AP PYSCH UNIT 3

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Sensation

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100 Terms

1

Sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

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2

sensory receptors

sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli

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3

perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us t recognize meaningful object and events

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4

bottom

up processing

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5

top

down processing

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6

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. Our consciousness can only focus on one thing at a time

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7

inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere not noticing something that happens in the background because youre focused on something else

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8

ex: the basketball gorilla video

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9

change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment, a form of international blindness. not noticing something has changed after your attention being diverted

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10

change deafness

failing to notice change in auditory stimulus after a brief interruption

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11

transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.

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12

Psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

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13

absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

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14

signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness.

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15

ex: different people respond differently to the same stimulus

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16

sublimal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

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17

you cannot detect it 50% of the time

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18

Priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

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19

Difference threshold

the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time

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20

a JUST noticeable difference

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21

increases with the size of each stimulus

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22

Weber's Law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)

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23

Subliminal Pursuasion

our opinions can be affected by a subliminal stimulus (the media's influence)

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24

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

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25

Wavelength

the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

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26

hue

the dimension of color we see that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth

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27

amplitude

height of wavelength/wave

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28

intensity

the amount of energy in a light wave or sound wave, which influences what we perceive as brightness or loudness. Intensity is determined by the wave's amplitude (height).

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29

cornea

the eye's clear, protective outer layer, covering the pupil and iris (light enters and it bent to provide focus)

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30

pupil

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

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31

Iris

a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening based on light intensity

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32

Lens

the transparent structure between/behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

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33

Retina

the light

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34

accomodation

in sensation and perception, the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

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35

myopia

nearsightedness

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36

Rods

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

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37

a chorus connection

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38

cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well

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39

optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

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40

blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there

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41

Fovea

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

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42

Young

Hemholtz Tricolor Theory

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43

Opponent

process theory

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44

2 stages of color processing

  1. The retina's red, green, and blue cones respond in varying degrees to different color stimuli, as the Young

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45
  1. The cones' responses are then processed by opponent

process cells, as Hering's opponent

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46

feature detectors

nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex that respond to the specific features of the stimulus such as shape, angle. or movement

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47

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step

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48

Perpetual set

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects (TOP DOWN) what we see, taste, feel, and see

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49

extrasensory perception (ESP)

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

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50

telepathy

mind to mind communication

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51

clairvoyance

perceiving remote events

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52

precognition

perceiving future events

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53

psychokinesis (telekinesis)

The ability to move objects with your mind

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54

Parapsychology

the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

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55

Gestalt

an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful and organized wholes.

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56

figure

ground perception

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57

grouping

the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

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58

Depth Perception

the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two

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59

Visual cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

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60

binocular cues

depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes

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61

Convergence

A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object

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62

retinal disparity

a binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance—the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.

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63

Monocular cues

depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

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64

relative height (monocular cue)

perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away. we assume the lower part of our figure

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65

relative size (monocular cue)

If we assume 2 objects are similar in size, most people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away

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66

interposition (monocular cue)

when one object partially blocks our view of another we perceive the the figure as closer

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67

Relative motion (monocular cue)

As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move

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68

linear perspective (monocular cue)

Parallel lines appear to meet in the distance. The sharper the angle of convergence, the greater the perceived distance.

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69

light and shadow (monocular cue)

shading produces a sense of depth consistent with our assumption that light comes from above

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70

phi phenomenon (stroboscopic movement)

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

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71

perceptual adaptation

in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

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72

Frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

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73

pitch

a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency

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74

middle ear

the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

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75

cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid

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76

inner ear

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

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77

sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness)

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves

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78

conduction hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

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79

cochlear implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

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80

Place theory

in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

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81

frequency theory (temporal theory)

in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

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82

volley principle

The theory holding that groups of auditory nerve fibers fire neural impulses in rapid succession, creating volleys of impulses.

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83

the alternating firing of neurons in combined frequency of over the 1000 max impulses

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84

nociceptors

sensory receptors mostly in the skin +muscles and organs that detect hurtful temperatures and pressures etc

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85

gate

control theory

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86

olfaction

sense of smell

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87

kinesthesia

the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

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88

vestibular sense

the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance by monitoring the position of the head through vestibular sacs

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89

sensory interaction

the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste

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90

McGurk Effect

when two senses disagree, we perceive a mix of both

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91

(hear one thing see another)

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92

Embodied cognition

in psychological science, the influence of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments

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93

Synesthesia

describing one kind of sensation in terms of another ("a loud color", "a sweet sound")

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94

somatosensory sense

touch and pain

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95

Gustation

sense of taste

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96

semicircular canals

three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement

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97

Gustave Fechner

founder of psychophysics

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98

Ernst Weber

perception; identified just noticeable difference

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99

David Hubel

sensation and perception, how visual cortex reacts to different stimuli

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100

Torsten Weisel

sensation and perception, how visual cortex reacts to different stimuli

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