bio exam 4

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  • No longer require water

  • Gametophyte greatly reduced

  • Seeds replace spores

  • Heterosporous

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123 Terms

1
  • No longer require water

  • Gametophyte greatly reduced

  • Seeds replace spores

  • Heterosporous

Characteristics of seeded plants

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2

What allowed seeded vascular plants to break their ties to water?

Ability of pollen to be dispersed by wind or animals

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3

What gives rise to the female gametophyte?

Megaspores

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4

What gives rise to the male gametophyte?

Microspores

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5

What is the outer layer of the ovule?

Integument

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6

Is the tissue of the ovule haploid or diploid?

Diploid

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7

What do microspores develop into?

Pollen Grains

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8

What happens when the seed develops from the ovule?

  • Integuments become the seed coat

  • The zygote becomes the embryo

  • Seed contains tissue that acts as food for new plant

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9

Nonflowering Plants

Gymnosperms

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10

Flowering Plants

Angiosperms

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11

True or False: Gymnosperms seeds have no extra covering

True

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12

True or False: Angiosperms have an additional outer covering known as the fruit

True

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13

What is the overall seed structure for both Gymnosperms and Angiosperms?

  • Embryo

  • Stored Food

  • Seed Coat

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14

In Gymnosperms, the food stored in the seed is ________.

Haploid

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15

In Angiosperms, the stored food in the seed is ______.

Triploid

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16

Gymnosperms include:

  • Coniferophytes

  • Cycadophytes

  • Ginkgophytes

  • Gnetophytes

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17

What are the main characteristics of angiosperms?

  • Flowers

  • Broad Leaves

  • Advanced vascular tissue

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18

What are the four main parts of a complete flower?

  • Sepals

  • Petals

  • Stamens

  • Carpel

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19

What is the male reproductive part of the flower?

Stamens

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20

What is the female reproductive part of the flower?

Carpels

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21

What does the stamens consist of?

Filament and anther

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22

What do the carpels consist of?

Stigma, Style and Ovary

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23

What is the stigma designed to do?

Catch pollen

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24

What are the different types of dispersal?

Wind, Mechanical, Animal, and Water

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25
  • One sperm fuses with egg cell to form zygote

  • The other sperm fuses with the polar nuclei making the triploid endosperm

Double Fertilization

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26

The Angiosperms include...

  • Basil

  • Magnolids

  • Monocots

  • Eudicots

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27
  • Flowers in groups of 3

  • Leaves are narrow with parallel veins

  • Vascular tissue have scattered vascular bundles

  • Have many smaller roots

  • Pollen has a singe openings

  • Seed has one cotlyedon

Monocots

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28
  • Flowers in groups of 4 or 5

  • Leaves are wider with netlike veins

  • Vascular tissue has ring of vascular bundles

  • One main taproot

  • Pollen has three openings

  • Seed has two cotyledons

Dicots

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29

Relative amounts of various sizes of soil particles

Texture

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30

Relative amounts of inorganic and organic components

Composition

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31

C,H,O,P,K,N,S,Ca,Fe,Mg

Macronutrients

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32

Cl, Mn, Mo, Cu, B, Zn, Ni

Micronutrients

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33

Convert N2 to NH3

Nitrogen Fixation

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34

Convert Nitrogen containing material to NH4

Ammonification

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35

Convert NH4 to NO3

Nitrification

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36

Convert NO3 to N2

Denitrification

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37

Where do nitrogen fixing bacteria live?

In the root nodules of legumes

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38

What is the relationship of a fungus converting insoluble nutrients into soluble nutrients for the plant?

Mycorrhizae

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39
  • Anchors the plant

  • Absorbs minerals and nutrients

  • Stores organic nutrients

Root

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40

Fibrous Root System

Monocots

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41

Taproot System

Dicots

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42

Where do root hairs form?

Epidermis

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43

What is the leaf producing group of cells?

Leaf Primordia

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44

What is the branch producing group of cells?

Axillary Buds

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45

What are the two main parts of a leaf?

Blade and Petiole

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46

What are the three main tissue systems?

Dermal, Ground and Vascular

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47

Where is the Dermal tissue system from?

Protoderm

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48

Where is the Ground Tissue system from?

Ground Meristem

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49

Where is the Vascular Tissue System from?

Procambium

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50

What are the two parts of the Dermal system?

Epidermis and Periderm

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51

What are the three main parts of Ground system?

Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Sclerenechyma

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52

What are the two parts of the Vascular system?

Xylem and Phloem

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53

Thin walled with waxy cuticle and produces root hairs

Epidermis

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54

This structure replaces epidermis in woody stems, branches and trunks

Periderm

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55

Where are cork cells found?

Periderm

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56
  • Thin walled living cells

  • Main photosynthesizers in shoots

  • Main storage in roots

Parenchyma

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57
  • Elongated living cells

  • Irregular thick walls

  • Provide support

  • Tough and Flexible

Collenchyma

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58
  • Dead cells

  • Thick walls

  • Added lignin

  • Strength and Support

  • Very Hard

Sclerenchyma

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59

Conducts water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant

Xylem

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60

Conducts water, sugar, and amino acids and hormones from some source to the rest of the plant or to a "sink"

Phloem

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61

What are the two components of a Xylem?

Tracheids and Vessel Elements

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62

Smaller diameter pipes with slanted ends; have pits

Tracheids

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63

Large diameter pipes, meet end to end, ends are perforated or missing completely

Vessel Elements

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64

What are the two components of the Phloem?

Sieve Tube Elements and Companion Cells

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65
  • End to end

  • Holes where they meet and forms a plate

  • Lined with living tissue

  • Lost many cellular components (lack nucleus, few ribosomes, few endoplasmic reticulum)

Sieve Tube Elements

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66

Makes up for the cellular components lost by the sieve tube elements

Companion Cells

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67

Meristem Cells are _______ embryonic cells

undifferentiated

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68

Where are meristem cells found?

Tips of root and shoot and at axillary buds, lateral meristems

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69

What growth occurs at the apical meristems?

Primary Growth

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70

Does primary growth increase the height or width of the plant?

Height

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71

Where is the lateral meristem found?

Vascular Cambium and Cork Cambium

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72

What acts as a lubricating layer that helps push roots down?

Root Cap

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73

What structure is mainly parenchyma cells that are designed for food storage?

Cortex

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74

What is a close fitting layer of cells around the vascular tissue?

Endodermis

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75

What waxy coating seals the spaces between endodermal cells?

Casparian Strip

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76

What structure is inside the endodermis?

Vascular Cylinder or Stele

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77

What are the layer of cells at the outer edge of the vascular cylinder?

Pericycle

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78

Where do branch roots form?

In the pericycle

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79

Inside the ring is the _____ and the outside of the ring is the _____.

Pith; Cortex

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80

_______ is toward the inside of the stem and the _____ is toward the outside of the stem

Xylem; Phloem

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81

With respect to angiosperms, which of the following is incorrectly paired with its chromosome count? a) Egg-n b) Megaspore-2n c) Microspore-n d) Zygote-2n e) Sperm-n

B

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82

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms have the following in common except: a) Seeds b) Pollen c) Vascular Tissue d) Ovaries e) Ovule

D

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83

Which of the following does not describe gymnosperms? a) Sporophyte Dominant b) Pollen Grains c) Food source in seeds is haploid d) Food source arises from both female and male gametophytes

D

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84

Which of the following is the correct order of floral organs from the outside to the inside of a complete flower? a) Petals, Sepals, Stamens, Carpels b) Sepals, Stames, Petals, Carpels c) Spores, Gametes, Zygote, Embryo d) Sepals, Petals, Stamens, Carpels e) Male Gametophyte, Female Gametophyte, Sepals and Petals

D

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85

Angiosperms and Gymnosperms have all of the following characteristics except: a). Megaspores that are haploid b) Male Gametophyte which are haploid c) Egg nucleus which is diploid d) Embryo which is diploid

C

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86

Which of the following is not a kind of epidermal cell? a) Pith b) Root Hair c) Guard Cell d) Cork

A

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87

The conducting elements of the phloem are part of the tracheids

False

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88

Which of the following statements is false regarding root structure? a) The root cap can lubricate b) The stele consists of the xylem and phloem c) Roots grow by secondary growth in the apical meristem cells located in the root cap d) The Casparian Strip functions by sealing the spaces between endodermal cells

C

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89

If you were to penetrate through the epidermal layer of the root, you would next encounter the______.

Cortex

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90

Secondary Xylem is formed in association with the _____.

Inner face of the vascular cambium

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91

You tie a swing on a branch 10 feet off the ground. If a tree grows 1.5 feet a year, in 7 years, how far off the ground is the tire swing?

The same height

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92

Which of the following is a micronutrient? a) S b) Cl c) Fe d) Mg

B

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93

The process of converting N-containing organic material into NH4 is called

Ammonification

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94

Where would you find root hairs?

Dermal Tissue

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95

What ground tissue type is made of dead cells?

Sclerenchyma

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96

These cells provide support and are elongated living cells

Collenchyma

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97

True or False: In monocots, the primary root is replaced by the taproot system which has one main root that lateral roots branch off

False

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98

Which of the following comparisons is NOT correct? a) Dermal tissue - Epidermal Cell b) Ground Tissue - Parenchyma and Sclerenchyma Cells c) Vascular Tissue - Xylem and Phloem d) All of the following are correct

D

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99

A fruit is a...

Mature ovary

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100

Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?

Within an ovule contained within the ovary of the flower

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