimulus → emotion → arousal

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82

behavior feedback hypothesis

if we move our body as we would when expressing some emotion we are likely to feel that emotion to some degree

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83

management theory

organizational psychologists study people’s motivations and how we can use these motivations to increase employee performance

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84

stressor

a stressful stimulus, a condition demanding adaptation

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85

4 components to stress response

cognitive appraisal, physiological response, subjective feelings, behavior

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86

types of stressors

catastrophic events, life changes, chronic stressors, daily hassles,

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87

stress response system

cannon proposed that stress response is fight or flight marked by adrenaline outpour, activating the sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamus and pituitary gland slowly respond to stress

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88

general adaptation syndrome (comes up a lot)

seyle, stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar, stressed individual goes through three phases over a prolonged period of time, alarm reaction (mobilize resources), resistance (cope with stressor), exhaustion (reserves depleted)

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89

Holmes and Rahe’s social readjustment rating scale, srrs

measured personal stress levels, uses a list of stressful events and a numerical score for the power of each event, asks the user to indicate how many of these events have occurred in the past 12 months, values added up, 300+ indicates 80% chance of individual suffering from a significant level of stress, units are life change units, different changes in one’s life have different stress value, good stressors can rate as high as bad ones, higher srrs → likely you will have a stress related disease

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90

perceived control

exacerbates the harmful effects of stress, control over events tends to lessen stress

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91

multiple approach avoidance conflicts

choose between two or more things, each has both desirable and undesirable features

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92

polygraph

lie detector, measures perspiration levels, heart rate, breathing changes, may ask control (aim to make anyone nervous) and relevant (specific about what the exam is trying to uncover) questions, relevant response > greater control response = lie, sometimes inaccurate from general nerves or cheating the system

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93
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94

alfred kinsey

interviewed people about sexual behavior such as pre martial masturbation and sex, attempted to use the scientific method to study sex, showed that perceptions about others’ sex lives are different than reality

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95

sexual response cycle

william masters and virginia johnson studied 4 stage sexual response cycle leading up to orgasms

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96

sexual disorders

problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

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97

2 functions of hormones in regards to sex

direct physical development of sex characteristics, activate sexual behavior (internal stimuli)

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98

estrogen

females, develops secondary female characteristics like breasts, peaks during ovulation which increases sexual arousal

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99

testosterone

promotes growth of sex organs and male specific features like deep voices and facial hair, decline if one is castrated before puberty

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100

psychology of sex

external stimuli- people become aroused when they sense erotic material like seeing or hearing, some develop the false idea that women enjoy rape, can lead people to devalue their own partners and relationships

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