exp 4304 exam 2

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Research in the 21st century demonstrates that

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1

Research in the 21st century demonstrates that

both positive and negative emotions may determine how adaptive we are in our daily lives.

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2

Which of the following terms has traditionally been used to describe the power of emotions?

"The beast within"

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3

What view of intense emotions was supported by 20th century research?

Intense emotions are dysfunctional and opposed to rationality.

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4

Which of the following is true about the measurement of emotion - focused coping skills?

There was a wide disparity in items used to measure emotion focused coping.

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5

The active movement toward versus away from a stressful encounter is the definition of what term?

Emotional approach

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6

What are the two related but distinct processes involved in approach-oriented emotion focused coping?

Emotional Processing and Emotional Expression

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7

"I let my feelings come out freely" measures which distinct process involved in approach-oriented emotion-focused coping?

Emotional Expression

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8

In a study examining different types of coping as predictors of disease severity of acute coronary syndrome, patients who used emotion focused coping

lower severity overall

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9

In dealing with the stress of chronic racism, had better self-esteem greater life satisfaction were those who

felt that they had ways of coping emotionally with their experiences.

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10

In situations involving racial discrimination, one effective strategy used to escape the feelings of negativity associated with a disadvantaged group was

to use positive reframing.

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11

Compared to Westerners, studies show that people in China

Commonly use emotional suppression, but do not experience the same negative correlations as Westerners

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12

In what way could approach-oriented emotion focused coping work to our benefit?

Approach coping could foster a better understanding of our experiences.

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13

Which of the following could result from facing stressors directly and repeatedly?

An individual could habituate to certain predictable negative experiences.

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14

What particular brain structure plays a significant role in processing matters of emotional significance?

The Amygdala

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15

According to LeDoux, during stress-free life circumstances, our thinking and coping are powered by the___________ , and during more stressful times, our thinking and coping are powered by the____________.

hippocampus; amygdala

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16

With respect to neurological reactions to negative pictures,

Asians were able to control their neurological reactions, but European Americans were not.

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17

Tina tells an instructor that she is feeling frustrated with one of the assignments for class. What process involved in approach-oriented emotion-focused coping is reflected in Tina's behavior?

Emotional Expression

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18

Jim has begun to realize that his angry feelings toward his wife are valid and important. What process involved in approach-oriented emotion-focused coping is Jim demonstrating?

Emotional Processing

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19

Who defines emotional intelligence as an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that help us deal with the demands of the environment?

Bar-On

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20

In 1960, Mowrer addressed the prevailing thoughts about emotions undermining intelligence by suggesting what?

That emotion was "a high order of intelligence."

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21

What belief serves as the basis for the Salovey and Mayer four-branch model of emotional intelligence?

Skills needed to reason about emotions are learned

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22

According to Salovey and Mayer, why are skills in perceiving necessary for the development of emotional intelligence?

Because they are considered a threshold competency

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23

According to the Salovey and Mayer four branch ability model of emotional intelligence,

the skills needed to use emotional materials to improve reasoning can be learned.

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24

What happens when emotions are used in efforts to make good decisions?

Emotional intelligence is increased.

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25

What kind of occupations appeal to emotional intelligent individuals?

Occupations involving social interactions such as teaching and counseling

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26

Which behavior would a high EI (emotionally intelligent) individual avoid?

Smoking

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27

What is more important than scoring high on an emotional intelligence test?

Knowing one's level at this group of skills

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28

People who are high in emotional intelligence are likely to

directly involve themselves in situations to assist other people.

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29

Good teachers are able to assess

make sense of the emotional content in the room.

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30

in Chapter 7, how was Maria able to share her emotional intelligence with the students in her class?

Maria shared her emotional intelligence by modeling her ability to manage her own emotions.

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31

Which of the following plays a role in determining the extent to which we are able to make the most of our emotional experiences?

Cultural norms

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32

What is the name of Carstensen's theory which says that older adults focus less on negative emotions, engage more deeply with emotional content, and savor the positive in life?

The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

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33

How does our unique ability to monitor time across the entire span of life impact emotion-related goals?

It determines how much energy is dedicated to emotional goals.

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34

Stanford psychologist Laura Carstensen demonstrated that young people and their older counterparts manage emotion-laden material quite differently. More specifically, what did younger participants attended to more quickly?

Negative images

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35

Daring college age people with older people, Carstensen found that

both older and younger people remembered positive and negative information to the same degree, but older people recalled the positive material more quickly than the negative material.

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36

Unlike young people, older individuals seem to orient to what type of goals?

Here-and-now goals

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37

What is the likelihood that when we experience an overwhelming emotional event we will share the experience with a friend or family member within the same day of occurrence?

95% probability

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38

Psychologist James Pennebaker conducted research asking the experimental group to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings. The control group wrote about non-emotional topics. His findings were that

the act of writing about emotional topics proved to be distressing for the experimental group initially, but more beneficial in the long term.

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39

People who are high in the trait of alexithemia have difficulty

Identifying and making sense of emotions.

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40

Who benefits the most from using emotional storytelling to process intense negative emotions?

People who do not have the skills to work with the emotionally-laden content of life.

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41

Which of the following factors is at work when someone experiencing emotional upheaval is sharing their story?

Cognitive Processing

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42

Which of the following benefits results from using storytelling to teach children to develop their own emotional frameworks?

Better attachment parents

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43

When parents allow their own emotional responses to characters in a story to be seen, children may benefit through which process?

Modeling

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44
  1. Strategically working with emotions within a social context sums up the potency of which positive therapeutic intervention?

Emotional storytelling

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45

What do the authors suggest for making the most of emotions in your everyday life?

Act as if you are emotionally intelligent for a day.

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46

Using more "feeling words" when interacting with friends and family will improve emotional skills in which domain of life?

Work

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47

Dealing with negative emotions in a manner that result in rumination might be described as what?

Maladaptive

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48

Which method for dealing with the emotional aspects of life could lead to better functioning?

Balancing approach and avoidance tendencies

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49

Unbalanced attempts at processing feelings may result in what?

Poor decision-making

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50

The concept of egotism as a motive for helping others is most closely related to which term?

Esteem

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51

Because of the positive outcome, what is one of the most influential human motives that drives many human actions?

Egotism

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52

Scholars have suggested that egotism fuels altruistic behavior because

all altruistic actions produce an underlying benefit.

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53

A business owner annually donates a large sum of money to a local charity, which publicly announces the donation. The business owner enjoys the advertisement. Which motive best explains this behavior?

Egotism Motive

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54

Which of the following represents an egotistic reason for altruistic behavior?

a. Receiving external rewards b. Lessening our own sense of guilt c. Reducing distress from seeing another person's misery *d. All of the above are egoistic motives.

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55

A child is playing with her sibling and accidentally gets too rough. The sibling ends up falling down and getting hurt. The child responsible immediately helps the sibling up and offers comfort to attempt to stop the crying for fear of being punished by her parents. What is this an example of?

Egotism - Motivated Altruism

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56

A student is walking in the hall and sees another student drop their books. The thought process behind helping the student who dropped the books included a feeling of slight sorrow for them. Which motive best explains this behavior?

Empathy Motive

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57

In the grocery store, a woman sees someone attempting to reach a box from the top shelf, which is clearly out of reach. The woman feels compassion for the person and gets the box down for them. What is this example best describing?

The Empathy Motive

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58

Research on the genetic and neural foundations of empathy has indicated that empathy has_______ degree of heritability.

a moderate

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59

Which part of the brain is related to the development of empathy, according to researchers?

The function of mirror neurons

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60

Which of the following factors is believed to underlie an evolutionary basis for human empathy?

Being able to recognize altruistic traits resulted in selecting a similarly altruistic mate.

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61

Which of the following is true about gender and altruism?

Both men a women were more appreciative of altruistic traits in long-term relationships.

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62

Which of the following terms regarding altruism has the greatest applicability to a collectivist society?

Altruism niche

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63

Teaching people that it is okay to feel good about helping others is one way to increase altruistic behaviors. What is another advantage associated with learning this concept?

People develop a higher sense of self-esteem

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64

By engaging in volunteer work, one can invoke which kind of feelings?

Egoistic feelings

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65

Which of the following has been away to teach greater empathy and thus increase the probability of altruistic actions?

Interact more frequently with people who need help.

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66

Which of the following can help to enhance empathic behaviors?

Pointing out similarities between oneself and others

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67

Bobbie has been working many hours of volunteer work the last six months. It began as a requirement for a class, but Bobbie now feels closer to people and has realized that others are very similar to her. What does this realization due to increased interaction demonstrate?

Increased empathy

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68

Which of the following is a way that the author suggest helping children to develop empathy?

Help children to develop a wide and diverse social circle.

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69

When one feels the extreme need to consider oneself special and unique and different from others, it may create difficulty with others. Which of the following will desires such as these hinder?

Empathy

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70

Sarah's car has broken down by the side of the busy highway, and is starting to smoke. Many cars continue to pass her by without stopping to help. Which of the following individuals is most likely to stop and help her?

An off-duty police officer

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71

Who is most likely to help someone pick up dropped groceries?

a. George, who is retired. b. Keisha, who is putting herself through school. c. Jordan, who is financially well-off. *d. Suki, who volunteers at an animal shelter.

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72

The "Dictator Game", in which people have an opportunity to distribute tokens, has been used to understand altruism from what point of view?

Economics

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73

Timmy gets a flat tire and notices his neighbor running out of the house as if he were late for work. Timmy decides not to ask for help because the neighbor looked to be in such a hurry. The neighbor, however, notices Timmy and kindly comes over and offers his assistance. What is Timmy most likely feeling toward his neighbor?

Gratitude

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74

Which of the following is NOT a component related to the emergence of gratitude?

The two people involved in the positive outcome are not related.

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75

Sammy is trying to carry many grocery bags to her car on a rainy afternoon. Her daughter is with her and offers to help, which creates a feeling of gratitude in Sammy. According to the theory presented by Ortony and colleagues, how would this feeling of gratitude toward Sammy's daughter differ from that of a stranger who was not expected to help?

The gratitude toward the stranger would be stronger

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76

Which of the following would predict higher levels of gratitude?

Events of larger magnitude

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77

Gratitude has been shown to exist in different magnitudes. According to Ortony and colleagues, when will gratitude be the greatest?

When the giving person does something unexpected

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78

You are leaving for work on a snowy afternoon and you notice your neighbor attempting to shovel snow from his driveway. You do not like this neighbor as he constantly complains of loud noise and too many people coming in and out of your house. Even so, you feel a sense of empathy for this neighbor because he is not making much progress in his shoveling. You go over and offer to help. Based on the information on gratitude in Chapter 11, what is this neighbor most likely to feel?

He will have more gratitude because he did not expect your help

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79

A man who had gotten into a terrible car accident was visited by his daughter whom he hadn't talked to in years. This man had gratitude for getting into the car accident, as this event allowed him to re-establish his relationship with his daughter. What is this an example of?

Benefit finding

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80

What do altruism and gratitude have in common as necessary conditions?

The ability to empathize with others

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81

Which of the following factors is positively correlated with general feelings of gratitude?

Degree of religiousness.

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82

Which of the following factors has NOT been found to be associated with keeping a weekly gratitude journal?

*a. The tendency to eat a healthier diet. b. The amount of exercise undertaken. c. Optimism about the coming week. d. Feeling better about one's life.

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83

Which of the following characteristics have been reported by people who Gratitude journals?

Enthusiasm, alertness, and determination

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84

Gratitude meditation requires three main questions be asked of oneself. Which of the following is NOT one of the questions?

What troubles did I have?

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85

Which of the following does gratitude meditation address?

Learning to appreciate blessings

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86

In studies of children, mention of gratitude towards rescue workers increased as a result of

having gone through a time of strife.

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87

Which of the following is a measure of Gratitude?

Multidimensional Prayer Inventory

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88

The GRAT is a self-report measure used to tap into three factors of gratitude. Which of the following is one of these factors?

Resentment

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89

Scores on the GQ-6 (Gratitude Questionnaire) relate to other positive psychology constructs. Which of the following has been shown to correlate positively with higher levels of gratitude on the GQ-6?

Vitality

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90

With regard to psychophysiology and gratitude, appreciation is different from gratitude in what way?

Appreciation may or may not include others

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91

What is a word that is almost synonymous with "appreciation"?

Gratitude

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92

Max has been injured in a car accident and has had damage to his prefrontal and parietal cortexes. This has caused Max difficulty in judging other's emotions. What other skill can also be assumed to have been negatively influenced for Max?

The ability to have empathy toward others

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93

Which of the following factors make a difference in whether or not forgiveness occurs?

a. When the transgressor apologizes b. When the transgressor states that he or she will "make things right." c. When the apology was not required by an authority figure. *d. All of the above affect whether forgiveness will occur.

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94

Which of the following statements about forgiveness and culture is true?

In some cultures forgiveness may be an interpersonal process and in others it may be an intrapersonal process.

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95

With regard to their respective views of forgiveness, which is true about religion versus psychology?

Encouraging reconciliation as part of the forgiveness process is more likely to be promoted in religion.

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96

Who is most likely going to be hurt most by unforgiveness?

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97

According to the forgiveness model of Gordon and colleagues, when someone is in the stage of feeling negative emotions involving hurt, fear, and anger, which stage of forgiveness are they in?

The impact stage

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98

According to the model developed by Gordon, Baucom, and Snyder, which of the following is the second stage to forgiveness of another person?

The search for meaning stage

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99

A man finds out that his wife of thirty years was having an affair. The couple goes to counseling to attempt to resolve the issues. The therapist offers a treatment plan involving forgiveness. According to the theory presented by Gordon and colleagues, what is the minimum goal for the couple?

To make more informed decisions about what to do next

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100

Everett Worthington's REACH model of forgiveness stands for: R - recall the hurt, E - empathy promotion, A - altruistic gift giving of forgiveness, C - committing verbally to forgive; what does the H stand for?

Holding onto forgiveness

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