RELS 2503 Final Exam 2

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129 Terms

1

translation

becomes a part of adab culture.

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2

education

how can one achieve highest social level?

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3

Mutazilites

philosophers; the human reason has a critical role in epistemology

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4

Early theological debates

began when debates started over the meaning of the Qur’an

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5

Kharijites

ethical maximizes. Could not accept faith without works. Good deed had to be done. Introduced ideas that helped the islamic philosophy

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6

terrorists

label of the kharijites because they believed they could define who were and were not muslims. they thought they had the right to kill people who commit sins. Justified the killings go nominal muslims

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7

nominal muslims

muslim only by name.

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8

Murijites

Post-poner; counter-traditional. they hold that the judgement of one’s character is in God’s domain; faith cannot be increased or diminished; sinners should be forgiven so they can improve themselves.

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9

Jabrites

fatalists (Jabr-force;compulsion) everything is pre-destined; to argue is to diminish God’s omniscience.

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10

Qadarites

free will; response to jab rites (Qadr- divine decree)

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11

Mutazilites

rationalists; everything was questioned through the exposure to hellenistic ideas. If our deeds are not our own, then god is unjust. called themselves people of justice and unity.

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12

Mantiq

Logic

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13

God’s attribute

his hearing, speech, hand, voice, throne. his essence was eternal, no beginning, no end.

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14

Anthropomorphism

god as a human. to accept that he takes on human form is a violation of his essence

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15

Ineffable

beyond capacity to understand

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16

Mutazilite argument

People equals the Quran with gods essence. But it was created. Then it should have ben eternal.

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17

Al-ma’mun

supported the mutazilites. Traditionalists did not like him. he orders an inquisition asking if they believed in the Qur’an (no=sent to jail; yes=ok)

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18

Ibn Hanbal

took a stand san says no to the incision by al-ma’mun.

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19

Bah-iljtihad

Bah-iljtihad - gate; independent reasoning

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20

Orthodox islam

correct belief practices (but, who decides what is correct?). scholars manufacture text on what this is

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21

Mysticism

suggests that one muslim could have a personal relationship with god through their lifestyle

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22

Sufi

they constantly think about god. second by second.

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23

Theosophy

mystical theology; feelings about god

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24

Awliya

friends of God

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25

Maqamat

stations

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26

Fana

Divine Reunion; annihilation of the ego. Our sense of self goes away and we become God.

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27

Tariqah

path; refers to the fraternity of the sufi; there is a difference among themselves but same in general cosmology

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28

Cosmology

understanding of the universe and relationship with the universe.

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29

God

everything radiates from him and there are planes of existence. it becomes farther and father from him and the truth.

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30

studying and worship

we are on the outside plane of existence and we want to connect with god though_______

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31

Al-’alam Al-mithal

the illusionary world; the plane of existence we are in. no one and nothing is real. there is no substance and just shadow

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32

reunion with god

we do not know the truth or reality until we acheive__________

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33

sufi

they reject material, money, sex, personal relationships, etc. they tend to live in marginalized existence and depend on charitable works; do not participate in politics

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34

Al-Hallaj

mystic that said “Ana al-haqq” - I am the truth; hung for heresy

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35

Al-haqq

one of the names of god. refers to being connected with god by al-hallaj

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36

Rabi’a al-adiwiyah

female mystic; not love of god but hearing for god. bordering eros which was viewed as inappropriate

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37

Epistemological approach

first approach to achieve Fana; notion of hidden knowledge (batin-interior; encoded in text); study like a Sufi and learn form masters on how to move on to another plane.

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38

Ritual Approach

second approach to achieve fana. once you do a ritual, you will experience ecstasy and God will go into your body. Zikr&Zama; whirling dervishes W

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39

whirling dervishes

Mevlevi order-; turning; spinning in one spot to imitate an axis.

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40

Shaikhs

draws followers and believers in; he is reputable and influential. considered to be holy and have divine presence in their body. when they die, the wilayat continue to pulse.

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41

Wilayat

the charisma that the shaikhs transmit. continue to pulse even after death

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42

barakat

blessing of the shaikhs

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43

Ecumenical approach

open to the idea that your views are not the only one. to be accommodating.

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44

khannaqah

hermitage; expansive land outside city that is a teaching place, soup kitchen, mosseleum, congress area

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45

futuwnat

sufi chivalrous order brother - confraternity

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46

Confraternity

guide associated with tariqah; workers with sufi behaviour.

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47

Religious tension

first reason why a state declines; Sunnis vs Shi’ites, Kharijites vs. everyone; islam vs. Christian, Hindi, pagan.

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48

Economy

second reason why a state declines; with wealth comes corruption/overspending. Abbasids kept overspending.

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49

Divisive courts

third reason why a state declines; politics. Civil war between 2 competing caliphs (princely wars)

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50

Regionalism

fourth reason why a state declines. Rise of local families that want autonomy.Ma

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51

mamluks

military slave troops from steppe turks

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52

Sammara

a city that the abbasid created where they Brough the turks. The turk became involved in high politics. it became influenced by the turks.

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53

Banu furat, banu jarrah

two families that fought over the control of baghdad during the absence of caliphate.

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54

Seljuks

from Inner Central Asia around mongolia; they come from the oghuz migration

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55

Oghuz migration

supertribe. moves around the Aral Sea; not clear as to why this happened.

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56

seljuks

rise so high in the military that they declared themselves as sultan. They replaced the buyid in baghdad.

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57

Chari beg and Toghril beg

wanted to liberate the abbasids from the buyid brothers. The caliphate was grateful nd bestowed all kinds of titles.

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58

caliphate, sultanate, and imaamate

three main institution that can e seen during the decline of the abbasids.

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59

Alp Arslar

one of the great Seljuks of iran; known for the battle of moniker. made Anatolia turks. the turkification of anatolia

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60

Malik Shah

one of the great Seljuks of Iran. he extends to Azerbaijan and eastern Anatolia. has a famous vizier named nizamal-mulk (well known for his number of interventions)

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61

adopting Persian culture

wha is the legacy of the Seljuks? they did not have interest in wiping out Persian culture.

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62

7

how many crusades are named?

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63

Reconquista

11th century; a Spanish version of the crusades. before the crusades of the Western Europe.1

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64

11th and 12 century

rapid economic growth and spiritual expansion. because of pilgrimage. more piety was seen by visiting sites/relics/remains

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65

Reliquary

churches were finding relics. “this was a part of the crusifix” Tourist = money

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66

Cluniac reforms

controls the monastic aspect in Europe. Reforms the church with the change of traffic.

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67

destination of Christians

rome, canterbury, Santiago de la compostela and jerusalem

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68

Pilgrim tracts

text in latin produced by former pilgrim. informs on how to get to Jerusalem and where to go. the pilgrimage in Jerusalem becomes routinized.

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69

Scrip

a small letter bag containing money and letters of recommendation form the pilgrim.Ba

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70

Badge

how could people identify a pilgrim?

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71

pilgrims

in the crusader’s minds they were _____. they were just killing people along the way.

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72

Feudal knights

the king and the papacy redirected the anger from here to the holy land.

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73

Caliph hakim

other than the rise of the Seljuk, what is the other concern of the papacy? a Fatimid that destroyed the holy land.

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74

Pope Urban II

announced a gathering of the bishop. Presented a plan to restore control of Jerusalem to the christians. Characterized muslims as the worst kind of people.

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75

God’s Army

Terrra Sua (God’s Land) speech by ope urban printed and had it read in cathedrals. Propagated anti-muslim message.

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76

Peasant’s crusade

1096; happened before the actual crusades. Led by Peter hermit

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77

Peter Hermit

Lead the peasant’s crusades. he already went to Jerusalem.

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78

Spontaneous crusade

50,000 peasants and serfs. made their way to Anatolia and they were killed because they did not carry weapons

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79

Godfrey of Bouillon and Raymond of Tolouse

2 leaders of the first crusades

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80

First crusade

1096-1099; here, they encountered christians who looked Arab and people who lived in harmony. All of Jerusalem was burned. it did not matter what religion they were. May of the crusaders left and some stayed and established principalities that they Will rule.

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81

Seige mentality

developed by the crusaders who did stayed and they did not go out of their castle.

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82

counter crusaders

conquest of Odessa. the reason why there became a second crusade.

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83

second crusade

disaster from beginning to end. they did not make it to the holy land.

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84

Saladin and Richard

a romanticized fight in the third crusade that was not true.

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85

Battle of Hattin

1187; established ayyubid. connected Europe and syria

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86

Seljuks

hailed by the sunnis as heroes

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87

education

the main compound of the sunni revival revival

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88

Al-Ghazali

goes to Baghdad to be a scholar; legal wold; example of formal education. he becomes depressed because he feels that contemporary muslim he is with is orthopraxic (Public facing piety). Argues that philosophers have argued the real meaning of islam.

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89

Orthopraxic

they are not thinking about god but only doing the practices.

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90

reanimated

according to al-ghazali, islam needed to be ____ as a religion. so he goes on a journey and become interested with the Sufi.

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91

The middle path

not traditional, not philosophical

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92

Incoherence of Philosophers

written by Al-Ghazali regarding the revival of the religious sciences.

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93

heresiography

during the sunni revivalism, there is a spike on the text on this. it did not necessarily mean there was a lot of it. it only mean that it was pushed more.

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94

72

how many heresy is there according to the prophet Muhammad?

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95

Saladin

who killed al-hakim?

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96

Nizam al-mulk

chief visa of the Seljuks; assasins disguised as his entourage while travelling and he was stabbed to death. he designed the madrasa system.

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97

Madrasa complex

place of study; origin is debated; it developed in the Iranian area and was brought out west.

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98

Al-Azhar

Fatimid institution in Cairo that can be considered as equal to madrasa.

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99

standardization

what can be seen as the madrasa system spread and they developed a curriculum?

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100

Madrasa Curriculum

everything had to be memorized

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