BSC2085 EXAM 1

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which of the 7 basic life processes, "biochemical reactions that occur within the body divided into two phases, catabolism and anabolism"

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anatomical language, body plan and organization, cell biology

115 Terms

1

which of the 7 basic life processes, "biochemical reactions that occur within the body divided into two phases, catabolism and anabolism"

metabolism

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2

which of the 7 basic life processes "removal of the waste byproducts of metabolic rxns. Of great importance, as it prevents substances from reaching toxic levels in the body (ex breathing out co2

excretion

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3

which of the 7 basic life processes "the ability of the human body to detect changes in the environment and make appropriate responses" ex burn finger on pan, immediatley pull it back

responsiveness

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4

which of the 7 basic life processes "change in position or location" ex. heart pumps blood around the body

movement

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5

which of the 7 basic life processes "increase in body size due to cell development and differentiation"

growth

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6

which of the 7 basic life processes "process by which an unspecialized cells become specialized" (red and white blood cells were once the same type of cell

differentiation

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7

which of the 7 basic life processes "formation of new cells in order to repair/replace/grow new tissue. can also refer to fertilization of an egg by a sperm at the beginning of a new life

reproduction

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8

what are the 2 phases of metabolism and define them

catabolism: chem rxn that break down complex substances into simpler substances, anabolism: simple to complex

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9

5 levels of structural organization of my body and brief description

chemical (atoms/96% of body is CHON,molecules)-cellular(cells)-tissue(groups of similar cells w similar jobs)-organ(structure made of 2 or more diff types of tissues, recognizable shapes)-system(group of diff organs working together for a single purpose)

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10

4 types of tissue

epithelial (skin), connective (cartilage), muscular (skeletal, cardiac, smooth), nervous (send messages)

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11

the () system: skin and associated skin components (hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails)

integumentary system

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12

the () system: protects the body from envm, excretes metabolic waste, makes vit D, detects pain/temp change/ touch

integumentary system

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13

the () system: consist of the bones and cartilage associated with joints

skeletal system

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14

the () system: protects body, provides support and frame for muscles, contain bone marrow for blood cells to form in, stores minerals like calcium

skeletal system

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15

the () system: consists primarily of voluntary () muscles, but there are 2 other types of muscles too that are both involuntary, () found in the heart and () within internal linings of organs and stuff

smuscular, skeletal, cardiac, smooth

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16

the () system: enable body to move through muscle contraction/relaxation,maintains posture,role in thermoregulation

muscular system

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17

the () system: consists of () organs (pituitary thyroid, pineal, parathyroid and adrenal glands) and the () tissue embedded within the organs and within the hypothalamus, pancreas, thymus, heart stomach, etc.

endocrine system

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18

the () system: deals w all things horomone

endocrine system

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19

the () system: consist of the blood, heart, and blood vessels

cardiovascular system

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20

the () system: pumps blood around body through blood vessels to deliver oxygen/nutrients to cells and remove waste, regulates water content of body fluids, acid/base balance, and temp of body

cardiovascular system

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21

the () system: consists of lymphatic fluid, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, lymph, nodules, thymus

lymphatic system

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22

the () system: kind of like the taxi or Uber of the body it transports things where they need to go such as lipids from the G.I. tract to the blood. Also responsible for development of lymphocytes, which are the cells responsible for fighting disease.

lymphatic system

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23

the () system: consists of air passageways the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs

respiratory system

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24

the () system: oxygen/co2 gas exchange with the blood, and also involved in regulation of acid/base balance, and sound production

respiratory system

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25

the () system: consists of the digestive track: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine as well as organs that assist digestion: salivary, glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

digestive system

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26

the () system: consist of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra

urinary system

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27

the () system: filters blood to extract, metabolic waste and maintain acid base and mineral balance regulate production of red blood cells (kidneys produce a horomne that stimulate red blood cell production)

urinary system

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28

the () system: female contains gonads (ovaries), uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, labia, mammary glands, male consist gonads testes), epididymes, ductus deferens, penis, scrotum

reproductive system

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29

The existence and maintenance of stable conditions inside the body, despite dynamic and unpredictable, internal and external environment it is achievedby monitoring and regulating variables/controlled conditions, such as temp, salinity, ion, concentration, oxygen levels, and pH.

homeostasis

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30

define these homeostasis vocab terms: set point, set point range, normal limit

set point: normal VALUE, set point range: normal RANGE of VALUES, normal limit: UPPER AND LOWER VALUE of set point range

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31

() feedback system negates/reverses change in a controlled condition, bringing it back within the normal limits

negative

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32

() feedback system promotes/advances change from a previous state to get the controlled condition back where it should be

positive

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33

Feedback system: stimulus

Disruption or change in a controlled condition or environment. Example change in temp or pH.

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34

Feedback system: receptor

Sensors in the body that detect and respond to stimulus

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35

Feedback system: control center

Region of brain that receive stimulus from receptor and determines the appropriate response and relays info about this response to the effector, example of control center: hypothalamus and pituitary gland

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36

Feedback system: effector

carries out the response the control center told it to, this is followed by a positive or negative feedback loop

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37

examples of positive feedback system and negative feedback systems

lactation, increased contractions during labor VS thermoregulation, blood sugar regulation

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38

homeostatic imbalance outside the regulatable bounds can cuase () or even ()

disease, death

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39

Do you know all of the anatomical language stuff (readings and lab knowt.io)?

if not, go quiz yourself on that until you reach 100% accuracy

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40

2 main types of cells: () and (). () consists of () and () while () consists of all other cells in the body.

germ and somatic. germ: sperm, octye. somatic

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41

example somatic cells: epithelial (skin), blood cells (red(o/co2 exchange) white(disease), bone cells (the 4 osteo), fibroblast (collagen), muscle cell, nerve cell

use your memory of the 4 tissue types and their functions to remeber (tissues are made of similar cells)

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42

Flexible membrane that surrounds all cells forming a barrier between the intracellular fluid and extra cellular fluid

plasma membrane

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43

The main structural framework of the plasma membrane is the (), made up of 2 layers of ()

lipid bilayer, phospholipid molecules

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44

Phospholipid molecules are amphipathic bc they have () polarity. () phosphate head that is hydro-() and 2 () fatty acid tails that are hydro-()

dual, polar, phillic (love water), nonpolar, phobic (hate water)

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45

The plasma membrane is fluid because the phospholipids can sway, the fluidity is dependent on two factors, the composition of lipids, so how close together or far away they are also the amount of () present

cholesterol (provides structure)

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46

describe how the composition / closness of phospholipids effect fluidity

The fatty acid tails of phospholipids can either be saturated or unsaturated. phospholipids with a straight saturated fatty acid tails align closely so they have less fluidity. the ones with the unsaturated tails, have a kink, so they're not as close together thus more fluid.

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47

the fluid () model is used to describe the plasma membrane

mosaic

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48

glycolipids

peripheral lipids that sit on the outer surface

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49

membrane proteins can either be () or () define each

periphal (sit on the surface attached to hydrophilic heads) or integral (span the whole membrane smack in the middle)

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50

membrane protein: channel protein

allow ions and water through (ex sodium and potassium ion channels)

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51

example of channel protein

sodium ion channel

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52

membrane protein: carrier/transport protein

use structural change to push smthn from one side to the other (ex glucose carrier protein)

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53

example of carrier protein

glucose carrier protein

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54

membrane protein: receptor protein

recognize and bind to specific molecules (ex, G-protein receptor)

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55

example of receptor protein

G-protein receptor

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56

membrane protein: enzymes

active site catalyzes specific chem rxns

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57

membrane protein: cell adhesion molecules

structure support and adhere 2 adjacent cells together (ex. desmosomes)

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58

example of cell adhesion molecules

desmosomes

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59

membrane protein: cell identity markers

cell ssn: enable a cell to be recognized and distinguishe, helps find the invaders/foreign cells

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60

example of cell identity markers

blood type markers

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61

() transport is when no energy is required to move substances, they move with/down their gradient (high to low conc.) NOT against it

passive transport aka "diffusion"

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62

() transport is when energy is required to move substances AGAINST their gradient

active transport

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63

3 types of passive trasnport

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis

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64

3 types of active transport

primary active transport, secondary active transport, vesicular transport

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65

small non-polar molecules just pass right through the plasma memb. w no help

simple diffusion

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66

diffusion of high charge or large molecules w help from ion channel or carrier protein

facilitated diffusion

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67

the type of facilitated difussion using ion channel to let high charge molecules pass through

channel-mediated facilitated diffusion

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68

the type of facilitated diffusion using carrier protein to let large molecules pass through

carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion

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69

diffusion of water with it's conc gradient (high to low conc) through a semi-perm membrane

osmosis

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70

pressure exerted down by solutes within a solution across a selectivley permeable membrane

osmotic pressure

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71

tonicity definition?

measure of difference in osmotic pressure

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72

isotonic solution

conc of solutes in solution is same as conc of solutes in cytosol

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73

hypotonic solution

conc of solutes in solution is less than conc of solutes in cytosol

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74

hypertonic solution

conc of solutes in solution is more than conc of solutes in cytosol

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75

ex of hypotonic sol

water moves into the cell, cell expands and eventually ruptures (when this occurs in red blood cells it's called hemolysis

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76

ex of hypertonic sol

water leaves the cell, cell shrinks (crenation)

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77

type of active transport that uses specific carrier proteins (aka pumps) driven by ATP hydrolisis (eg, sodium potassium pump)

primart active transport

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78

type of active transport that is driven by the potential energy different created from the sodium potassium pump

secondary active transport

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79

sodium potassium pump works constantly to maintain low intracellular conc of () and high intracellular conc of ()

low sodium, high potassium

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80

() moves 2 solutes in the same direction, () moves 2 solutes in opposite directions

symporter (sodium/glucose or sodium/aminoacid), antiporter (sodium/calcium or sodium/hyrdogen)

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81

3 types of vesicular transport: () substances moved into a cell, () moved out of cell, () substance is moved in then across then out of the cell

endocytosis, exocytosis, transcytosis

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82

3 main types of endocytosis

receptor-mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis

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83

receptor-mediated endocytosis

receptor on cell surface bind to specific substances and vesicle forms around it drawing it in cell

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84

phagocytosis

cells engulf and dispose large substances (dead cells and pathogens/bacteria)

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85

pinocytosis

drinking of small amounts of extracellular fluid

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86

how does exocytosis occur?

substances packed in golgi complex and transported via membrane-bound vesicles

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87

how does transcytosis occur?

substance is moved in by endocytosis then across then out of the cell through exocytosis

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88

cytoplasm vs cytosol

cytoplasm just means EVERYTHING between the plasma membrane exterior and nucleus interior. cytosol is SPECIFICALLY REFERRING TO THE INTRACELLULAR FLUID

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89

cytosol allows chem rxns to take place and stores substrates and organelles (T/F)

T

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90

control center of the cell

nucleus

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91

contains most of the cell's genetic material encoded inside DNA molecules

nucleus

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92

DNA molecules in the cell are arranged and folded into ()

chromosomes

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93

do all of the cells in the body of a nucleus?

no, all but the red blood cells do (thus they do not reproduce and just die young). some very large cells have more than one nucleus

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94

nuclear envelope (describe), ribosomes (), nuclear pores ()

forms a double membrane around the nucleus/seperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm,attach to nuclear envelope to make protein, regulate movement of substances across nuclear envelope

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95

nucleoplasm (describe): nucleoli (), chromatin ()

jelly-like fluid similar to cytosol but is INSIDE nucleus, location of assembly of subunits from rRNA, contain DNA

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96

3 parts of ctyoskeleton organelle

microfilaments (movement and mechanical support) intermediate filaments (cell strength/adhesion) microtubules (cell shape /structure, facilitate movement of organelles)

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97

centrosome & centriole organelles

Responsible for formation of my mitotic spindles during cell division

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98

tubular projection organelles

cilia, flagella, microvilli

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99

Hair like extensions that produce coordinated movement, some can also provide sensation

cilia

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100

Elongated extensions of a cell with a microtubule core; generate a forward movement

flagella

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