Chapter 17 Quiz

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The Special Senses Include:

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178 Terms

1

The Special Senses Include:

smell (olfaction), taste (gustation), vision, hearing, and equilibrium (balance)

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Sense of smell

Called olfaction, is a chemical sense

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Smell is linked to the...

cerebral cortex and limbic system

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Olfactory epithelium

has 10-100 million receptors per square inch located in the superior part of the nasal cavity

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Odorants

chemicals that can stimulate the olfactory apparatus

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Olfactory epithelium is made up of:

  1. olfactory receptors

  2. supporting cells

  3. basal (stem) cells

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Olfactory receptors

receive stimulation, live about one month are bipolar (axon and dendrite) have olfactory hairs projecting from a dendrite into the air path

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Supporting (olfactory) cells

columnar epithelial cells provide support, nourishment, electrical insulation, and detox

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Basal (stem) cells

located between supporting cells produce new olfactory receptors (replaced monthly)

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Olfactory (Bowman's) glands

throughout olfactory epithelium produce mucous which dissolves odor-ants so that transduction can occur and maintains a moist surface

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Facial Nerve (cranial nerve VII)

when stimulated can set off olfactory glands and cause a runny nose or watery eyes

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Transduction

ANY special sense has to transduce

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Olfactory Transduction

occurs at or on the olfactory hair

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Basic Olfactory Pathway

1)Odorant causes chemical reaction 2)sodium enters cytosol 3)depolarization of olfactory receptor cell membrane occurs 4)nerve impulse is triggered 5)axons carry impulse through the cribiform plate 6)then terminate in the brain and synapse with dendrites of the olfactory bulb 7)olfactory bulb axons form the olfactory tract and go to the primary olfactory area of the cerebral cortex 8) some also go to the limbic system and hypthalamus

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Primary Olfactory area of the Cerebral Cortex

where the conscious awareness of smell begins

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Frontal Lobe

odor identification area

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Olfactory Adaptation

  1. Low threshold- we can detect odors down to the 1/25 billionth of a milligram per milliliter of air.

  2. Olfactory adaptation is RAPID- 50% after one second/ complete after one minute

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Hyposmia

reduced ability to smell affects about half of those over 65 and 75% over 80 caused by neurological changes, drugs, and smoking

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Gustation

Sense of Taste and is a Chemical sense

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Five Primary Tastes

sour, sweet, bitter, salty, and umami (meaty/savory)

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Umami

reported by Japanese scientist arises from monosodium glutamate (MSG)

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Taste Bud Anatomy

10,000 in the oral area Location: tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and epiglottis

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Taste bud Structure

oval body located mainly on the dorsal side of the tongue

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Taste bud: Has 3 kinds of epithelial cells

Supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells, and basal cells

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Supporting (gustatory) cells

surround and support about 50 gustatory receptor cells per taste bud

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Gustatory receptor cells

the working cell of the taste bud Lifespan: 10 days have gustatory hairs the extend through the taste pore to contact food particles

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Gustatory hairs

One hair for each receptor cells

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Basal cells: (gustatory)

produce supporting cells which become receptor cells

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Taste bud papillae

elevated areas on the tongue

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Papillae with taste buds

vallate, fungiform, and foliate

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Papillae without taste buds

filiform

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Vallate Papillae

Wall-like, form inverted V-shaped row at the back of the tongue, consists of 12 papillae each with 100-300 taste buds

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Fungiform Papillae

mushroom-like, contain 5 taste buds each, scatted over entire surface of tongue

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Foliate Papillae

leaf-like, located in small trenches on the lateral edge of tongue, most of their taste buds degenerate after childhood

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Filiform Papillae

thread-like, lack taste buds, have tactile receptors, increase friction during chewing

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Gustatory Adaptation

occurs in 1-5 minutes depending on the taste Most sensitive- bitterness Least sensitive- sweet and salty

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Vision

important to human survival cerebral cortex processes visual information

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The Eye

over half of the sensory receptors in the human body are in the eye

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Light

is electromagnetic radiation which is an energy in the form of waves that radiate from the sun

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Visible Light

Range: 400-700 nanometers (wavelength) The eye can only detect visible light

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Reflected VS. Absorbed

Our eyes see reflected light from an object not absorbed light

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Accessory structures of the Eye

eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, lacrimal apparatus, and extrinsic eye muscles

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Eyelids (Palpebrae) Functions

shade, protection, and lubrication

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Eyelid Structure

Upper and Lower Composed of: epidermis, dermis, subcut layer, orbicularis oculi muscle, tarsal glands, tarsal plate, palpebral fissure, and conjunctiva

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Orbicularis Oculi Muscle

Part of the eyelid (palpebrae) used for opening and closing (blinking)

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Tarsal glands and Plate

Tarsal glands (meibomian)- lubricant between lids; keeps them from sticking together Tarsal Plate- gives form and support to the eyelids

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Palpebral Fissure

gap between the eyelids

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Conjunctiva

thin mucous membrane that lines and protects the inner aspect of the eyelids and passes onto the anterior surface of the eyeball

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Eyelashes and Eyebrows Functions

Protection from foreign objects, perspiration, and rays of sunlight

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Lacrimal Apparatus Components in Order:

  1. lacrimal gland

  2. lacrimal duct 3)lacrimal canal-- into the superior or inferior lacrimal puncta

  3. lacrimal sac

  4. nasal cavity

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Lacrimal gland

produce and drain lacrimal fluid (tears)

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Lacrimal Apparatus Pathway

Lacrimal gland drain through lacrimal ducts, then through the lacrimal canals into the lacrimal puncta and then into the lacrimal sac of the nasal cavity

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Lacrimal fluid consists of:

water, salts, mucus, and lysozyme(protective bacteriocidal enzyme)

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Extrinsic Eye Muscles other name

also called "extraocular muscles " meaning=(outside the eyeball)

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Extrinsic eye muscles

Extend from the bony orbit of the eye onto the exterior surface of the eyeball at the sclera Six move each eye 4 rectus, 2 oblique innervated by cranial nerves III, IV, or VI

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Extrinsic Eye Muscle Types

4 rectus: superior, inferior, lateral, and medial 2 oblique: inferior and superior

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Adult eyeball diameter

1 inch (2.5 cm) 1/6 exposed, 5/6 protected by orbit

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Eyeball wall's 3 layers

Called Tunics

  1. fibrous tunic

  2. vascular tunic

  3. nervous tunic (retina)

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Fibrous Tunic:

superfical (outer) layer consists of: the cornea and the sclera

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Cornea

Part of the fibrous tunic the transparent coat over the iris which HELPS focus light onto the retina Composed of: non-keratinized stratified sq. epithelium, collagen fibers, fibroblasts, and simple sq. epithelium

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Sclera= hard

the hard layer of dense connective tissue covering the eye the "white" of the eye covers entire eye (except the cornea) gives rigidity, shape, support and attachment points for extrinsic muscles to the eye posteriorly pierced by the optic nerve (cranial nerve II)

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Sclera Vinous Sinus

Also called the canal of Schlemm opening at the junction of the cornea and sclera aqeuous humor drains into from the eye to the bloodstream

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Vascular Tunic

middle layer Composed of: choroid, ciliary body, iris, and pupil

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Choroid

highly vascular posterior part of vascular tunic lines internal surface of sclera it's blood vessels nourish the posterior retina contains melanocytes which produce melanin the melanin absorbs light rays and prevents the scattering of light throughout the eyeball

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Ciliary body

anterior part of vascular tunic, contains melanin Contains: ciliary processes and ciliary muscles

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Ciliary processes

folds on the internal surface of the ciliary body which secrete aqueous humor

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Ciliary muscles

circular band of smooth muscle which contracts or relaxes to adjust tightness of suspensory ligaments which are attached to the lens

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Suspensory ligaments

attached to the lens focus the lens for you

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Lens

the refractive medium of the eye transparent and avascular Function: focus light rays onto the retina made of layers of proteins called crystallins

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Presbyopia

lens loses elasticity and thus it's ability to focus

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Iris= means rainbow

colored portion of the eye Main function: regulate the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil lays between the cornea and the lens contains circular and radial muscle fibers attached to the ciliary processes for constriction and dilation contains melanin- gives eyecolor

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Pupil

hole in the center of the eye appears black because you're actually seeing the choroid and retina in the back of the eye

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Pupil diameter

regulated by the response of autonomic reflexes determined by constrictor pupillae and dilator pupillae

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Constrictor Pupillae

circular muscle fibers contract in bright light to SHRINK the pupil innervated by the parasympathetic fibers

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Dilator Pupillae

radial muscle fibers contract in dim light to dilate the pupil (enlarge) innervated by the sympathetic fibers

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Nervous Tunic (Retina)

the starting point of the visual pathway

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Retina

the inner layer of the posterior 2/3 of the eyeball

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Pigmented epithelium

part of the retina, no vision, absorbs stray light to help keep the image clear

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Retinal layers include

Neural layer--- 1) photoreceptor layer 2) bipolar cell layer 3) the ganglion cell layer

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Neural layer

a multilayered outgrowth of the brain

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Photoreceptor layer

with rods and cones: transduces light into action potentials which travel through the outer synaptic layer to the bipolar cell layer

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Bipolar cell layer

contains horizontal and amacrine cells which modify nerve impulses receives impulses from the photoreceptor layer and sends them through the INNER synaptic layer to the ganglion cell layer

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Ganglion cell layer

it's axons form the optic nerve leaving the eyeball at the optic disc(blind spot)-- impulses travel from here to the thalamus and primary visual cortex

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Optic disc

the blind spot, where there is no vision since no images can be formed there(no rods or cones)

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Central retinal artery and vein

nourish and drain blood from the retina exit through the optic disc

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Macula lutea

the exact center of the posterior portion of the retina corresponding to the visual axis of the eye-- fovea is located in the middle

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Fovea

fovea centralis is a small depression in the center of the macula latea sharpest vision occurs here Contains ONLY cones for color vision area of highest visual acuity or resolution

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Photoreceptors

Rods & Cones specialized cells that begin the process by which light is converted to a nerve impulse and sent to the brain

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Rods

rod-shaped/ over 120 million per retina allow us to see in dim light & discriminate between dark and light permit us to see shapes and movement (motions) absent from fovea and macula lutea dense at periphery of retina

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Cones

6 million per retina allow us to see color in brighter light for color vision and sharpness (acuity) concentrated in the fovea

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Opthalmoscope

used to examine the retina

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Detached retina

caused by head trauma fluid accumulates between layers of the retina causes distorted vision or blindness

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Age-Related Macular Disease

macular degeneration degeneration of the retina and macula lutea in older people Effects: keep peripheral vision but lose ability to look straight ahead

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Lens divides the interior of the eye into

  1. the anterior cavity &

  2. the vitreous chamber

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Anterior cavity

the space anterior to the lens has two chambers: anterior and posterior

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Anterior Cavity/ Anterior Chamber

the space between the cornea and the iris

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Anterior Cavity/ Posterior Chamber

between the iris and the lens

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Aqueous humor

fills both the anterior and posterior chambers of the anterior cavity nourishes the lens and cornea produced by the ciliary body replaced every 90 minutes

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Flow of aqueous humor

flows from posterior chamber into the anterior chamber through the pupil

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Vitreous chamber

large space between the lens and the retina contains the vitreous body

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