Psych 101 Exam 2

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bottom-up processing

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131 Terms

1

bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works to the brain's integration of sensory info (assembling/building)

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top-down processing

info process guided by higher level mental processes, drawing on our experiences and expectations

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3

priming

prior information that alters what we expect to perceive

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4

perceptual parsing

a process where our visual system divides everything we see into components (most importantly into figure and ground)

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5

binocular depth cues

information gathered from both eyes to help judge depth and distance

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6

monocular depth cues

depth and distance cues that require the use of only one eye

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retinal binocular disparity

A binocular cue that uses the difference between the images the two eyes see to determine the distance of objects.

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relative motion parallax

distance of objects from viewer determines their relative motion (nearby objects appear to pass by quickly and distant objects appear to pass more slowly)

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9

perceptual constancies

the ability to retain an unchanging percept of an object despite variations in the retinal image

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10

circadian rhythms

daily biological cycles that are about 24 hours long

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11

Stage 1 of a Typical Night's Sleep

very light sleep

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12

Stage 2 of a Typical Night's Sleep

transitioning from a light to deep sleep (40%)

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13

Stage 3 and 4 of a Typical Night's Sleep

slow wave sleep, deep sleep, when sleep talking/walking occurs

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14

REM sleep

paradoxical sleep, rapid eye movements, most vivid dreaming, psychological arousal increases, muscle paralysis

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15

REM Behavior Disorder

those with this disorder do not experience muscle paralysis during REM sleep causing them to act out their dreams while they are still sleeping

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16

restorative theory

(individual) sleep allows us to recharge our bodies and recover from fatigue

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17

"cell phone battery"

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18

evolutionary theory

(species) sleep's main purpose is to increase a species chances of survival

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19

consolidation theory

(biological) sleep strengthens the neuronal connections that serve as the basis for learning and memory

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20

insomnia

chronic inability to sleep normally (linked with anxiety and depression)

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21

narcolepsy

characterized by an irresistible composition to sleep during the daytime

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22

sleep apnea

causes a person to stop breathing while sleeping

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23

activation-synthesis theory

(biological) brainstorm bombards higher brain centers with random neural activity (activation) then the cerebral cortex interprets activity and creates a dream (synthesis)

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24

Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory

(psychological) dreams symbolize wish fullfilment

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25

"royal road to unconscious"

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26

psychoactive drugs

chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by temporarily changing conscious awareness

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27

tolerance

individual requires greater dosages of the drug to achieve the same effect

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28

withdrawal

after reducing or ceasing intake,physical or psychological symptoms occur

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29

depressants/sedatives

decrease CNS activity (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines)

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30

stimulants

increase CNS activity (amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy) also decreased appetite and causes paranoia

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hallucinogens

marijuana, LSD, PCP

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32

opiates (narcotics)

pain killers (morphine, heroin, codeine)

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33

classical conditioning

association between two stimuli

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34

unconditioned stimuli

does not require prior learning

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35

unconditioned response

automatic, biological response

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36

conditioned stimuli

A previously neutral stimulus that an organism learns to associate with an unconditioned stimulus.

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conditioned response

the newly learned response

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38

sensation

the process by which sensory organs in the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin, and other tissues receive and detect stimuli

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39

perception

the organization and interpretation of sensory stimuli by the brain

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40

-knowledge-based processing

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psychophysics

the study of the relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them

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42

absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

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just noticeable difference (JND)

the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time

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Weber's Law

JNDs are proportional to the size of the original stimulus (starts from a number, not 0)

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45

cornea

transparent shield over the eye

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46

pupil

allows light in and controls it

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iris

colored part

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lens

elastic structure behind pupil (thinner: nearby, thicker when far away and with age)

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49

focuses image onto the back of the eye

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retina

has receptors (rods and cones)

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51

lines back of the eye

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rods

concentrated in the edges of the retina

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53

black and white vision

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most active in dim illumination

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cones

concentrated in the center of the retina

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color vision

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most active in bright illumination

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fovea

point of central focus

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only cones

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blind spot

optic disk on the back of the eye that has no receptor cells (brain fills the holes)

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Optic Nerve

power cord to brain's visual cortex

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pinne

funnel sound waves and focuses them toward the ear drum

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auditory canal

leads to eardrum

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ossicles

bones that press - hammer, anvil, stirrup

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cochlea

receptor cells and hair cells line the membrane

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auditory nerve

sends info to the rest of the brain "power cord"

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acquisition

when you start doing something you didn't use to do (instinct)

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initial learning of a conditional response

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extinction

stopping certain responses

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the diminishing of a conditional response

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71

generalization

the tendency for stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimuli to elicit a conditioned response

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organism learns to respond to more than one CS

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spontaneous recovery

they reappear once, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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operant conditioning

organisms act on the environment instead of stimuli

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rewarded acts increase in frequency

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punished acts decrease in frequency

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77

positive reinforcement

a response is strengthened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus

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78

ex. child cleans room - parents give candy

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79

negative reinforcement

a response is strengthened by the subsequent removal of an aversive stimulus

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80

ex. child cleans room - parents stop nagging

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positive punishment

a response is weakened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus

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82

ex. child kicks sibling - parents scold

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negative punishment

a response is weakened by the subsequent removal of a stimulus

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84

ex. child kicks sibling - parents take away toy

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85

shaping

reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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86

primary reinforcers

reinforcers that are innately reinforcing, such as those that satisfy biological needs (food, water,sex)

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secondary reinforcers

serve as reinforcers through their repeated pairing with primary reinforcers

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ex. money, compliments, hugs

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reinforcement schedules

dictate how often reinforcement should be given

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continuous reinforcement

reinforces the behavior each and every time it occurs

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partial reinforcement

reinforces behavior intermittently

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92

administered via schedules (# of responses per time)

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93

observational learning

watching someone do something and learning

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94

4 steps of observational learning

  1. pay attention to the model's behavior

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95
  1. retain info on memory

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96
  1. be physically capable of reproducing the behavior

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  1. be motivated to display the behavior

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98

explicit memory

involves conscious effort

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99

implicit memory

does NOT involve memory

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100

declarative memory

memory for facts and events

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