Exam 3

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not divided by mountains, fertile farmland surrounding, and easy to defend with the Alps forming a barrier to the north

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Western Civ H

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1

not divided by mountains, fertile farmland surrounding, and easy to defend with the Alps forming a barrier to the north

How did Italy’s geography make Rome perfectly positioned for access by land and sea?

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2

Etruscans

ruled Rome for a century and heavily influence Roman culture

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3

-Ended the rule of the Etruscans (led by Tarquin)

-Provided a model of roman female virtue

-Established the era of the Republic (Res Publica)

-The end of control by monarchs (Romans hated “kings” ever after)

What were the consequences of the “Rape of Lucretia”?

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4

Roman dictator

a temporary executive authority given in time of crisis, limited to the life of the crisis (about 6 mths) – exercised complete control!

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5

Imperium

the power to command Roman citizens

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6

Roman Senate

could only advise the magistrates (consul)

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7

Senate

Initially the ________ was only 300 of the highest-ranking aristocratic men

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8

Senate and the People of Rome

What does SPQR stand for?

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9

Paterfamilias

The __________ provided the basis of Roman social structure and law

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10

Consuls, Senate, Popular Assemblies

Government in the Republic featured (in order of precedence)

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11

popular assemblies

The power of the people (the Plebeians) resided in the ______ _________ from which 10 Tribunes of the Plebs were elected

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12

full Roman citizenship

Rome coerced conquered peoples into behaving well by offering favored allies what?

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13

Carthaginians

The __________ came from North Africa (modern Tunisia)

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14

the Carthaginians withdraw from Sicily and paid Rome reparations

What was the outcome of the First Punic War?

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15

Find Rome on a map

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16

Find Carthage on a map

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17

Hannibal bringing the fight to Rome by marching his infantry and elephants over the Alps

What did the Second Punic War involve?

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18

Hannibal defeated the Romans

What was the outcome of the Battle of Cannae?

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19

Carthage refused to send him men, money, or siege machines

Why did Hannibal’s campaign in Italy fail?

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20

the total destruction of Carthage

What was the result of the Third Punic War?

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21

large farms or latifundia

By The later Republic the majority of Roman slaves worked on the what?

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22

teachers, musicians, and artists

Which Roman slaves were treated better than the farm slaves?

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23

husbands or fathers

Roman women remained the legal property of their ____________ – per the “paterfamilias” social structure

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24

concrete

Large-scale Roman architecture was enabled by the invention of what?

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25

Spartacus

Who was a slave and a gladiator who led a rebellion against Rome?

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26

Tiberius Gracchus

Who ran for Tribune in 133 BCE on a platform of giving back farms to landless poor farmers?

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27

recruiting poor volunteers, training them as top-rate soldiers, made them swear a loyalty oath only to him

How did Marius transform the military?

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28

the Legions were loyal to and answered to the generals not to the Senate

What started a pattern by which political power increasingly came under the control of military generals?

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29

political faction in ancient Rome that supported the interests of the common people and sought to limit the power of the aristocracy

Who was the Populares?

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30

Julius Caesar

Who was a general who rose to power after military success in Gaul and was named Emperor for Life just days before he was assassinated by the Sena?

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31

“Ides of March” March 15

When was Julias Caesar killed?

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32

Caesarion

Who was the child of Julias Caesar and Cleopatra?

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33

Ptolemy

Cleopatra was a member of what dynasty?

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34

suicide by asp bite

How did Cleopatra die?

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35

Who made up the First Triumvirate?

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36

demonstrated his willingness to disobey orders from the Senate and Pompey and attack Pompey’s legions

What was the significance of Caesar “crossing the Rubicon”?

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37

making a decision you cannot turn back from

What does “crossing the Rubicon” mean today?

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38

his grand-nephew Octavian who ruled as Augustus

Who ruled after Caesar’s death?

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39

princep, first citizen

What did Octavian/Augustus call himself instead of King?

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40

-His candidates were successful in official elections

-Participation in popular elections declined

-His popularity soared, as he followed proper legal forms that led to the perception that he worked with the Senate.

What was Rome like under Augustus?

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41

the Cult of Emperor

What did Augustus create to unite a religiously and ethically diverse society?

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42

Livia

Wanted her son Tiberius to succeed Augustus and possibly poisoned him so Tiberius would be Emperor.

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43

Julia

Who was forced to marry Tiberius, had affairs with other men, and was subsequently exiled for her crimes?

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44

adultery

Augustus was concerned about decline of morality in Roman society and outlawed what?

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45

Pax Romana

Augustus began a period of relative peace called what?

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46

Teutoberg Forest

Expansion of the Empire stopped after the Roman defeat at where?

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47

Praetorian Guard

Who were elite troops given the task of protecting the emperor (bodyguards)?

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48

The Aeneid

What was the name of Virgil’s poem about the founding of Rome which linked it to Troy?

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49

Claudius Caligula Nero

The most competent Julio-Claudian emperor was ____________ ; the least competent (and crazy) were __________ and _________.

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50

Senate

All the Julio-Claudians drew power away from what?

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51

False, he probably wasn’t even there

True or False? Nero “fiddled while Rome burned.”

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52

little boots

What does Caligula translate to>?

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53

Caligula

Who was best known for his sexual depravity, incest, and threatening to make his horse a consul?

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54

Tiberius regularly engaged in child abuse and murder by throwing people of the 1000-foot high cliffs

How was Caligula traumatized by living with his uncle Tiberius?

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55

smother by the Praetorian guard on Caligula’s orders

How was Tiberius likely killed?

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56

murdered by the Praetorian Guard

How was Caligula killed?

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57

Claudius

Who did the Praetorian Guard install as emperor after Caligula’s murder?

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58

poisoned with mushrooms by his wife Agrippina, for her son Nero

How did Claudius die?

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59

Nero

Who came to power at 16 with his mother Agrippina who hoped to share power as co-emperor?

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60

he loved Poppaea and they were both married

Why did Nero and Agrippina fall out?

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61

Nero kicked her and their unborn child to death in a fit of rage

How did Poppaea die?

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62

castrated a boy who looked like Poppaea and pretended it was her

How did Nero respond to Poppaea’s death?

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63

Nero blamed them for the fire in 64 CE

What caused the first big persecution of Christians?

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64

Boudica

What Queen of the Iceni led the tribes of the southeast in revolt against the Roman army?

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65

Flavians

What was the dynasty to follow the Julio-Claudians after Nero?

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66

Vespasian, Titusm and Domitian

Who were the 3 Flavian emperors?

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67

the five “good emperors”

Who created a period of 100 years of relative peace and prosperity, established education programs for the poor, and made extensive building programs?

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68

Hadrian

Who built a wall that spanned the entire territory of Britannia?

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69

Roman Army and Auxiliaries

During the Empire the ________ ______and _____________was the only mean of maintaining power in such a massive empire with borders that were always being threatened by “barbarian” tribes.

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70

Marcus Aurelius

Who was regarded as a philosopher king (in the mold of Plato’s ideal ruler)?

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71

Stoicism

Marcus Aurelius was deeply influenced by the philosophy of what?

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72

gladiatorial shows

Imperial Rome created government backed spectacles used to pacify the masses called what?

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73

Commodus

Who was Marcus Aurelius’ son that declared himself “Hercules” and participated in the gladiatorial games?

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74

Mithraism

What was the name of the mystery cult in the early Roman Empire that presented similar stories to Christianity – personal salvation, masculine values, and a communal supper. It was a monotheistic religion that was widely practiced by the Roman soldiers.

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75

Diocletian

Who ordered the last great persecution of Christians?

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76

Diocletian

Who divided the Roman empire into 4 (the Tetrarchy) as a way of saving the peace and order and provide an orderly succession?

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77

Perpetua

Who was the female Christian martyr that was put into the arena to be eaten by lions, but when the lions did not touch her, and a gladiator was sent in to finish the job she committed suicide?

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78

Arianism

What philosophy said that there could be no Holy Trinity because Jesus was the son of God and therefore subordinate not equal?

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79

the Council of Nicea in 325

What defined Christ as being of the same substance as God and therefore was co-equal?

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80

the creation of Constantinople as the “New Rome”

What was Constantine’s most enduring reform?

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81

find Constantinople on a map

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82

Battle of the Milvian Bridge

Constantine’s conversion to Christianity began with a vision of the Chi Ro in the sky before the _______________________. He promised to convert if he won.

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83

Byzantine Empire

The Eastern Roman Empire became the what?

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84

Visigoths Balkans

In the late 4th Century the __________ and othr Germanic tribes were pushed into the __________ because of pressure from the Mongols and Huns who were forced from their lands by climate change.

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85

Alaric

Who was the Visigothic king who sacked Rome in 410 AD- the people opened the gates and let him and his army in believing thst he would be a liberator?

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86

the Huns

What group pushed in from the east due to climate change and put pressure on Western tribes and Rome itself?

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87

Romulus Augustulus

Who was the last Emperor of Rome?

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88

Theodoric

Which Ostrogothic king conquered Odoacre the Visigoth for the Eastern Emperor?

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89

Justinian

Which emperor rejoined the Western and Eastern Empire?

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90

codification of Roman law

What was Justinian’s most important, lasting contribution to western civilization?

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91

Nika Riots

What nearly caused Justinian to flee Constanople, if it hadn’t been for his wife, Theodora?

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92

Theodora

Who was the actress/prostitue who married Justinian and became empress and co-ruler of Rome?

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93

roads, bridges, the Hippodrome, and public baths

Justinian was responsible for massing building projects including what?

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94

Hagia Sophia

What the name of Justinian’s most famous building- a grand cathedral with a vaulted dome that symbolized the sphere of heaven?

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95

after the Ottoman Turks sacked Constantinople in the 15th Century

When would the Hagia Sophia be converted into a mosque?

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96

plague

What was Justinian’s reign seriously weakened by in 541- killing 40% of the population?

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97

Byzantine Emperors

Who controlled church and state by appointing the patriarch (held of the Eastern church), wielded absolute power, were crowned in sacred ceremonies, were chosen by god to preserve the Christian faith?

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98

True

True or False? The Byzantine Emperors did not interact with the people or display Christ-like humility.

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99

Iconoclastic Controversy

What theological debate threatened the empire- some thought all the paintings and images in churches were idolatry that needed to go away.

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100

Mecca, in current-day Saudi Arabia

Where was Muhammad born?

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