Psychology 160 Exam 1 Terms

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behavioral perspective

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Psychology

136 Terms

1

behavioral perspective

the approach suggesting that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment

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behavior modification

a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones

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bioecological perspective

the perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals

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case study

study that involves extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or a small group of individuals

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classical conditioning

a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response

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Cognitive development

development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior

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Cognitive neuroscience approaches

approaches that examine cognitive development through the lens of brain processes

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cognitive perspective

the approach that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world

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Cohort

a group of people born at around the same time in the same place

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contextual perspective

the theory that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds

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continuous change

gradual development

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correlational research

research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists

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Critical period

a specific time during development when particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli is necessary for development to proceed normally

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cross sectional research

research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time

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dependent variable

the variable that researchers measure in a experiment

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discontinuous change

development that occurs in stages

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evolutionary perspective

the theory that seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance form our ancestors

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experiment

process in which investigator, called an experimenter, devises two different experiences for participants and then studies and compares the outcomes

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experimental research

research designed to discover causal relationships between various factors

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field study

a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting

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humanistic perspective

the theory contending that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior

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information processing approaches

models that seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use and store information

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laboratory study

a research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant

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lifespan development

the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire life span

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longitudinal research

research in which the behavior of one or more participants in a study is measured as they age

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maturation

the predetermined unfolding of genetic information

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naturalistic observation

type of correlational study in which some naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation

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operant conditioning

form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences

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personality development

development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person form another change over the life span

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physical development

development involving the body’s physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink and sleep

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psychoanalytic theory

the theory proposed by Sigmund freud that suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior

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psychodynamic perspective

the approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond people’s awareness and control

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psychosexual development

according to Freud, a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, focuses on a particular function and body part

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psychosocial development

the approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understanding of one another, as well as inner knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society

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sample

the group of participants chosen for the experiment

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scientific method

the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic orderly observation and the collection of data

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sensitive period

a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences

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sequential studies

research in which researches examine a number of different age groups over several points in time

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social cognitive learning theory

learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model

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social development

the way in which individuals interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life

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sociocultural theory

the approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture

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survey research

type of study where a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic

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theoretical research

research designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge

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theories

descriptions, explanations, and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, provide a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles

-MUST BE FALSIFIABLE

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45

id

pleasure

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ego

reality

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superego

morality

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48

Erik Erikson

believed society and culture presents conflicts at particular stages of life, that if not resolved, cause mental health problems

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Freud

Psychosexual; believed our personality developed through stages that we had to work through and face conflicts between biological drives and social expectations before moving onto the next stage

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Scaffolding

we have people around us who is teaching us things; support structures that we have around us that help us achieve things

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Brofenbrenner

bioecological systems; believed there are 5 different levels of context that are important to understand in order to know why people are the way they are

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Micro System

Immediate surrounding; I have a influence on you and you have a influence on me

Ex. Difficult baby frustrates a parent, who will then treat it more roughly

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Meso System

Connections between micro

Ex. Family; poor families may benefit more form a YMCA accessible than more wealthier families

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Exo

social setting; social events or services that indirectly affect children

ex. a parent gets a promotion and puts some of the money aside to live in a better school district

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Macro

cultural values or laws that indirectly affect children

ex. national or state laws on whether adolescents are treated like adults for criminal offenses

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Chrono

events that take place over time

ex. birth of a sibling, changes in policies

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Ethological approach

behaviors can be selected if they are adaptive

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Darwin

natural selection

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Konrad Lorenz

we have special periods that help us survive (imprinting, sensitive period)

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Observer Bias

our own personal experiences and world view lead us to draw interpretations form what we are seeing the tmay or may not be true

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observations

types of correlational study; only things that we can see directly

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Strengths of observation

provides info

describes behavior

description can help you generate a theory that you can test

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weakness of observations

valid, reliable interpretation

Can NOT confirm or disconfirm

Can NOT determine causality

Does little to explain or predict

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Correlation

specific type of method to help us with predicting behavior

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Strength of Correlations

Weak: 0.1-.03

Moderate: 0.4-0.6

Strong: 0.7-1.0

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Positive Correlation

both are moving the same direction at the same time

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Negative Correlation

two variables are going in the opposite directions

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Strengths of Correlation

Helps determine if there is a relationship

Help us predict behavior

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Weakness of Correlations

Cannot determine cause and effect

Some relationships exist just by change, random coincidence

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Selection Bias

random selection, random assignment

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Observer/Experimenter Expectancy

double blind, control/placebo group

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Subject Expectancy

placebo effect, double blind, control group, baseline comparison

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Longitudinal study

one big group of people you are following for a long period of time and you measure them repeatedly

ex. test 3-year old’s multiple times until they are 11

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Strengths of Longitudinal Studies

Avoids between-subject differences

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Weakness of Longitudinal Study

practice effects, selection bias, attrition

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Attrition

people dropping out of a study

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Cross Sectional

interested in how change happens over a period of time, take separate groups of people at different ages and study them

ex. Test 3, 4, 5 year old’s once

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Strengths of Cross Sectional Studies

Efficient, no practice effects, no attrition

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Weakness of Cross sectional studies

between subject differences, cohort effect, can’t see individual changes

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80

Sequential Designs

Take separate groups of people and test them multiple times until they are certain age

ex. Test 3, 4, 5 year olds multiple times until 9, 10, 11

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81

Genes

Molecules attach to genes to enhance or repress their expression

-Don’t directly affect behavior

-interact with environment to be expressed

Allele→Gene→DNA→Chromosome

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Polygenic inheritance

many genes working together to produce complex characteristics (human behavior)

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Identical twins

monozygotic; 1 fertilized egg

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Fraternal Twins

dizygotic; 2 seperate eggs

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85

Heritability estimate

a number that can range from 0-1 that describes how well variation in a given characteristic in a given population of people can be explained

→0= religion, language spoken, political preference \n →1= sickle cell disease \n →.6-.8=adult IQ scores; .3-.5 for child IQ scores (Change over time) \n →.6 in developing nations vs. .8 in more developed nations (change environment) \n →Most complex traits are in the middle

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86

Inheritance

what passed down directly from parent to offspring

→Look at individual person

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87

Sandra Scarr

First female full professor in psych at Yale University, also at UVA

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88

Active

we gravitate towards are genetic predisposition

→Micheal Jordan had certain genetic features (big hands, tall), so he was more suited to certain kinds of environment than others, so he paid more attention to those enviornment’s

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Passive

indirect

ex. due to a parents own interest they passively put their children in that environment (swimming)

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Evocative

our temperament demands

ex WWII example about pregnant mothers being stressed

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Chromosomal Disorders

Down syndrome, Klinefelter’s

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Down syndrome

Cell division error produces extra on Chromosome 21; maternal age increases risk

→Characteristic visible features, intellectual disability

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Klinefelter’s

Extra X chromosome (XXY); affects males

→Lower testosterone levels, reduced facial hair/muscle mass, produce little or no sperm

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Inherited Genetic Disorders

Fragile X, Huntingtons

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Fragile X

gene mutation on X chromosome turns off production of protein

→Large ears, forehead, intellectual disability

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Huntingtons

genetic defect, inherited, fatal, onset usually not until 30s or 40s

→Progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain

→No cure

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Prenatal Testing

Screening and Diagnostic

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Types of screenings

ultrasound, parental blood analysis

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Ultrasound

see pictures, can take measurements

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parental blood analysis

risk for fetus or future children

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