unit 5 TEST

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who discovered that harmless bacteria can turn into bacteria that can cause disease?

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Biology

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1

who discovered that harmless bacteria can turn into bacteria that can cause disease?

fredrick griffith

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2

how did fredrick griffith discovered it?

by a factor in heat that killed disease causing bacteria

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3

when did fredrick griffith discover his discovery?

1928

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4

what did Oswald Avery determine?

determined that genes are made of DNA

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5

when did Oswald Avery discover this?

1944

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6

who verified Avery's results?

Hersey and Chase

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7

how did hersey and chase verify this?

by using bacteriophages

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8

when did hersey and chase discover this?

1952

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9

what did Watson and Crick discover?

Developed the double helix model of DNA.

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10

when did Watson and Crick discover this?

1953

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11

genes are made of?

DNA

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12

what 3 things must DNA do?

must transfer information from one generation to the next, must determine inheritable traits, dna must be easily copied

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13

dna is made up of?

nucleotides

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14

each nucleotide has how many parts?

3

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15

what are the 3 parts in nucleotide?

5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base

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16

what is the 5 carbon sugar called?

deoxyribose

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17

What forms the backbone of the DNA molecule?

sugar and phosphate group

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18

what hangs off the side of the sugar molecule?

nitrogen base

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19

what are the 2 groups of nitrogen base?

purine group and pyrimidine group

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20

what does a purine group contain?

the bases of adenine (A) and guanine (G)

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21

what are the 2 ringed structures?

A and G

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22

what does a pyrimidine group contain?

the bases of thymine (T) and cytosine (C) and uracil (U)

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23

what are 1 ringed structures?

T, C and U

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24

when does nitrogen bases occur?

occurs in any order

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25

what does the order of the nitrogen bases determined?

the specific amino acid sequence

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26

a purine base will always pair with what base?

pyrimidine base to form complementary base pairs

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27

what are the pairs in base pairing?

A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C

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28

the number of A =

the number of T

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29

how does A and T connect?

with a double bond

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30

the number of G =

the number of C

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31

how does C and G connect?

with a triple bond

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32

what is the structure of a DNA

double helix

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33

what are the 2 strands of DNA connected by?

hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases

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34

DNA must make an exact copy of...

itself

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35

semi-conservative replication

old strand of DNA is paired with a new strand

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36

DNA template

each strand unwinds and is used as the template

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37

pairing old with new DNA guarantees what?

an exact copy is made because of the base pairing rule

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38

what is the end result of DNA replication?

2 copies of DNA, each made with one old strand and one new strand. total of 4 individual strands.

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39

RNA

"decoded" DNA that make proteins

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40

what are the 3 types of RNA?

messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA

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41

messenger RNA (mRNA)

carries the copies of DNA to the rest of the cell

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42

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

makes up most the ribosome where proteins are made

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43

transfer DNA (tRNA)

transfers amino acids to ribosomes during translation

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44

What are the differences between DNA and RNA?

DNA: double stranded, has deoxyribose sugar, bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

RNA: single stranded, has ribose sugar, bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

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45

why are dna sugars called deoxyribose

their 2' carbon does not have a hydroxyl group (-OH)

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46

the "top" of the sugar is called what? what is it connected to?

5' end and is connected to the phosphate group

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47

the "bottom" of the sugar is called what? what is it connected to?

3' end and is connected to the hydroxyl group

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48

DNA nucleotides have which nitrogen bases?

A, G, T, and C

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49

RNA nucleotides have which nitrogen bases?

A, G, U, and C

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50

anti-parallel

The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix. For example, 3' end and 5' end is reversed to 3' and 5' end.

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51

Why are the 3' and 5' ends important?

when the cells wants to add nucleotides to an existing strand, nucleotides can only be added to an existing strand of DNA on the strand's 3' end

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52

helicase

job is to break the hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases

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53

gyrase

job is to reduce tension in unwinding DNA

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54

primase

job is to create small RNA primers for DNA Polymerase to bond to

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55

what's the purpose for DNA replication

so the cell can divide and give each daughter cell a correct DNA sequence

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56

origins of replication

Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.

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57

replication fork

A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.

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58

RNA nucleotides are what?

primers for DNA polymerase

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59

primases move along what strand?

the existing strand's 3' to 5' direction.

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60

DNA Polymerase I

removes RNA primers + inserts the correct DNA nucleotide; near completion of DNA replication

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61

DNA Polymerase II

proof reading the new strand at end of DNA replication

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62

DNA Polymerase III

attaches DNA nucleotides to make the new DNA strand

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63

what must DNA Polymerase need/has to do?

must have RNA primers to start and travel from the 5' to 3' on the new strand

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64

leading strand

a strand that is producing in a continuous manner

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65

lagging strand

a strand that is built discontinuously

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66

okazaki fragments

small segments of DNA found on the lagging strand

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67

single stranded binding proteins (SSBP)

provide stability to keep the helix open

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68

DNA Polymerase III will move where in the lagging strand?

move towards the origin of replication

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69

DNA Polymerase III will move where in the leading strand?

moves away from the origin of replication

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70

ligase

an enzyme that closes the gaps and connects the okazaki fragments into one continuous strand of DNA.

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71

when does ligase happen?

after DNA Polymerase I

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72

what are the DNA polymerase in chronological order?

III, I, II

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73

are hydrogen bonds considered to be weak bonds or strong bonds?

weak

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74

why is it useful for the base pairs of DNA to be held together by hydrogen bonds instead of covalent bonds?

hydrogen bonds are easier to break allowing for DNA copying

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75

DNA is short for?

deoxyribonucleic acid

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76

RNA is short for?

ribonucleic acid

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77

when DNA polymerase III is added what happens to the primases?

moves away from helicases

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78

Is RNA shorter than DNA? Which one is 1 gene long?

RNA is short, only 1 gene long. DNA is very long and contains many genes.

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79

the information in DNA is in the form of what?

specific sequences of nucleotides along the DNA strands

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80

the dna inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by

directing the synthesis of proteins

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81

transciption and translation

the two stages that process by which DNA directs protein synthesis

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82

central dogma

DNA -> RNA -> Protein

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83

cells are governed by what?

a cellular chain of command

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84

transcription

the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA

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85

transcription produces what?

produces messenger RNA (mRNA)

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86

transcription occurs where?

in the nucleus

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87

translation

the actual synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA

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88

where does translation occur?

occurs on ribosomes

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89

RNA synthesis is based on information stored in?

DNA

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90

transcription is started by?

RNA polymerase II

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91

what does the RNA polymerase II do?

pries the DNA strands apart and hooks together the RNA nucleotides

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92

mRNA goes from ____ to ____

pre-mRNA to mature-mRNA

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93

RNA processing occurs when?

prior to leaving the nucleus before mRNA leaves through a nuclear pore.

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94

how is the RNA copy of a gene converted into mature mRNA?

the cell adds a protective cap to one end, and a tail of A's to the other end. pre-mRNA is made of regions called introns and exons

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95

introns

nonsense regions which need to be removed

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96

exons

coding regions which need to stay put

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97

splicing

the process of removing introns to produce mature messenger RNA (mRNA)

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98

genetic information is encoded as a sequence of what?

nonoverlapping base triplets or codons

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99

codons

3 bases on mRNA code for the production of a specific amino acid

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100

3 nucleotides on mRNA =

1 codon = 1 amino acid

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