Psych Quiz #2

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Sensation

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110 Terms

1

Sensation

Receiving stimuli from the environment

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Perception

When your brain processes information

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Absolute Threshold

How much stimuli does it take for an individual to detect its presence 50% of the time

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Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference — JND)

The difference between two stimuli that must occur before an individual notices

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Subliminal Perception (connected to Subliminal Messaging)

Detection of information below the conscious awareness

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Bottom-Up Processing

Used by children and for people experiencing new concepts; looking at something piece-by-piece and noticing details before noticing the larger picture

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Top-Down Processing

Knowledge playing a role in understanding and being able to recognize patterns to fill in gaps

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Cones

(in eye) Pick up color

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Rods

(in eye) Sensitive to light

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Trichromatic Color Theory

Three cones (receptors) in the eye that detect different short (red), medium (green), and long (blue) wavelengths of light that overlap`

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Opponent-Process Theory (Edwald Hering)

Four receptors in the eye in pairs (red-green and blue-yellow); each side gets stimulated which inhibits the other side

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Binocular cues

Cues from both of our eyes

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Convergence

(Binocular cue) Eye muscles working together to determine how close/far something is

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Monocular Cues

Cues from one eye

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Linear Perspective

(Monocular cue) Parallel lines recede and seemingly converge

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Texture Gradiation

(Monocular cue) Texture gets denser as it gets further away

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Familiar Size

(Monocular cue) We logically understand size (this is also top-down processing)

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Depth Perception

(Monocular cue) We have 2D eyes that see a 3D world

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19

Perceptual Illusion (Gestalt)

Misinterpretation of sensory information, caused by the brain's tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful patterns (two heads and a vase or duck/rabbit)

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Figure-ground

(Perceptual illusion) Foreground & background in perception (think vase/faces illusion)

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Law of Proximity

(Perceptual illusion) The brain makes up “groupings” based on things being near each other

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Law of Closure

(Perceptual Illusion) Our brain tends to fill in missing information to perceive objects as whole, even if parts are missing (think Pac-Man four corners making a square illusion)

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Perceptual Set

Predisposition to experiencing things in a certain way given stimulus (i.e. if you are drinking something that looks translucent you may describe it as watered-down even if it isn’t)

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Perceptual Constancy

Awareness that objects stay the same despite change in senses (i.e. lights turn off, room looks different, but the paint color is still the same)

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Attention (“Cocktail Party” effect)

The brain’s ability to focus in on one thing despite there being a lot of stimuli

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Stroop Effect

An interference phenomenon where the brain struggles to process conflicting information

Most commonly in the form of detecting color and text: RED GREEN BLUE

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Signal Detection Theory

Decision making based on uncertainty (“jumping to conclusions”)

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The Sound Shadow (localization)

Using your ears and hearing to understand location

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Mirror-Touch-Synesthesia (MTS)

Condition in 2% of humans where you can feel other people’s senses only by learning about/seeing them

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Beta waves

Waves that are high when you are awake; concentration & alertness

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Alpha waves

Waves responsible for relaxing the brain and slowing it down

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Stage 1

Sleep stage characterized by theta waves; Non-REM1

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Stage 2

Sleep stage characterized by theta waves and possibility of sleep spindles; Non-REM2

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Stage 3

Sleep stage characterized by delta waves and possibility of night tremors; Non-REM3

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Stage 4

The sleep stage after the previous one that also had delta waves and was Non-REM3

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Stage 5 (Stage R)

Sleep stage with most dreaming and wilder dreams; beta waves; nightmares

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Circadian Rhythms

24 hour sleep/wake cycle involving blood pressure and body temperature; goes up as day progresses but then wanes around 3PM

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decrease

A ___ in body temperature decreases circadian rhythms

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Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Brain structure that synchronizes its own day/night cycle using information from the retinas (eyes)

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40

Napping

Helps with sleep deprivation — from 8 min to hours

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Somniloquy

Sleep talking

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Somnambulism

Sleep walking

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Ambien

Drug that helps people sleep but has side effects that include sleep driving and eating

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Psychodynamic Theory of Dreaming (Freud)

Theory that sleeping is unconscious thoughts surfacing

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Manifest content

(Psychodynamic Theory of Dreaming) Literal and surface content of dream

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Latent content

(Psychodynamic Theory of Dreaming) Hidden and “true” meaning of dream

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Cognitive Theory of Dreaming

Theory that dreams have no hidden meaning and are literally just mental stimulation

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Activation Synthesis Theory of Dreaming

Theory that the brain needs to keep moving and being active, and dreams are a result of the “neural ride”

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Insomnia

Sleep disorder characterized by the inability to fall asleep or back asleep

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50

Sleep apnea

Sleep disorder characterized by the windpipe failing to open, causing people to be able to suffocate to death in their sleep

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REM Behavior Disorder

Sleep disorder characterized by a person physically acting out during REM sleep (i.e. if you dream that you punch you punch your partner in the real world)

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Narcolepsy

Sleep disorder characterized by suddenly falling asleep throughout the day

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Fatal Familia Insomnia (FFI)

Terminal condition where you progressively sleep less and less, and you are stuck in pre-sleep indefinitely

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Tolerance

Continued use of a drug meaning you need to take more of the drug to feel effects

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Psychological dependence

Repeat use of a drug for emotional reasons (pleasure)

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Physical dependence

Repeat use of a drug or physiological reasons (avoiding cravings, withdrawl)

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Alcohol

Substance that is a depressant that can result in an addiction and dependence

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Heroin and Morphine

Opiates that induce euphoria and depress the CNS, causing endorphins to become dependent on stimulation

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Painkillers

Gateway to heroin

  • Codeine

  • Fentanyl

  • Morphine

  • Opium

  • Hydrocodone

  • Oxycodone

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60

Caffeine

Stimulant that provides short term energy and a short withdrawal period

The #1 drug Americans take

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Caffeinism

Overindulgence and high dependence on caffeine (>5 cups of coffee a day)

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Nicotine

Stimulant that raises dopamine, attention, and alertness while decreasing anger and anxiety; months long withdrawal

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Cocaine

Increases stamina and can cause heart attacks, extremely hard to quit

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Crack

The most potent form of cocaine

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Inhalants

Stimulants that offer a rapid high — i.e. paint thinner sniffing

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Ecstasy (MDMA)

Stimulant and hallucinogen that causes long term impairment and long term depression (killing axons for serotonin)

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LSD

Hallucinogen that causes the user to feel warm and fuzzy and alters their perception of colors and images; nausea, tremors, memory loss

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Marijuana (cannabis)

Hallucinogen (active ingredient is THC) that affects neuron membranes and hence hormones; used to treat AIDS and cancer

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Psychoactive drugs

200+ million annual users; most popular in the mid-late 70s, before dipping in the 80s, spiking in the 90s, and being down in the 00s

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Psychadelics

Name for hallucinogens (includes LSD and marijuana)

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71

Non-Associative Learning

Learning about one stimulus

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72

Associative Learning

Learning in which we connect two separate events

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73

Classical Conditioning

(Associative Learning) Stimulus A predicts stimulus B

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(UCS) Unconditioned Stimulus

(Classical Conditioning) Thing that produces a reflexive, natural response

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(UCR) Unconditioned Response

(Classical Conditioning) Reaction to an unconditioned stimulus

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(NS) Neutral Stimulus

(Classical Conditioning) Stimulus with no meaning that can be assigned a meaning with conditioning

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(CS) Conditioned Stimulus

(Classical Conditioning) A neutral stimulus that has been assigned to a UCS via conditioning

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(CR) Conditioned Response

(Classical Conditioning) A response to a conditioned stimulus that would otherwise be unconditioned

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Acquisition

(Classical Conditioning) Initial learning of a stimulus and the response to it

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Generalization

(Classical Conditioning) Introduction of a new CS that is similar to the “old” CS

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Discrimination

(Classical Conditioning) New, distinct stimulus that is connected to the “old” CS

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Extinguished

(Classical Conditioning) Multiple spontaneous recoveries eventually wears out and diminishes the meaning of a CR, and it eventually dies

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Spontaneous Recovery

(Classical Conditioning) Reintroduction of a CS after a prolonged period of time — does not last

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84

Ivan Pavlov

👤 Created an experiment with Classical Conditioning with a dog, food, and a bell

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85

John Watson

👤 Known for an experiment with Classical Conditioning with a loud noise, child, and mouse

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86

Counterconditioning

(Classical Conditioning) Weakening the CR by introducing a new UCS with a different meaning (whistle now means pain or something)

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87

Law of Effect

If a behavior has a positive outcome, it is strengthened; if it has a negative outcome, it is weakened

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88

Edward Thorndike

👤 Law of Effect

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89

Operant Conditioning

(Associative Learning) Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened or weakened by the consequences that follow it; involves the use of rewards and punishments to shape behavior

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90

B.F. Skinner

👤 Formal learning theory, strict on empirical research

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91

Positive Reinforcement

(Operant Conditioning) Beneficial stimulus added

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Negative Reinforcement

(Operant Conditioning) Negative stimulus taken away

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Positive Punishment

(Operant Conditioning) Negative stimulus added

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Negative Punishment

(Operant Conditioning) Positive stimulus taken away

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Primary Enforcer

(Operant Conditioning) Food, water, or other basic thing (like comfort) that is automatically and inherently satisfying

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Conditioned Enforcer

(Operant Conditioning) Not something that is inherently satisfying but can be traded for something satisfying (like money)

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Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement

(Operant Conditioning) After x responses, get reward (where x is a definite and known number)

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Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement

(Operant Conditioning) After ??? responses, get reward

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99

Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement

(Operant Conditioning) After x time, get reward (where x is a definite and known amount of time)

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Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement

(Operant Conditioning) After ??? time, get reward

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