ASCI 240 FINAL

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what are the three types of growth?

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Growth and Development

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1

what are the three types of growth?

hyperplasia

hypertrophy

accretion

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2

what is hyperplasia?

the increase in cell numbers

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3

what is hypertrophy

the increase in the size of the cell

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4

what is accretion

the build of intracellular components (fat cells)

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5

which growths occur in connective tissue

hypertrophy and accretion

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6

which growth is considered fattening

accretion

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7

hyperplasia and hypertrophy increase

skeletal muscle and connective tissue

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8

age related adaptation affects?

bone and adipose tissue

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9

what factors determine growth potential

genetics

environment

selective breeding

nutrition

domestication

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10

G + E = P means

genetics + environment = phenotype

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11

genetics..

define the potential for muscle growth

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12

environment..

determines % of genetic potential achieved

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13

phenotype is impacted by

evolution and humans

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14

in utero development and growth is..

complex and highly regulated

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15

cellular replication in utero

requires many cell division , which makes the cells more restricted

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16

in utero the development of various cell lineages allows

lineages to develop into different tissues of the body

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17

totipotent is the ability to become --- things

all

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18

pluripotent is the ability to become --- things

many

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19

multipotent is the ability to become --- things

some

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20

the endoderm germ layers are..

the GIT and the respiratory system

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21

the mesoderm germ layers is the..

muscle, bone, blood vascular, urogenital, and dermis layer

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22

the ectoderm germ layer is the..

nervous system, sensory and epidermis

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23

the three phases of prenatal development are..

ovum, embryonic, and fetal phase

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24

the ovum phases is..

the phase where the egg is released and merges with the sperm to form a zygote

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25

the embryonic phases is..

the end of cell division

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26

the fetal phase is..

the phase that starts at implantation of the zygote into the uterus

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27

what happens in interphase

cellular growth and duplication of cell DNA

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28

what happens during the M phase

cell division

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29

what are the five phases of the M phase

prophase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

cytokinesis phase

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30

what are the four phases of embryonic development

cleavage

blasturation

gastration

orgongenesis

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31

what growth is postnatal

hypertrophy and accretion; muscle and connective tissue

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32

what types of muscle terminate at maturity

cardiac and smooth

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33

What hormones serve an endocrine role in muscle mass

GH

IGF-I

Steroids

T3 and T4

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34

where is the GH produced

by the anterior pituitary

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35

production of GH is regulated by ---- produced by the hypothalamus

GHRH

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36

GH hormone directly and indirectly impacts numerous tissue

true

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37

GH directly impacts

reduced glucose transport and metabolism

initiates/increases lipolysis

initiates/increases transport of amino acids

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38

GH indirectly impacts

IGF-I

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39

What is IGF-Is primary endocrine function

regulating changes in muscle mass

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40

what does GH medicate?

the release of IGF-1

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41

what pathways is muscle growth achieved through

IGF-I P3-K

IGF-I M/S3

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42

IGF-I P3-K has what impact?

positive impact

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43

IGF-I M/S3 has what impact?

negative impact

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44

testosterone mediates with

GH

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45

Testosterone binds to specific intracellular. androgen receptors in muscles to increase what

protein synthesis

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46

Estradiol impacts what

skeletal muscle, bone and adipose tissue

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47

what does estradiol do

increases protein synthesis and proteolysis

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48

estradiol triggers

the maturation of adipocytes and closure of epiphyseal plates

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49

what is insulins metabolic function?

increase muscle cells ability to uptake amino acids, lipids, and glucose and to increase glycogen synthesis and decrease breakdown

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50

what is the growth function of insulin

it has a direct interaction IGF-I to promote protein synthesis

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51

what does T3 and T4 regulate prenatal

differentiation of muscle progentor cells

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52

what does T3 and T4 regulate postnatal

it is maintenance and repair of muscles

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53

what is protein turnover defined as

the balance between protein synthesis and degradation of tissue proteins

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54

hypertrophy has a postive protein turnover so it..

has less degradation and more synthesis

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55

atrophy has a negative protein turnover so it..

has more degradation and less synthesis

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56

what affects protein turnover

genetics

endocrine

immune

nutrition

physiological factors

environment

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57

what are the two types of hormonal regulation of protein turnover

anabolic and catabolic

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58

what are anabolic hormones

GH

IGF-I

insulin

testosterone

estrogen

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59

what are catabolic hormones

glucagon

glucocorticoids

catecholamines

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60

what is GH most significant impact

stimulation of IGF-I production

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61

what is IGF-I most significant impact

promoting protein synthesis

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62

what is insulins most significant impact

inhibiting protein degradation and enhancing energy directed to protein synthesis

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63

what is testosterones most significant impact

promoting protein syntheis

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64

what is glucagons most significant impact

stimulation of protein degradation and blocking effect of insulin binding receptors

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65

what is glucocorticoids (cortisol) most significant impact

increases protein breakdown

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66

what is catecholamines most significant impact

increases protein breakdown

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67

what two pathways regulate protein synthesis

insulin and myostatin

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68

what regulates protein degradation

UPP

Caspian proteolysis

apoptosis

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69

what are components of UPP

proteolytic enzymes

26S proteasome

Co-Factor ubiquitin

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70

What are the proteolytic enzymes

E1

E2

E3

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71

E1 is

activating

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72

E2 is

conjugating enzymes

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73

E3 is

ligase

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74

what are the three primary parts of 26S proteasome

2 x 19S proteasome

20 S Core proteasome

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75

What is the calpain system dependent on

Ca2+

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76

what unique protease proteolytic enzymes are part of the calpain system

proteolytic processing and substrate recognition

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77

Proteolytic processing does not degrade proteins

true

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78

what does the substrate recognition do?

identifies and targets proteins for proteolytic processing

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79

what are the four major components of the calpain system

u-calpain

m-calpian

skeletal muscle calpain

calpastatinw

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80

what does skeletal muscle calpain do

breakdown proteins

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81

what does calpastatin do

inhibits calpain functions

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82

what are the two primary proteases involved with apoptosis

caspases and cathepsins

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83

what are the two primary calcium salts in bone organization

calcium phosphate

hydroxyapatite

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84

what is hydroxyapatite

crystal like molecule with 10 Ca2+ ions that is produced by osteoblasts

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85

what are osteoblasts

single nucleated cells that synthesize the bone matrix and remodeling of bone

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86

what are osteoclasts

they are multi nucleated cells that breakdown bone tissue through a phagocytic process

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87

what are ostocytes

inert cells- signaling cells that regulates bone mass

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88

what is Longitudinal bone growth

bone growth that extends the length of bone

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89

Where does LBG occur

epiphyseal plate

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90

what is the epiphyseal plate

it is make of hyaline cartilage that is dense and structurally sound with connective tissue fibers, primarily collagen, and contain chondrocytes and proteoglycans

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91

what are the three zones of bone growth

resting zone

proliferation zone

hypertrophic zone

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92

what are the resting zones chondrocytes

stem like cells that serve as the primary pool for growth

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93

what are proliferation zone chondrocytes

resting zone chondrocytes that have differentiated into proliferation chondrocytes

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94

what are hypertrophic zone chondrocytes

chondrocytes that calcify the proteoglycan matrix of the growth plate

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95

what are positive hormones of bone growth

GH-IGF-l axis

estrogen

t3 and t4

leptin

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96

what are negative hormones of bone growth

glucocorticoids

catechonlamines

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97

what is GH-IGF-I axis

a fundamental and a very potent stimulator of bone growth and is directly driven by the release of GH

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98

the resting zone is..

chondorcyte proliferation and differientation

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99

the hypertrophic zone is

chondrocyte alignment

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100

the proliferation zone is

chondrocyte maturation and hypertrophy

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