Anatomy Nervous System Test

studied byStudied by 9 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The nervous system is divided into

1 / 155

Tags and Description

156 Terms

1

The nervous system is divided into

Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System

New cards
2

Function of the Nervous System

Master control center for the body, detects impulses from the center

New cards
3

Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord

New cards
4

Peripheral Nervous System

Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves not in brain/spinal cord

New cards
5

Cranial Nerves

Originate in the brain, 12 to help control body

New cards
6

Spinal Nerves

Originate in the spinal cord

New cards
7

Peripheral Nervous System is divided into

Sensory (Afferent) Division and Motor (Efferent) Division

New cards
8

Sensory (Afferent) Division

Sends impulses from the senses AT the CNS

New cards
9

Motor (Efferent) Division

Sends impulses from the CNS to the muscles and glands (EXITS)

New cards
10

The Motor division divides into the

Autonomic and Somatic Nervous System

New cards
11

Autonomic Nervous System

Involuntary muscle control like digestion, urination, heart pumping

New cards
12

Somatic Nervous System

Voluntary muscle control like muscular skeletal movements

New cards
13

The Autonomic Nervous System is divided into the

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions

New cards
14

Sympathetic Division

Used in emergency situations, fight or flight response

New cards
15

Parasympathetic Division

Reduces the sympathetic response, provides resting functions such as digestion and urination.

New cards
16

Effects of an activated Sympathetic/fight or flight

Heart rate and breathing rate increase, blood pumped to the extremities for physical activities and is diverted from organs

New cards
17

What system does the nervous system work with?

The Endocrine System

New cards
18

For the nervous system to do its job it uses

Sensory input, integration, and response

New cards
19

Sensory input

Detects changes/stimuli inside and outside of the body

New cards
20

Integration

Processing and interpreting the information

New cards
21

Response

Activation of muscles (motor output) or glands

New cards
22

The 2 major types of nerve cells are

Neurons and neuroglia

New cards
23

Neurons

Conduct impulses around the body, make up 10% of nerve cells

New cards
24

Neuroglia

Act as nerve glue & support, insulate, and protect neurons, make up 90% of nerve cells

New cards
25

What do all neurons have in common?

A main cell body and processes extending outward.

New cards
26
<p>The cell body contains the</p>

The cell body contains the

Nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles

New cards
27

Processes of a neuron are divided into

Dendrites and Axons

New cards
28
<p>Dendrites</p>

Dendrites

Bring impulses TOWARDS the cell body

New cards
29
<p>Axons</p>

Axons

Send impulses AWAY from the cell body

New cards
30

What do processes end with?

Axon terminals

New cards
31
<p>Axon terminals</p>

Axon terminals

Release neurotransmitters to pass the impulse to the next neuron

New cards
32

MS disease

Myelin sheath degenerates, motor function issue

New cards
33

Neurons are classified by

number of processes extending from the cell body and their function

New cards
34
<p>One process</p>

One process

Unipolar neurons

New cards
35
<p>Two processes</p>

Two processes

Bipolar neurons

New cards
36
<p>many processes</p>

many processes

Multipolar neurons

New cards
37

Afferent neurons

Carry impulses AT the CNS

New cards
38

Efferent neurons

Carry impulses away from the CNS (EXITS)

New cards
39

Interneurons

Connect afferent and efferent neurons.

New cards
40

What are axons wrapped in?

Myelin, which is like a waxy insulation.

New cards
41

How is myelin formed?

Schwann cells (type of neuroglia) wrap itself around the axon, like a coil, helping it move faster with support and protection.

New cards
42
<p>Neurilemma</p>

Neurilemma

Outer layers of the Schwann cell

New cards
43

What does myelin do?

Helps the nerve impulses to travel more quickly.

New cards
44
<p>Myelin sheath</p>

Myelin sheath

All of the myelin wrappings collectively.

New cards
45
<p>Nodes of Ranvier</p>

Nodes of Ranvier

Gaps formed because the myelin sheath has many Schwann cells.

New cards
46

Where are Neuroglial cells found

In both the CNS and PNS.

New cards
47

Neuroglial cells in the CNS

Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes

New cards
48
<p>Astrocytes</p>

Astrocytes

Support and ANCHOR neurons to surrounding capillaries, giving blood to surrounding tissues

New cards
49
<p>Microglia</p>

Microglia

Provide immune response to to CNS

New cards
50

Meningitis

Meninges infection, microglia help

New cards
51
<p>Ependymal cells</p>

Ependymal cells

Secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid

New cards
52
<p>Oligodendrocytes</p>

Oligodendrocytes

Provide myelin insulation to neurons in the Central Nervous System.

New cards
53

Neuroglial cells in the Peripheral Nervous System

Satellite cells, Schwann cells

New cards
54
<p>Satellite cells</p>

Satellite cells

SUPPORT and anchor neurons in the PNS.

New cards
55
<p>Schwann cells</p>

Schwann cells

Provide myelin insulation to neurons in the PNS.

New cards
56

What is a nerve impulse

An electrical signal that travels along a neuron

New cards
57

How do nerve impulses arise

It arises from a movement of ions causing a change in electrical charges.

New cards
58

How is intracellular space charged?

Negatively charged (resting potential)

New cards
59

How is extracellular space charged?

Positively charged (resting potential)

New cards
60

What happens when a neuron is stimulated by the environment or another neuron?

Sodium rushes into the neuron, and quickly reverses the charges (Depolarization), this process quickly moves down the length of a neuron.

New cards
61

What is depolarization known as?

Action potential

New cards
62

What happens as the impulse passes?

Potassium diffuses out of the neuron (Repolarization)

New cards
63

Refractory period

Spike down caused by ions moving back to original spots

New cards
64

What does sodium potassium pump do after repolarization?

Restores ion concentrations to normal, resting potential returns. (All or Nothing event) → Homeostasis

New cards
65

What are some problems with the Na K pump if it doesn’t work?

Congestive heart failure

New cards
66

Synapse

Where two neurons meet

New cards
67

Synaptic cleft

The space between the two neurons at a synapse because the neurons don’t touch.

New cards
68

What happens when an impulse reaches the axon terminal?

It can’t cross the gap between the two neurons, so it stimulates vesicles to release neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft.

New cards
69
<p>How do neurotransmitters open the next neuron?</p>

How do neurotransmitters open the next neuron?

They cause channels to open, continuing the action potential from one neuron to the next.

New cards
70

What is an example that uses this process?

When you take drugs that cause hormones to be released like Caffiene.

New cards
71

What chemical helps impulses travel?

Calcium ions

New cards
72

What are the 3 layers of connective tissue that protect the brain and spinal cord called? (blood-brain barrier)

Meninges

New cards
73

Layers of meninges from top to bottom

Skin, Periosteum, Bone, Dura Mater, Arachnoid Membrane, Pia Mater

New cards
74

Dura mater

Thick, tough layer

New cards
75

Arachnoid membrane

Thin, cobweb-like layer

New cards
76

Pia Mater

Thin layer containing lots of blood vessels

New cards
77

What is between the Arachnoid layer and the pia mater?

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

New cards
78

What does the cerebrospinal fluid do

Protects the brain by preventing it from contacting the skull & maintains the blood brain barrier.

New cards
79

What does the blood brain barrier do?

Controls homeostasis for the brain and prevents infection.

New cards
80

Where is CSF produced

Spaces within the brain called ventricles

New cards
81
<p>What are the four ventricles?</p>

What are the four ventricles?

Lateral (Right and Left), 3rd and 4th ventricles.

New cards
82
<p>How are the lateral ventricles connected to the third ventricle?</p>

How are the lateral ventricles connected to the third ventricle?

The thin interventricular (inter= between ventricles) foramen → Foramen of Monro (hole)

New cards
83
<p>What are choroid plexuses</p>

What are choroid plexuses

Clusters of capillaries in the ventricles that secrete CSF, causing it to flow around the ventricles, then be absorbed by arachnoid granulations in the blood.

New cards
84

What is CSF constantly doing in the ventricles?

Being produced, circulated, and reabsorbed. (Continuously and closed)

New cards
85

Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain, divided into two hemispheres (right and left)

New cards
86

How are the two hemispheres of the brain connected?

A bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.

New cards
87

What is the surface of the cerebrum covered with?

Ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci)

New cards
88

What are the deep grooves that divide portions of the brain?

Fissures

New cards
89

What are the brain’s 3 major layers from superficial to deep?

Cerebral cortex, cerebral medulla, basal nuclei

New cards
90

Cerebral cortex

Gray matter, made of cell bodies and dendrites

New cards
91

Cerebral medulla

White matter, made of myelinated axons.

New cards
92

Basal nuclei

Islands of gray matter

New cards
93

How is the cerebrum divided?

It is divided into 4 lobes based on their functions, and are named for parts of the skull protecting them.

New cards
94
<p>Frontal lobe</p>

Frontal lobe

Controls voluntary movements like walking, reasoning + decision making. memory, predicting consequences. planning, verbal communication in Broca’s area

<p>Controls voluntary movements like walking, reasoning + decision making. memory, predicting consequences. planning, verbal communication in Broca’s area</p>
New cards
95

How is the frontal lobe separated from the parietal lobe?

The central sulcus

<p>The central sulcus</p>
New cards
96
<p>Parietal lobe</p>

Parietal lobe

Sensations like pain, temperature, and touch, visual spatial processing and body position.

<p>Sensations like pain, temperature, and touch, visual spatial processing and body position.</p>
New cards
97
<p>Occipital lobe</p>

Occipital lobe

Visual processing, vision and memory of objects.

New cards
98

How is the temporal lobe separated from the frontal lobe?

Lateral sulcus

<p>Lateral sulcus</p>
New cards
99
<p>Temporal lobe</p>

Temporal lobe

Controls memory, comprehension and pronunciation of words. smell and sound, emotional association of memories.

New cards
100

Diencephalon

Small nondescript region within the cerebrum

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2858 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(10)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard82 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)