PSYC 101 Exam 3

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Coma

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130 Terms

1

Coma

completely unaware, asleep, no response

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2

Vegetative state

alternates between eye-open and eye-closed state, periods of wakefulness, no reliable response to external stimuli

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3

Minimally conscious state

Responds somewhat reliably, but not consistently to sensory stimuli

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4

Locked in syndrome

fully aware but is unable to demonstrate as they can't move voluntary muscles

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5

Hemispatial neglect

a failure to attend to stimuli on the opposite side of space to a brain lesion

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6

Egocentric neglect

Failure to detect objects in one side in relation to self

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7

Allocentric neglect

Failure to detect all contralateral sides of every object

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8

Motor neglect

failure to move one side of body despite no paralysis

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9

Tactile neglect

inattention to tactile stimuli on one side of the body

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10

Auditory neglect

inattention to sound on one side of space

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11

Blindsight

a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it

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12

ADHD

difficulty paying attention, hyperactiveness, day dreaming, easily distracted (sustained and selective attention)

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13

Brain's default network

a circuit in the brain that is active when the brain is at rest while processing internal stimuli

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14

Selective attention

A cognitive process to focus on one aspect of environment

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15

Change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

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16

inattentional blindness

failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention

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17

Dichotic listening task

A task in which a person hears two or more different, specially recorded messages over earphones and is asked to attend to one of them.

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18

Dichotic listening task findings

knows existence of message, gender of speaker, superficial nature of speech

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19

cocktail party effect

Ability to concentrate on one voice amongst a crowd

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20

Attentional blink

a brief slow down in mental processing immediately after processing another event

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21

Divided attention

paying attention to more than one thing at a time (task-switching, with exception of tasks that had sufficient practise and knowledge)

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22

Multitasking

performing multiple tasks at the same time (only possible when parallel processing is used: attention to colour and direction movement simultaneously - ventral and dorsal stream are separate)

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23

Task switching

Ability to switch attention rapidly between two tasks that require the same type of processing or conscious attention (with some loss of information)

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24

Day dreaming

a state of consciousness in which a seemingly purposeless flow of thoughts comes to mind

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25

dynamic unconscious

Freud - Active system of our memories, deep desires, and the struggle to control them

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26

Repression

Freud - ejection of unacceptable thoughts and memories (kept in unconsciousness)

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27

Freudian slip

a verbal mistake that is thought to reveal an unconscious belief, thought, or emotion

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28

Cognitive unconscious

all the mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behaviour even though they are not experienced by the person.

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29

Dual processing theory

A theory stating that the mind is composed of both conscious and unconscious activity

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30

Dual processing theory components

System 1: unconscious, automatic System 2: rational, intentional

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31

Stroop effect

Interference caused by conflicting information, caused by automatic processing

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32

Stroop experiment

Facilitation condition (black letters), neutral condition (corresponding colour font), inference condition (interfering colour font), reading is an automatic process

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33

Priming

when response to a stimulus is influenced or facilitated by recent experience with that stimulus or a related stimulus

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34

Subliminal perception

the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness due to short durations and subtlety

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35

Meditation

Produces relation by guiding attention

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36

Concentrative meditation

focusing attention on one thing

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37

Mindfulness meditation

letting thoughts flow freely, paying attention to them but trying not to react to them

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38

Meditation on health

lower blood pressure, reduced stress, change in hormones responding to stress

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39

Meditation on cognitive processing

Brain electrical activity: positive emotional state, better attentional performance, enhanced immune system, brain's default mode network

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40

Sleep: Pineal Gland

melatonin

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41

Sleep: hypothalamus

Detects light to regulate release of melatonin

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42

5 stages of sleep

stages 1-4 and REM sleep stage

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43

Insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep (self induced, secondary, primary_

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44

Sleep apnea

a disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep

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45

Somnambulism

occurs when a person arises and walks around while asleep (usually during slowwave sleep)

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46

Narcolepsy

uncontrollable sleep attacks

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47

Sleep paralysis

the experience of waking up unable to move

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48

Night terrors

abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal

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49

Altered state of consciousness

a form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind

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50

Characteristics of dreams

intense emotion, illogical thought, fully formed sensations, uncritical acceptance, difficulty recalling

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51

Manifest content

Freud - topic/superficial meaning of dream

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52

Latent content

Freud - underlying meaning of dream

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53

Activation-synthesis model

dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs during sleep

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54

Dream: Amygdala

activated, explains intense emotions

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55

Dream: Visual association areas

activated, explains vivid imagery in dreams

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56

Dream: prefrontal cortex

low activity, explains uncritical acceptance and illogical thought

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57

Dream: Motor cortex

active, brain stem is also active to inhibit actual movement

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58

Philosophical zombie problem

hypothetical being that responds to stimuli but may not have inner experience

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59

p-zombie problem: problem of other minds

fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others

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60

Chinese room problem

No matter how many messages you receive and respond to, you still do not know Chinese. Elusiveness of conscious experience

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61

Turing test

a test for intelligence in a computer, requiring that a human being should be unable to distinguish the machine from another human being by using the replies to questions put to both.

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62

Encoding

process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory

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63

Semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning

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64

Semantic judgements

meaning of words

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65

Rhyme judgements

sound of words

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66

Case judgements

appearance of words

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67

Brain areas for semantic encoding

lower left frontal lobe, inner left temporal lobe

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68

Visual imagery encoding

process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures

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69

Effectiveness of visual imagery encoding

similar to semantic encoding (preexisting knowledge), two mental placeholders (visual and verbal)

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70

Brain areas for visual imagery encoding

occipital lobe

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71

Organisational encoding

process of categorising information according to the relationships among a series of items.

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72

Brain areas for organisational encoding

Left frontal lobe

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73

Storage

process of maintaining information in memory over time

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74

Sensory memory

storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less

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75

Iconic memory

a fast-decaying store of visual information (decay in 1sec)

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76

Iconic memory test

a grid of letters is flashed on screen for only 1/20th of a second, difficult to recall individual letters. But if prompted to remember a particular row immediately after the experiment there is high accuracy.

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77

Echoic memory

a fast-decaying store of auditory information (decay in 5sec)

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78

Short term memory

holds nonsensory information for 15-20 seconds, capacity of 7 items

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79

Long term memory

storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years

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80

Retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

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81

Rehearsal

the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it

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82

Serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

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83

Primacy effect

remembering the first items in a list

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84

Recency effect

remembering the last items on a list

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85

Chunking

combining small pieces of information into manageable units held in STM

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86

Working memory

active maintenance of information in short-term storage

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87

Working memory model

Visuo-spatial sketchpad: visual images Phonological loop: verbal info Episodic buffer: integrates visual and verbal info (gateway to LTM, learning) Central executive: coordinates subsystems and episodic buffer (awareness and mental manipulation)

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88

Prospective memory

remembering to do things in the future

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89

Hippocampus in memory

related to STM

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90

Anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories

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91

Retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one's past

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92

Hippocampal region index

Hippocampal region serves as an index to link separate info into one memory

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93

Long term potentiation (LTP)

communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens connection, making further communication easier

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94

Consolidation

process by which memories become stable in the brain

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95

Short term consolidation

operates over seconds/minutes

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96

Long term consolidation

Operates over days/weeks/months/years

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97

Reconslidation

Process whereby memories become vulnerable to disruption when recalled, requiring them to be consolidated again.

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98

encoding specificity principle

retrieval cues that match original information work better

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99

State-dependent retrieval

information tends to be better recalled when the person has the same inner state during encoding and retrieval

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100

transfer-appropriate processing

memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situations match

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