PLTW CSP Final vocab

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The values that the programmer provides in the function call.

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1

The values that the programmer provides in the function call.

Arguments

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2

The '=' character causes the compiler or interpreter to evaluate to the expression on its right and store the result in the variable(s) on its left.

Assignment Operator

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3

A group of program statements that are grouped together, denoted by indentation in Python.

Block of Code

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4

The set of functions available to the programmer without the need to use any "import" or "include" statements.

Built-in Function

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5

Code telling the interpreter or compiler to execute a function or method defined elsewhere, replacing the call with a return value if applicable.

Call

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6

Any single typeset unit, including uppercase and lowercase letters, digits, punctuation marks, international characters like letters with Ümläüts, and special characters like tabs and carriage returns.

Character

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7

A duplicate copy.

Clone

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8

A variable or value with several elements such as a string, tuple, or list.

Collection

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9

A computer program created to read an entire program and convert it into a lower-level language and ultimately to assembly language used by the processor.

Compiler

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10

A conditional with one or more logical operators used to incorporate several logical expressions.

Compound Conditional

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11

Python allows a programmer to specify the value for an argument if the function is called without that actual argument.

Default Value

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12

The set of differences between two versions of the same piece of code.

Diff

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13

A special comment located at the beginning of a program or the beginning of a function that is used to automatically create help documentation.

Docstring

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14

A single object or variable/value in a collection.

Element

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15

To determine the result of an expression.

Evaluate

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16

An error or other message raised by the interpreter or compiler to indicate a special circumstance that should be handled by an exception handler. If an exception is not handled, the program will stop and report the error.

Exception

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17

A native type representing rational numbers to limited precision.

Float

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18

A graphic organizer that can be used to show the procedural pathways within a program.

Flow Chart

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19

For internal use within a function, formal arguments are names that represent data passed to the function, discarded after the function has been executed.

Formal Arguments

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20

A unique identifier given to the function when it is defined and used again whenever the function is called.

Function Name

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21

Releases memory that was used for a variable's value once the variable is no longer to be used by a program.

Garbage Collection

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22

Process for evaluating the correctness or effectiveness of a piece of software while examining its algorithmic structure.

Glass Box Testing

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23

Not able to be changed after creation.

Immutable

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24

In Python______________ is a key word for using one module of code from inside another module.

Import

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25

A native type representing positive whole numbers and their opposites.

Int

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26

Converts a program written in a higher level language into a lower level language and executes it, beginning execution before converting the entire program.

Interpreter

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27

A property of collections that is used to provide elements one at a time and in sequence.

Iterable

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28

The bits that contribute the smallest amount to the overall value of a binary number, including the 1s place value.

Least Significant Bits

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29

A collection of modules.

Library

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30

Algorithmic structure for performing the instructions multiple times, with each pass through the loop called an iteration. Usually controlled by a condition evaluated with each iteration.

Loop

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31

Zeros and ones that represent simple instructions executed by a processor.

Machine Code

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32

An encapsulated collection of one or more related classes, each with its own methods and attributes.

Module

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33

Denoted by either ''', or """ these can generate docstrings and allow the programmer to leave notes in code that span several lines without having to type '#' at the beginning of each line.

Multi-line Comment

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34

Python allows a programmer to assign values to several variables at once. This may be used to store a group of values returned by a function.

Multiple Assignment

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35

An object that is able to be changed after its creation.

Mutable

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36

The set of variable and function names that have been reserved by the compiler/interpreter.

Namespace

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37

The types of data built into a programming language, often faster and more efficient with resources.

Native Type

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38

A string that contains no characters.

Null String

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39

The digital representation of an instruction that will be fetched, decoded, retrieved, and executed by the CPU.

Op Code

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40

A very tiny part of the processor microchip that stores bits of data, typically 32 or 64 bits in modern computers.

Register

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41

Any value that a method or function gives back to the statement command from which the function or method is called.

Return Value

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42

The portion of a program that knows about a variable and can access its value. In Python a variable has a local scope (the variable can only be used in a function definition) or global scope (the variable can be used anywhere in the source file of code).

Scope

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43

Selecting a portion of a collection.

Slicing

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44

A native type in Python representing a sequence of characters. Strings are both iterable and immutable.

String

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45

The grammar of a programming language, defining what specific sequences of characters are allowed, what they mean, and how they can be put together.

Syntax

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46

A software package designed to evaluate the correctness or effectiveness of another software solution.

Test Suite

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47

A software development process in which developers first create a test suite and then create the code to satisfy the test suite, e.g., Xtreme Programming.

Test-Driven Design

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48

A list of code that was executed just before an exception stopped the program.

Traceback

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49

A native type in Python that can store a collection but cannot assign new values to individual elements.

Tuple

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50

Converting data from one type to another, e.g., from string to int, potentially losing information.

Type Casting

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51

Without duplicates; a unique set of numbers is a group of numbers such that no number appears twice.

Unique

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52

Ensure that the values stored in variables are of the correct type and/or within appropriate value ranges.

Validate

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53

A process in which the name you give a variable is stored in a lookup table along with the memory address that the interpreter should access when the variable is referenced in the future.

Variable Binding

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54

A process to keep track of what changes were made to what files so that a specific version can be referred to and improvements in multiple versions can be merged together.

Version Control

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55

The directory in the file system you are currently "in".

Working Directory

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56

Maintains a running total.

Accumulator Variable

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57

Stores a list of values built up over time and remembers separate individual values.

Aggregator Variable

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58

A method of software development that emphasizes frequent client input to produce better end products.

Agile Design

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59

A step-by-step procedure, like a recipe, but often involving decisions.

Algorithm

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60

Keeps track of a record best or worst and updates when a new record best or worst has been reached.

Best-so-far Variable

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61

Evaluates to either true or false; used in the conditional of an if-structure.

Boolean Expression

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62

Part of a program that causes an error or undesired output.

Bug

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63

The part of the computer that executes one instruction at a time.

Central Processing Unit (CPU, or core)

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64

Instructions in a program.

Code

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65

The Boolean expression in an if-structure that is evaluated to determine which branch of code to execute.

Conditional

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66

The process of figuring out why code doesn't behave as expected and eliminating bugs to make it work as desired.

Debugging

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67

Keeping details (like data and procedures) together in one part of a program so that programmers working on other parts of the program don't need to know about them.

Encapsulation

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68

A "trigger" from the user or from a program that causes a specific part of the program to execute.

Event

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69

A piece of code that responds to an event.

Event Handler

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70

To run a program or a single instruction.

Execute

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71

Stores a value that will not change over the course of the entire program.

Fixed Variable

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72

Evaluates a Boolean expression and executes some code if the expression is true (and possibly other code if it is false).

If-structure

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73

Data that is used by a program.

Input

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74

Provides a developer with a way to create a program, run the program, and debug the program all within one application.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

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75

Repeating a step-by-step procedure several times; also used to refer to single execution of that repetitive procedure.

Iteration

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76

The parts of computer that can store data or instruction, including volatile memory (lost when the computer is turned off) and non-volatile memory (retained when the computer is turned off).

Memory

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77

Information about a program or data file, including date created and author information.

Meta-information

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78

A set of instructions grouped together to do something to or with an object.

Method

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79

An instruction to use a method.

Method Call

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80

A group of instructive code that exists as an independent unit, which is easy to use with other code as needed.

Modular Code

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81

Stores user input or stores information about a program's state that changes unpredictably.

Most Recent Variable

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82

Stores whether a condition has been true yet; reset before iteration and possibly raised during iteration.

One-way Flag Variable

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83

The effect that a program has on its environment.

Output

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84

A prioritized list of user stories, showing both short- and long-term goals of a software development team.

Product Backlog

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85

An outline of the basic ideas behind how algorithms will work.

Pseudocode

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86

A set of instructions. In Scratch a script is a single stack of blocks belonging to one sprite or to the stage.

Script

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87

The most common framework for Agile Development.

Scrum

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88

A list of small specific tasks to be completed during the current sprint in the scrum method of software development.

Sprint Task List

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89

A graphics object that can be moved on top of or behind a background.

Sprite

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90

Data that describes everything about how a program exists at a given time; a snapshot of a program.

State

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91

Shows the ways that a program could progress from each state to other states.

State Diagram

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92

A variable that counts in an arithmetic sequence, usually counting by ones starting at 0 or 1.

Stepper Variable

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93

Precise rules defining how the letters, words, and punctuation of a programming language are required to be used together.

Syntax

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94

One method of determining the strength of artificial intelligence, in which a human tries to decide if the intelligence at the other end of a text chat is human.

Turing Test

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95

Plain-language description of a user's need for the software under development, usually phrased as "(who) wants to (do what within the software) so that they can (do what in real life)".

User Stories

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96

Describe why a variable is being used in a program.

Variable Roles

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97

Stores one item from a list at a time during iteration.

Walker Variable

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98

A method of software development that emphasizes completing each stage of the design process before beginning the next stage.

Waterfall Design

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99

Creating simple concise representations of more complex phenomena so that people can more easily work with, communicate about, and learn about anything.

Abstraction

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100

A continuous method of representing information.

Analog

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