AP World unit 1

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High Culture

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110 Terms

1

High Culture

cultural patterns that distinguish society’s elites.

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2

Symbolic interactionists:

All of society is about the shared reality - the shared culture - that we create.

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3

Low Culture

the cultural behaviors and ideas that are popular with most people in a society

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4

Mainstream culture:

The cultural patterns that are broadly in line with a society’s cultural ideals and values.

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5

Subculture

cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population.

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6

Ethnocentrism

judging one culture by the standards of another culture

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7

Afrocentism

a school of thought that recenters cultural study through the lens of African culture

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8

Multiculturalism

Recognises cultural diversity.

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9

Counterculture

push back on mainstream culture in an attempt to change how the mainstream culture functions

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10

Cultural lags

some cultures change slower than others

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11

Cultural diffusion

how cultural traits spread from one culture to another

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12

Structural functionalists

Believe that society is a complex system and every part needs to work together to function.

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13

Conflict theory

Different cultures cause disagreements and conflict in society.

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14

What caused the war between mongols and khwarazm?

  • chinggis khan sent caravan demanding money

  • muhammad Shah underestimated mongols and didn’t wanna give them money

  • caused war

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15

Despite being brutal, what did mongols contribute

  • increase in trade

  • more interregional communiaction

  • Black death 😬

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16

What were the mongols curious about?

  • other cultures

  • chinggis khan got advised from chinese and muslim scholars

  • spared artisans and other useful people from places he invaded

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17

What happened to japan under mongol influence?

Japan gained new confidence which allowed them to stop taking influence from china

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18

Which regions weren’t effected by the mongols?

Africa and the americas because they weren’t close to mongols or part of their trade routes

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19

Why does the mongol period “loom a large part of world history”

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20

Describe the Nomadic Mongol society

  • perfect example of nomadic lifestlye

  • moved from pasture to pasture seasonally

  • staple foods were milk and meat but they traded with sedentary civilizations

  • wore sheepskin and boots from sheephides

  • traded for jewelry weapons and cloth

  • taught children to fight and ride as soon as they could walk

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21

Where was the mongol empire

middle east to china sea

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22

How was mongol society divided into different groups?

  • tribes were split in to kin - related clans

  • these tribes+ clans would unit to form confederations when they faced a threat

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23

Who had the power/who were leaders in mongol society and why?

  • men bc free men voted on leaders

  • women had power within family and tribal councils

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24

Kuriltai

Meeting of mongol chieftans where they elect supreme ruler of all tribes.

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25

Khagan

Title of the supreme ruler of Mongol tribes

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26

Describe Chinngis Khan’s early life + rise to power.

  • born into splinter clan after kabul khan’s death

  • called temujin

  • dad died, so he became leader(people didn’t trust him cuz he was young)

  • got kidnapped, but escaped

  • took revenge on the nomadic group that kidnapped him

  • grew reputation as warrior+ commander

  • elected khagan in 1206

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27

Tumens

  • basic mongol fighting unit

  • 10,000 cavalrymen

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28

What did the death of Kabul Khan cause

  • The death of kabul khan led to hard times in mongol period

  • empire split was divided into many small clans

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29

What did Giovanni de Piano Carpini do?

  • sent to mongol empire by pope inocent IV to protest

  • protests didn’t work

  • his account on mongols was one of the most detailed

  • had neutral feelings abt the mongols(saw good and bad things)

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30

Where do historians find most of the information about the mongols

records+observations of their enemies

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31

Sedentary

settling down

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32

Nomadic

moving around to find food and resources

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33

Germ of Civilization

Domestication of Fire, Teamwork, Development of stone and bone tools

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34

Cradles of Civilization

Egypt - Nile, Mesopotamia (a place between 2 rivers) - Tigris and Euphrates, China - Yellow, Indus Valley

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35

Mesopotamia

a place between two rivers Tigris and Euphrates

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36

Isolated

allowed civilizations to thrive and develop

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37

Inundation

flooding that left a fertile soil

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38

Polytheism

Belief in multiple gods

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39

Hieroglyphics

Picture writing, Read left -> right, right-> left, up -> down, down-> up, Hard to read

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40

Theocracy

intertwined government and religions

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41

Fertile Crescent

region in Middle East that held many civilizations due to its to rivers

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42

Cuneiform

first written language

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43

The Rosetta Stone

A breakthrough on how to read hieroglyphics. It had 3 different languages on it.

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44

Polytheism

when people worship multiple gods.

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45

Cultural Diffusion

taking other thoughts and ideas and building onto them. flooding whi

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46

Neolithic Revolution

The succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture, 8500-3500 BCE.

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47

Confucius

Major Chinese philospher born in sixth century BCE

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48

Hinduism

religion that prevailed in india, featuring emphasis on manifestations of the divine and importance of ritual and meditation with the total of spiritual advancement through reincarnation.

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49

Caste system

India’s inequal social system that was supported by Hinduism where it was bleived you could advance through the social classes by fulfilling your role and reincarnating.

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50

Multiculturalism

Recognises cultural diversity.

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51

Counter-culture

Challanges mainstream culture.

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52

Cultural diffusions

the spread of cultural to other cultures.

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53

Symbolic interactionists

All of society is about the shared reality - the shared culture - that we create.

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54

Migration

people moving from one location to another.

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55

Slaves were forced to move to work.

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56

Pull factor

A factor that makes people wnat to migrate to a place.

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57

Push factor

A factor that makes people want to move away from a place.

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58

Seasonal migration/cyclical migration

happens when people migrate in a back-and-forth pattern

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59

Voluntary settlement

people who choose to migrate.

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60

Chain migration

the social process by which immigrants from a particular area follow others from that area to a particular destination.

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61

Refugees

People who don’t feel safe in the place they live in, so they’re forced to move.

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62

Migration field

where people decide to move to.

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63

Return Migration

People who go back to the place they used to live in.

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64

Reluctant Migration

a form of migration in which individuals are not forced to move, but do so because of an unfavorable situation at their current location

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65

Diaspora

a large group of people who share a cultural and regional origin but are living away from their traditional homeland.

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66

Remittances

funds sent home by citizens who live overseas

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67

Internal Migration

people who migrate within their country.

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68

Step migration

when people make mores that are more and more drastic.

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69
<p>what does this image show?</p>

what does this image show?

Neolithic women spinning dried yucca stalk on fire starting stick to create sarks that can light the yucca leaves on fire. Shows that early humans used and made their own tools.

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70
<p>what does this painting show</p>

what does this painting show

Importance of hunting for early human economy

symbolism of hunting-gathering

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71
<p>What can we learn from this image</p>

What can we learn from this image

Homo sapiens emerged in east africa and spread out to rest mediteraanean, europe, and asia. eventually reached americas + oceania

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72
<p>What does this map show</p>

What does this map show

Agriculture originated in middle east and spread simlarly to humans.

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73
<p>What does this map show</p>

What does this map show

It showed where early civilizations formed, not juest in conquest areas

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74
<p>What does this map show?</p>

What does this map show?

  • political units in the world

  • has durable regional traditions

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75
<p>Who is this?</p>

Who is this?

confucius

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76
<p>What does this image show?</p>

What does this image show?

  • indian god shiva

  • each hand represents different aspect of power

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77
<p>what does this image show?</p>

what does this image show?

  • classical greece used roman architecture

  • rome engineers figured out how to make domed arches

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78
<p>what does this image show</p>

what does this image show

  • Depiction of Madonna + a child

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79

Cultural diffusion

when certain cultural values, ideas, or even cultures are adopted by different cultures.

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80

GPERISA

a lens for viewing events

  • Geography

  • Political

  • Economics

  • Religion

  • Intellectual

  • Social

  • Artistic

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81

What are the three types of essays

  1. Compare/Contrast

  2. Causation (Cause and Effect)

  3. Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT)

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82

What allowed the egyptian civilization to develop

they were isolated and left undisturbed for many years.

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83
<p>What does this shows</p>

What does this shows

holy women by christ

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84
<p>whats this?</p>

whats this?

the kaba in mecca. every year muslims travel here

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85
<p>what is this image? why is it significant?</p>

what is this image? why is it significant?

The shahi mosque. shows the blending of hindu and islamic architecture styles

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86

Karakorum

capital of mongol empire

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87

how did chinggis khan die?

During attack of Xi Xia empire chinggis khan became sick. last words were to his sons about the dangers of bickering about who owns the empire.

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88

what were the 4 khanates called

golden horde, changhatai, ilkhan, and empire of kubilai khan

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89

who was batu

ruler of golden horde, chinggis khans grandson, invaded russa in 1236

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90

who was ogedei

one of chinggis khan’s sons, became khagan after chinggis khan dies bc he was cunning and manipulative

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91

Golden horde

  • one of the khanates

  • ruled by batu

  • now central russia

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92

what were the khanates

  • 4 regional mongol kingdoms after death of chinggis khan

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93

Why wasn’t russia prepared for the mongol attack

  • weak and declining government

  • split into small groups that refused to work together

  • not enough power to rally forces against mongols

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94

who were tartars

  • what russians called the mongols

  • “people from hell”

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95

who was prester john and why was he important

  • christian mythical monarch

  • christians believed mongols were prestor john coming to help them

  • attack on khwarazm (muslims) confirmed it

  • when mongols attacked russia, they realzied it wasn’t prestor john

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96

Why was europe spared

  • ogedei died

  • batu had to go home to figure out who next leader would

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97

Who was hulegu and what were his accomplishment

  • grandson of chinggis khan

  • leader Ilkhan khanate

  • Assault on Muslim heatlands

  • victory over seljuk turks

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98

Why was defeat of mongols unique

  • cooperation of muslims + christians(usually don’t like eachother)

  • Led by Baibars and the Mamluks of egypt

    • baibars was originally a slave to mongols

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99

How did mongols protect trade routes-

  • rest stopes for merchants

  • outposts to protect from bandits

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100

What caused hulegu to stop his expansion

  • succession struggles

  • arguments with his cousin Berke

    • converted to Islam

    • wanted to make alliance with baibars

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