APWH Ch 2 Unit 1 Study Guide

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Song dynasty

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Song dynasty

From 960-1279, the Song dynasty was defined as a "golden age" of Chinese arts and literature. The Song dynasty created a bureaucracy in which six major ministries were seen by the Censorate. To staff this bureaucracy, an examination system (revived from the Han dynasty) provided a modest measure of social mobility in a hierarchical society. Song dynasty China, in short, offered a mixture of tightening restrictions and new opportunities to women.

<p>From 960-1279, the Song dynasty was defined as a &quot;golden age&quot; of Chinese arts and literature. The Song dynasty created a bureaucracy in which six major ministries were seen by the Censorate. To staff this bureaucracy, an examination system (revived from the Han dynasty) provided a modest measure of social mobility in a hierarchical society. Song dynasty China, in short, offered a mixture of tightening restrictions and new opportunities to women.</p>
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China's economic revolution

China's economic revolution made Song-China "by far the richest, most skilled and most populous country on earth". Behind a doubling of the population (60 million in the 9th century to 120 million in 1200) were remarkable achievements in agricultural production such as Champa rice.

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Hangzhou

A city of eastern China on Hangzhou Bay, the capital of the Song dynasty; regarded by Marco Polo as "the finest city in the world"

<p>A city of eastern China on Hangzhou Bay, the capital of the Song dynasty; regarded by Marco Polo as &quot;the finest city in the world&quot;</p>
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Foot binding

A practice in which girls' feet were wrapped tightly and decreased in size, emphasizing feminine beauty and frailty. This practice complemented the Confucian thought of oppressing women, causing it to be widely accepted throughout mainland China.

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Hangul

A phonetic alphabet used for writing in Korean, developed around the mid-1400s

<p>A phonetic alphabet used for writing in Korean, developed around the mid-1400s</p>
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Chu Nom

A logographic Vietnamese writing system derived from the Chinese alphabet formerly used to write in Vietnamese. Chu nom can be translated into "southern script".

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7

Bushido

The traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage, loyalty, self-discipline and simple living. -Bravery; -loyalty; -honor; -great skill in martial arts; -preference for death over surrender; "The way of the warrior"

<p>The traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage, loyalty, self-discipline and simple living. -Bravery; -loyalty; -honor; -great skill in martial arts; -preference for death over surrender; &quot;The way of the warrior&quot;</p>
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Abbasid caliphate

An Arab dynasty of caliphs (successors to the Prophet) who ruled the Islamic world from 750 CE until its fall to the Mongols in 1258 (who ruled much of Persia for a long time). The Arab dynasty's political grip on the Empire slipped away fairly quickly as many governors and military commanders assumed autonomy of their regions whilst giving allegiance to the caliph in Baghdad.

<p>An Arab dynasty of caliphs (successors to the Prophet) who ruled the Islamic world from 750 CE until its fall to the Mongols in 1258 (who ruled much of Persia for a long time). The Arab dynasty&apos;s political grip on the Empire slipped away fairly quickly as many governors and military commanders assumed autonomy of their regions whilst giving allegiance to the caliph in Baghdad.</p>
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Seljuk Turkic Empire

An empire of the 11th and 12th centuries, centered in Persia and some of modern-day Iraq. Seljuk rulers adopted the title of "sultan" (ruler) as part of their Islamic conversion. By 1200, the Islamic heartland had fragmented into "sultanates", many ruled by Persian or Turkish dynasties.

<p>An empire of the 11th and 12th centuries, centered in Persia and some of modern-day Iraq. Seljuk rulers adopted the title of &quot;sultan&quot; (ruler) as part of their Islamic conversion. By 1200, the Islamic heartland had fragmented into &quot;sultanates&quot;, many ruled by Persian or Turkish dynasties.</p>
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Ottoman Empire

A Turkish sultanate that had migrated into Anatolia, carving out a state that consisted of southwestern Asia, northeastern Africa and the Balkans, bringing long-term political unity to the Middle East and North Africa. During the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire extended its control to the Middle East, Egypt, coastal North Africa, the lands around the Black Sea, and Eastern Europe, and it lasted in one form or another from the 14th to early 20th century. The Ottoman Empire brought cultural, political, and economic significance that only the Incas and Ming dynasty China could rival.

<p>A Turkish sultanate that had migrated into Anatolia, carving out a state that consisted of southwestern Asia, northeastern Africa and the Balkans, bringing long-term political unity to the Middle East and North Africa. During the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire extended its control to the Middle East, Egypt, coastal North Africa, the lands around the Black Sea, and Eastern Europe, and it lasted in one form or another from the 14th to early 20th century. The Ottoman Empire brought cultural, political, and economic significance that only the Incas and Ming dynasty China could rival.</p>
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al-Andalus

Muslim word for Spain, most of which was conquered by Arab and Berber forces between 711 and 718 CE. It was a site of cross-cultural encounters between the Islamic world and Western Christian Europe. Initially (1000 CE), perhaps 75% of the population was converted to Islam, but the golden age of Muslim Spain was short-lived, eventually being replaced by feelings of intolerance and prejudice.

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Byzantine Empire

Also known as Byzantium, the Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire after its division in 395, standing with Constantinople as its capital. It reigned as the most sophisticated and powerful Christian empire and civilization, entering a terminal decline in 1200, until Constantinople was overrun by the Ottoman Empire.

<p>Also known as Byzantium, the Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire after its division in 395, standing with Constantinople as its capital. It reigned as the most sophisticated and powerful Christian empire and civilization, entering a terminal decline in 1200, until Constantinople was overrun by the Ottoman Empire.</p>
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Constantinople

The capital of Byzantium (the Eastern half of the Roman Empire), serving as a "New Rome" where people referred to themselves as Romans.

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Caesaropapism

A political-religious system in which a secular (non-religious) leader is also the head of religious establishments. This relationship was seen in Byzantium between the Byzantine state and the Eastern Orthodox church.

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Eastern Orthodox Christianity

A branch of Christianity that developed in Byzantium, separate from the branch of Christianity that dominated Western Europe.

  • Married clergy

  • Subordination of the Church to political authorities

  • Sharp rejection of the authority of Roman popes

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Crusades

A series of religious wars launched in 1095 by the Catholic pope against the forces of Islam. In the Fourth Crusade (1204), Western forces seized Constantinople and ruled Byzantium for the next half-century

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Kievan Rus

A culturally diverse state that emerged around the city of Kiev (Kyiv) in the ninth century and adopted Christianity in the tenth century, thus linking them to the Eastern Orthodox belief of the Byzantine Empire

<p>A culturally diverse state that emerged around the city of Kiev (Kyiv) in the ninth century and adopted Christianity in the tenth century, thus linking them to the Eastern Orthodox belief of the Byzantine Empire</p>
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Western Christendom

A Western European branch of Christianity, also known as Roman Catholicism, that distinguished itself from Eastern Orthodoxy

  • Relative independence from the State

  • Recognition of the authority of the Pope

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Roman Catholic Church

By the 11th century CE, Western Christendom was centered on the pope as the ultimate authority, but the Church struggled to remain independent of political authorities. -Hierarchical organization of popes, bishops, priests and monasteries -Possessed large amounts of land, wealth, power and influence by 1200

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European Renaissance

A "rebirth" of classical learning commonly associated with the cultural blossoming in Italy between 1350-1500, rediscovering Roman/Greek learning, major developments in art, and growing secularism in society. It reached Northern Europe in about 1400

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21

Maya civilization

A major civilization of Mesoamerica known for the most elaborate writing system and other intellectual achievements such as the mathematical concept of zero, and they flourished from 250 to 900 CE in a region of modern-day Guatemala and the Yucatan region of Mexico during this time.

-Organized into a highly fragmented political system of city-states -Local lords and regional kingdoms -No central authority/frequent warfare

<p>A major civilization of Mesoamerica known for the most elaborate writing system and other intellectual achievements such as the mathematical concept of zero, and they flourished from 250 to 900 CE in a region of modern-day Guatemala and the Yucatan region of Mexico during this time.</p><p>-Organized into a highly fragmented political system of city-states -Local lords and regional kingdoms -No central authority/frequent warfare</p>
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22

Aztec Empire

A major state that developed in what is now Mexico in 1345 to 1528, with Tenochtitlan as its capital city; the last and largest of the Mesoamerican states to emerge before Spanish conquest in the region during the early 16th century. -Formed largely by the work of the Mexica people who formed a Triple Alliance with two nearby city-states -Population of 5 to 6 million, causing frequent rebellions from its subject people -Conquered peoples and cities were required to provide labor for Aztec rulers, providing them with supplies, clothing/textiles, and more. -Believed in human sacrifice, especially toward slaves Massive sacrificial rituals, together with great wealth, impressed enemies, allies and subjects with the immense power of the Aztecs.

<p>A major state that developed in what is now Mexico in 1345 to 1528, with Tenochtitlan as its capital city; the last and largest of the Mesoamerican states to emerge before Spanish conquest in the region during the early 16th century. -Formed largely by the work of the Mexica people who formed a Triple Alliance with two nearby city-states -Population of 5 to 6 million, causing frequent rebellions from its subject people -Conquered peoples and cities were required to provide labor for Aztec rulers, providing them with supplies, clothing/textiles, and more. -Believed in human sacrifice, especially toward slaves Massive sacrificial rituals, together with great wealth, impressed enemies, allies and subjects with the immense power of the Aztecs.</p>
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23

Inca Empire

The largest imperial state in the Western Hemisphere from 1438 to 1533, stretching about 2,500 miles along the Andes mountains and containing about 10 million subjects during its short life. -Incorporated lands and cultures of earlier Andean civilizations -More bureaucratic and intrusive empire as opposed to the Aztecs, who largely left their people alone if their contributions were satisfactory -At the top reigned the emperor -Machu Picchu -The Incas required their subject peoples to acknowledge major Inca deities, but the peoples were free to carry on with their religious traditions -A form of labor that contributed toward the Inca Empire, known as "mita", was required periodically from every household -Gender parallelism: when both genders have their own distinct roles that also complement each other; "men broke the ground, women sowed, and both enjoyed the harvest"

<p>The largest imperial state in the Western Hemisphere from 1438 to 1533, stretching about 2,500 miles along the Andes mountains and containing about 10 million subjects during its short life. -Incorporated lands and cultures of earlier Andean civilizations -More bureaucratic and intrusive empire as opposed to the Aztecs, who largely left their people alone if their contributions were satisfactory -At the top reigned the emperor -Machu Picchu -The Incas required their subject peoples to acknowledge major Inca deities, but the peoples were free to carry on with their religious traditions -A form of labor that contributed toward the Inca Empire, known as &quot;mita&quot;, was required periodically from every household -Gender parallelism: when both genders have their own distinct roles that also complement each other; &quot;men broke the ground, women sowed, and both enjoyed the harvest&quot;</p>
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Caliphate

A state under the leadership of a ruler with the title of caliph, an Arabic term for the successor of the Prophet Muhammad.

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Sultanate

Country or territory ruled by a sultan, a Turkish term for a ruler with power and authority

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Empire

A territory under the leadership of a ruler with the title of emperor, a Latin term for a monarch or sovereign ruler

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27

Korea

An Asian peninsula separating the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, defined by a series of dynasties: -Unified Silla (688-900); -Koryo (918-1392); -Joseon (1392-1910); Chinese models of family life and female behavior gradually replaced the more flexible Korean models due to their [China's] adherence to Confucianism; Korean customs eroded under the pressure of Confucian orthodoxy. Whilst still part of the Chinese world order, Korea retained a distinctive culture and political existence.

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Vietnam

A country bordered by China to the north, Vietnam adopted Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and other artistic, literary, and political customs established by the Chinese. Like Korea, Vietnam achieved political independence while also contributing to the Chinese world order. -Adopted the title of emperor; -Claimed the Mandate of Heaven; Vietnam retained a greater role for women in their societies in spite of the heavy Chinese influence.

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Dar al-Islam

An arabic term that means "house of Islam", Dar al-Islam can also refer to areas where Muslims are in the majority.

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Mandate of Heaven

The belief that a Chinese emperor's right to rule was given to them by the gods

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Japan

A country situated east of the Korean peninsula, separate from the mainland, Japan's extensive borrowing from Chinese civilization was voluntary rather than occurring under military threat. -Buddhism deeply affected Japanese art and literature; -The Chinese writing system, calligraphy, and poetry were attractive to the elite; Over many centuries, Japan combined what they had received from China to create their own distinct civilization. Buddhism never completely replaced the native tradition, and the assimilation between Japanese and Buddhist tradition came to be known as Shinto-at this level of society, Japanese women escape the oppressive Chinese Confucian culture, unlike Korea

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32

Ottoman Janissaries

Janissary was a member of the elite infantry of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Janissaries were highly sophisticated and uniform in their method of conquering territories.

<p>Janissary was a member of the elite infantry of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Janissaries were highly sophisticated and uniform in their method of conquering territories.</p>
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Filial piety

In Confucian thought, filial piety was the cultivation of love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.

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Sinification

Extensive adoption of Chinese culture in outside regions; most common in the neighboring countries Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

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Great Schism

The split of Christianity into Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholicism

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Imperial bureaucracy

Division of an empire into organized provinces to make it easier to control

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Neo-Confucianism

A philosophy that emerged in Song dynasty China, reviving Confucian thought while mixing it with Buddhist/Daoist elements

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Delhi Sultanates

For about 320 years beginning in 1206, five dynasties ruled over Delhi in India, most notable for its key role in the expansion of Muslim faith across the Indian subcontinent

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Feudalism

The social system that developed in Europe in the 8th century; vassals were protected by lords whom they had to serve in war

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40

Civil Service Examination

Officials/any men can obtain positions within a bureaucracy by taking these tests that qualify someone into being appointed in the bureaucracy. -China's bureaucracy system was also known as a 'meritocracy'.

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