Animal Anatomy and Physiology: Embryology

studied byStudied by 3 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

gamete

1 / 101

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

102 Terms

1

gamete

sex cell

New cards
2

oocyte

female sex cell

New cards
3

spermatozoan

male sex cell

New cards
4

zygote

fertilization of egg and sperm

New cards
5

zona pellucida

a thick layer rich in glycoproteins that surrounds the egg

New cards
6

mitosis

asexual reproduction

New cards
7

meiosis

sexual reproduction

New cards
8

morula

solid ball of cells

New cards
9

blastocyte (blastula)

hollow ball of cells with blastocele

New cards
10

blastocele

fluid filled cavity in blastocyst

New cards
11

inner cell mass

a solid clump of cells in the blastocyst, which later develops into the embryo

New cards
12

trophoblast

outer cells of the blastocyst the become the placenta

New cards
13

gastrulation

formation of 3 germ layers from the inner cell mass

New cards
14

epiblast

the outermost layer of an embryo before it differentiates into ectoderm and mesoderm

New cards
15

hypoblast

portion of inner cell mass next to blastocele the becomes the endoderm

New cards
16

what are the three germ layers

ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

New cards
17

ectoderm

the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue

New cards
18

What does the ectoderm form from?

epiblast cells

New cards
19

mesoderm

middle germ layer that develops into muscles, and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems

New cards
20

endoderm

the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems

New cards
21

what does the endoderm form from?

hypoblast cells

New cards
22

what are the two layers of the mesoderm?

somatic and splanchnic

New cards
23

somatic layer

Adjacent to ectoderm and Gives rise to the bones, ligaments, blood vessels, and connective tissue of the limbs

New cards
24

splanchnic layer

Adjacent to the endoderm and forms the heart, gut muscles and blood vessels

New cards
25

coelom

fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm

New cards
26

notochord

A rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a vertebrate's body, providing the majority of its support

New cards
27

neurulation

The first step in the development of the nervous system

New cards
28

germ layers form. . .

tissues

New cards
29

tissues form . . .

organs

New cards
30

organs form. . .

organ systems

New cards
31

when organs are in place, what is formed?

fetus

New cards
32

What are the four types of tissues?

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

New cards
33

what is the function of epithelial tissues?

protection, secretion, absorption

New cards
34

what are simple epithelial cells?

single layer of cells

New cards
35

what are stratified epithelial cells?

two or more layers of cells

New cards
36

How are epithelial cells classified?

according to the shape of the cells that appear on top and number of cell layers

New cards
37

squamous

thin and plate-like

New cards
38

simple squamous epithelium

single layer of flattened cells

New cards
39

endothelium epithelium

the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

New cards
40

mesothelium epithelium

The simple squamous epithelium that lines the ventral body cavities

New cards
41

mesenchymal epithelium

a squamous epithelium lining the subarachnoid spaces of the brain and chambers of the eyes

New cards
42

cuboidal

cube-shaped cells, as tall as they are wide

New cards
43

simple cuboidal epithelium

single layer of cube shaped cells

New cards
44

what is the function of simple cuboidal epithelium?

secretion and absorption

New cards
45

where is simple cuboidal epithelium located?

Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface.

New cards
46

columnar epithelium

cells taller than they are wide

New cards
47

where is columnar epithelium located?

lining of digestive tracks

New cards
48

what is the function of columnar epithelium?

secretion and absorption

New cards
49

transitional epithelium

a stratified epithelium in which the shape of the surface cells changes (undergoes transitions) depending on the degree of stretch

New cards
50

pseudostratified epithelium

Tissue with cells that appear to be in layers, but actually has only one

New cards
51

Where is pseudostratified columnar epithelium located?

lining of respiratory tract

New cards
52

stratified squamous epithelium

protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion such as the mouth and esophagus

New cards
53

keratinizing

cells that fuse together to minimize fluid loss and increase protection

New cards
54

what are the two types of glands in the body?

exocrine and endocrine glands

New cards
55

exocrine glands

secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body

New cards
56

endocrine glands

glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream; ductless

New cards
57

what are the three types of physical glands?

holocrine, apocrine, and merocrine

New cards
58

holocrine glands

accumulate their products within them until they rupture

New cards
59

apocrine glands

secretions gather at the outer ends of glands and then pinch off

New cards
60

merocrine glands

Exocrine glands that secrete without losing cellular material

New cards
61

what are the two types of epithelial membranes?

mucous and serous

New cards
62

mucous membrane

Membrane that secretes mucus and lubricates the surface of organs to keep them moist.

New cards
63

Where are mucous membranes located?

digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts

New cards
64

serous membrane

Membrane that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body

New cards
65

Pericardium

The lining surrounding the heart

New cards
66

peritoneum

lines the abdominal and pelvic cavity

New cards
67

connective tissue

A body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts

New cards
68

what are the two types of connective tissue?

loose and dense

New cards
69

loose connective tissue

Tissue that binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. Contains collagenous, elastic, and recticular fibers.

New cards
70

what is loose connective tissue made up of?

fibroblasts

New cards
71

Fibroblasts

Cells that produce fibers in connective tissues

New cards
72

collagenous fibers

provide strength and are inelastic

New cards
73

elastic fibers

Flexible and "stretchy" fibers that add elasticity to tissue

New cards
74

reticular fibers

fine and highly branched, inelastic

New cards
75

amorphous ground substance

substance without form

New cards
76

fibrocytes

maintain connective tissue fibers and matrix

New cards
77

what are the two types of dense connective tissue?

dense regular and dense irregular

New cards
78

dense regular connective tissue

arranged in parallel bundles and form tendons

New cards
79

dense irregular connective tissue

fibers that are interwoven and compacted to form dense matting, found on dermis of skin

New cards
80

muscle tissue

A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.

New cards
81

What are the three types of muscle tissue?

skeletal, smooth, cardiac

New cards
82

skeletal muscle tissue

Voluntary muscle pulls on bones and causes body movements.

New cards
83

smooth muscle tissue

Involuntary muscle is found in the intestines, arteries, and veins.

New cards
84

cardiac muscle tissue

striated, involuntary, located only at the heart

New cards
85

nervous tissue

Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the body.

New cards
86

what are the two types of body cavities?

dorsal and ventral

New cards
87

what are the two cavities that make up the dorsal cavity?

cranial and vertebral

New cards
88

cranial cavity

houses the brain

New cards
89

vertebral cavity

contains the spinal cord

New cards
90

what are the two cavities that make up the ventral cavity?

thoracic and abdominopelvic

New cards
91

thoracic cavity

cavity housing lungs and heart

New cards
92

pleura

double-layered membrane surrounding each lung

New cards
93

visceral pleura

the inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung

New cards
94

parietal pleura

outer layer of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall

New cards
95

mediastinal space

Space separating the lungs.

New cards
96

abdominopelvic cavity

contains both the abdominal and pelvic cavities

New cards
97

pelvic cavity

Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

New cards
98

peritoneum

membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

New cards
99

what are the folds of the peritoneum called?

omentum, mesentery, and ligaments

New cards
100

omentum

a fold of peritoneum connecting the stomach with other abdominal organs.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)