general chemistry

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It is important because it has to do with everything in our daily lives.

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1

It is important because it has to do with everything in our daily lives.

CHEMISTRY

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2

Give the importance of Chemistry

Anaesthetics

Antibiotics

Batteries

Birth control

Catalytic converters

Fertilizers

Fuels

Plastics

Screens

Water treatment

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3

It consists of a positively charged core (the atomic nucleus) which contains protons and neutrons, and which maintains a number of electrons to balance the positive charge in the nucleus

ATOMS

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4

“Atomos”

aka “discontinuous matter” or “indivisible”

DEMOCRITUS (460-370 BC)

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They believed that matter did not exist as a discrete units and atoms are considered continuous particles.

PLATO AND ARISTOTLE

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All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass, and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements.

DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY

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According to this theory, atoms of the same element are identical, but atoms of one element are different from atoms of other elements. Compound formed from atoms of elements X and Y

DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY

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8

True or False

Compounds are composed of atoms of less than one element.

FALSE

Compounds are composed of atoms of MORE than one element.

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9

The study of properties and behavior of matte

CHEMISTRY

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electrically neutral species and must contain the equal number of electron and protons

ATOMS

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“There can be no ultimately indivisible particles”

PLATO AND ARISTOTLE

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13

Elements are composed of extremely small particles

ATOMS

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states that matter can either be created nor destroyed

Law of Conservation of Mass

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15

TRUE OR FALSE

Atoms may be disintegrated. In nuclear reactions, atoms are being transferred into atoms of single elements in a process known as nuclear transmutation

TRUE

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16

TRUE OR FALSE

all atoms of a given element pose identical properties except in mass

FALSE

NOT all atoms of a given element pose identical properties except in mass

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17

Discovered by Joseph John Thomson

ELECTRONS

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18

Another component of a nucleus

NEUTRONS

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19

A mass of 9.109 x 10 -31 kg

ELECTRONS

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20

One of the components of a nucleus

PROTONS

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Discovered by James Chadwick in 1932

NEUTRONS

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Discovered by Eugene Goldstein

PROTONS

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23

A charge of -1.602 x 10 -19 coulombs

ELECTRONS

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24

Charge of +1.602 x 10 -19 coulombs

PROTONS

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25

Has no charge or no charge

NEUTRONS

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26

Atoms is a spherical mass containing electrons and that this spherical mass is positive but is made neutral by the electrons embedded in it.

THOMSON MODEL

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The positive charges or the protons are concentrated in the nucleus and the region outside the nucleus is occupied by electrons

RUTHERFORD MODEL

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A.K.A PLUM PUDDING MODEL

THOMSON MODEL

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In this model, protons are in the nucleus and the electrons are in the orbital motion around the nucleus

BOHR MODEL OF AN ATOM

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It is based on additional experimental evidence of “alpha scattering experiments”

RUTHERFORD MODEL

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31

Electrons may be found in any several definite orbits around the nucleus

BOHR MODEL OF AN ATOM

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32

The electrons are not orbiting the nucleus in definite or fixed pathways. Instead of orbiting, the electrons are placed in orbitals outside the nucleus (electrons are still orbiting the nucleus but not in fixed pathways)

WAVE MECHANICAL ATOM

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33

This principle states that simultaneous determination of the exact position and exact momentum of electron is impossible

HEISENBURG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE

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Aka Electron Cloud Model

WAVE MECHANICAL ATOM

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35

In this model, the nucleus is a single cluster of particles at the center of the atom while the electrons are everywhere

WAVE MECHANICAL ATOM

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36

This theory makes the assertion that electromagnetic radiation like X-rays, gamma rays, radio waves and light rays are made up of small bits of energy

SCHROEDINGER “QUANTUM MODEL”

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37

states that no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers

Pauli’s Exclusion Principle

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38

these are electron wave dimensions indicated by numbers

Quantum Numbers:

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  • corresponds to main energy levels

  • described the size of the orbital

Principal Quantum Number (n)

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40

described the orientation in space of a particular orbital the value range from -1 to +1

Magnetic Quantum Number (m)

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41

angular momentum quantum number (can give and measure angular momentum of an electron and its motion around the nucleus)

Azithmuthal Quantum Number (l)

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the values are from 0 to n - 1

Azithmuthal Quantum Number (l)

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43

indicate the behavior of electrons in the magentic field

Magnetic Quantum Number (m)

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44

indicate the spin of an electron about its own axis in clockwise or counterclockwise

Spin Quantum Number (s)

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45

According to the Electron Config Theory:

maximum number of 2e -

1st main energy level

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46

According to the Electron Config Theory:

maximum number of 18e - (2s, 6p, 10d)

3rd main energy level

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47

orbitals with the same electron of same energy level must be filled in singly before pairing

Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity

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This theory states that the number of orbital types in a given shell is equal to the shell number

ORBITAL THEORY

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49

According to the Electron Config Theory:

maximum number of 32e - (2s, 6p, 10d, 14f)

4th main energy level

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50

According to the Electron Config Theory:

maximum number of 8e - (2s, 6p)

2nd main energy level

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51

states that atoms may be built by progressively filling the main energy levels, sub levels and orbitals with electrons according to increasing level

AUFBAU PRINCIPLE

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52

total number of protons and neutrons on the nucleus of nucleons

MASS NUMBER (A)

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53

this quantity is fundamental to the identity of each element because it is related to the electrical make-up of atom

ATOMIC NUMBER

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54

TRUE OR FALSE

atomic number is equal to the number of protons and electrons

TRUE

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55

they have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons

ISOTOPES

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56

atoms of different elements having the samenumberofneutrons

ISOTONES

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57

TRUE OR FALSE

atoms of the same element with the same atomic number, but with the same mass numbers

FALSE

atoms of the same element with the same atomic number, but DIFFERENT mass numbers

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58

it is a charged species, an atom or a molecule, that has lost or gained one or more electrons

IONS

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59

atoms of different elements having the same atomic mass

ISOBARS

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60

aggregates of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement and held together by chemical forces

MOLECULES

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61

classified as Anode and Cathode depending on the current that is flowing into or out of the electrode

ELECTRODES

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it is the smallest indivisible portion of a pure chemical substance that has its unique set of chemical properties, that is, its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with other substances

MOLECULES

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63

commonly used in electrochemical cells, semi-conductors such as diodes and other medical devices

ELECTRODES

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64

TRUE OR FALSE

Electrode is a conductor that is used to make contact with non-metallic part of a circuit

TRUE

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negatively charged electrodes

CATHODE

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positively charged electrodes

ANODE

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67

Anything that occupies space and has mass

MATTER

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68

any characteristics that will allow us to recognize a particular type of matter and helps us distinguish a specific type of matter from other type

PROPERTIES

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69

MASS OR WEIGHT

varies, depends on the amount of gravity

WEIGHT

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MASS OR WEIGHT

constant at any place and time

MASS

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71

MASS OR WEIGHT

when travelled to the moon, the mass of an object will still be the same

MASS

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72

MASS OR WEIGHT

refers to the downward pull of the objects towards the center of the earth; the force that gravity exerts on an object

WEIGHT

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73

MASS OR WEIGHT

a measure of the quantity of matter in an object

MASS

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74

MASS OR WEIGHT

can never be zero

MASS

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75

MASS OR WEIGHT

when travelled to the moon, the weight of an object will only be 1/6 of its weight on earth

WEIGHT

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76

MASS OR WEIGHT

can also be zero

WEIGHT

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77

EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

give the characteristics of the substance its unique identity

INTRINSIC PROPERTY

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EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

are the properties of matter which are constant

INTRINSIC

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EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

not the characteristics of the substance itself

EXTRINSIC

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80

EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

depends on the amount, also called extensive properties

EXTRINSIC

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EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

are the properties of matter which are constant

INTRINSIC

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82

EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

examples are height, weight, temperature, size, shape, volume, etc

EXTRINSIC

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83

EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

those which do not depend on the amount, also called intensive properties

INTRINSIC

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84

EXTRINSIC PROPERTY OR INTRINSIC PROPERTY

examples are boiling point, freezing point, melting point, viscosity, refractive index, etc

INTRINSIC

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85

are made up only of one kind of matter possessing a definite, fixed and unvarying compositions

PURE SUBSTANCES

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86

simplest form of substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical means; building blocks of matter

ELEMENTS

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87

elements that has a characteristic of brilliant luster, ductility, malleability, and good conductors of heat and electricity

METALS

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88

Shiny surfaces

a. LUSTER

b. DUCTILITY

c. MELLEABLITY

LUSTER

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89

can be drawn into wires

a. LUSTER

b. DUCTILITY

c. MELLEABLITY

DUCTILITY

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90

can be pounded into thin sheets

a. LUSTER

b. DUCTILITY

c. MELLEABLITY

MELLEABILITY

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91

possess the characteristics of metals and non-metals

METALLOIDS

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possess characteristics opposite to metals

NON-METALS

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93

eg. Fluorine, Sulfur, Iodine, and Bromine

METALLOIDS

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these are combined with definite proportions of two elements

Inorganic compound

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95

any of the large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbons are covalently linked to the atoms of another elements

Organic compound

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96

are substances whose molecules are made up of two or more kinds of atoms

COMPOUNDS

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97

formed when there is a transfer of e

IONIC COMPOUND

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98

formed by interaction between elements which are usually metallic but the resulting compound behaves just like an ordinary metal

METALLIC COMPOUND

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99

formed when e - are shared

COVALENT COMPOUND

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carbon-containing compounds (suchasH, O,N) except carbides, carbonates, andcyanides

ORGANIC COMPUND

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