Animal Physiology Exam 1

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What type of response does the nervous system provide to stimulli?

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1

What type of response does the nervous system provide to stimulli?

swift but brief

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2

What type of response does the endocrine system provide to stimuli?

adjusts metabolic operations and directs long-term changes

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3

What are the organs of the nervous system?

brain, spinal cord, sensory receptors, nerves

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4

What do receptors do?

detect changes or respond to stimuli

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5

What do effectors do?

respond to efferent signals

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6

What comprises the central nervous system?

brain and spinal cord

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7

What comprises the peripheral nervous system?

all neural tissue outside the CNS; nerves, sensory receptors

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8

What are the functions of the CNS?

process and coordinate; analyze data, motor commands, higher functions of the brain

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9

What are the higher functions of the brain?

intelligence, memory, learning, emotion

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10

What are the functions of the nerves of the PNS?

delivery sensory information to CNS, carry motor commands to peripheral tissues and systems

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11

What are the functions of the receptors of the PNS?

detect changes or respond to stimuli

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12

What are the functional divisions of the PNS?

afferent and efferent

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13

What does the afferent division of the PNS do?

carries sensory information to CNS

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14

What does the efferent division of the PNS do?

carries motor commands from CNS to PNS to muscles and glands

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15

What are the two parts of the efferent division of the PNS?

somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

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16

What does the somatic nervous system do?

controls skeletal muscle contractions

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17

What does the autonomic nervous system do?

controls subconscious actions, contractions of smooth and cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions

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18

What are the divisions of the ANS?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

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19

What are the two cell types of neural tissue?

neuron and neuroglia or glial cells

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20

What are neurons?

the basic functional unit of the nervous system

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21

What are neuroglia or glial cells?

supporting cells of the nervous system

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22

Classification of anaxonic neurons

no anatomic clues to distinguish dendrites from axons

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23

Classification of bipolar neurons

two distinct processes: one dendritic process and one axon with the cell body between them

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24

Classification of unipolar neurons

fused dendrites and axon, cell body to one side

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25

Classification of multipolar neurons

multiple dendrites, one axon

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26

What are the three functional classifications of neurons?

sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons

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27

Are sensory neurons afferent or efferent?

afferent

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28

Are motor neurons afferent or efferent?

efferent

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29

What do sensory neurons do?

carry information to the CNS

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30

What is a ganglion?

collection of neuron cell bodies in the PNS

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31

What do somatic sensory neurons do?

monitor external environment

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32

What do visceral sensory neurons do?

monitor internal environment

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33

What are the types of sensory receptors?

interoceptors, exteroceptors, proprioceptors

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34

What do exteroceptors do?

sense external environment

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35

What do proprioceptors do?

sense the position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints

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36

What do interoceptors do?

monitor internal organ activity and sense taste, deep pressure, and pain

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37

What do motor neurons do?

carry instructions from CNS to peripheral effectors

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38

What do somatic motor neurons do?

innervate skeletal muscles

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39

What do visceral motor neurons do?

innervate all PNS effectors other than skeletal muscles

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40

What are interneurons responsible for?

analyzing sensory information and coordinating motor outputs; also involved in memory, planning, and learning in humans

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41

What portion of the volume of the nervous system in made up of neuroglia?

half the volume

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42

What are the four types of neuroglia in the CNS?

ependymal cells, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes

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43

Where are ependymal cells found?

lining the central canal of the spinal cord and ventricles of the brain

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44

What do ependymal cells do?

secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

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45

What do microglia do?

they are the "wandering police force"

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46

Where are astrocytes found?

lining CNS capillaries

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47

What do astrocytes do?

maintain blood brain barrier

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48

What does the blood brain barrier do?

separates the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue

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49

What is the purpose of the blood brain barrier?

prevents many drugs, proteins, ions, and other molecules from readily passing from the blood into the brain

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50

What do oligodendrocytes do?

myelinate axons in the CNS

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51

What makes up white matter of CNS?

regions dominated by myelinated axons

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52

What makes up gray matter of CNS?

cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

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53

What are the types of neuroglia in the PNS?

satellite cells and Schwann cells

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54

What do neurons do?

perform all communication, information processing, and control functions of the nervous system

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55

What do neuroglia do?

preserve physical and biochemical structure of neural tissue and are essential to survival and function of neurons

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56

What are the five main membrane processes in neural activities?

resting potential, graded potential, action potential, synaptic activity, information processing

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57

What is the general resting membrane potential?

-70mV

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58

What is RMP determined by?

membrane permeability to K+ and Na+

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59

What is equilibrium potential?

the transmembrane potential at which there is no net movement of a particular ion across the cell membrane

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60

What causes a rise or fall in transmembrane potential?

temporary changes in membrane permeability

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61

What happens as a result of change in transmembrane potential?

opening or closing of specific membrane channels

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62

True or false: passive channels are always open

true

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63

What causes active channels to open or close?

specific stimuli

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64

What are the three states of an active channel?

  1. closed but capable of opening, 2. open (activated), 3. closed and incapable of opening (inactivated)

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65

What are the three classes of gated channels?

  1. chemically regulated, voltage regulated, mechanically regulated

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66

What opens chemically regulated channels?

the presence of specific chemicals at a binding site

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67

Where are chemically regulated channels found?

on neuron cell body and dendrites

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68

What opens voltage regulated channels?

specific changes in transmembrane potential

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69

Where are voltage regulated channels found?

neural axons, skeletal muscle sarcolemma, cardiac muscle

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70

What opens mechanically regulated channels?

membrane distortion

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71

Where are mechanically regulated channels found?

sensory receptors (touch, pressure, vibration)

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72

What are graded potentials?

Short-lived, localized changes in membrane potential

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73

What happens during excitation of graded potential?

A stimulus triggers the opening of Na+ channels and membrane potential moves toward zero (depolarization)

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74

What happens during inhibition of graded potential?

A stimulus triggers opening of K+ channels and membrane potential increases (hyperpolarization)

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75

What happens during repolarization of graded potential?

RMP is restored to normal by channels and ion pumps

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76

What is an action potential?

the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.

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77

What initiates an action potential?

a stimulus that reaches threshold (-60 to -55mV)

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78

What is the first step in the generation of action potentials?

Depolarization to threshold

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79

What is the second step in the generation of action potentials?

activation of voltage regulated Na+ channels --> depolarization

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80

What is the third step in the generation of action potentials?

inactivation of Na+ channels, activation of K+ channels --> repolarization

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81

What is the fourth step in the generation of action potentials?

return to normal permeability

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82

What are the types of refractory periods?

absolute and relative

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83

What is the absolute refractory period?

brief period during which a local area of a neuron's membrane resists re-stimulation, will not respond to any stimulus

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84

What is the relative refractory period?

time during which the membrane is repolarized and restoring the resting membrane potential, will only respond to a very strong stimulus

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85

What is the propagation of an action potential?

the movement of an action potential generated in axon hillock along entire length of axon

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86

What are the two methods of propagating action potential?

continuous and saltatory

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87

Where does continuous propagation occur?

unmyelinated axons

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88

Where does saltatory propagation occur?

myelinated axons

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89

What is the speed of continuous propagation?

slow: 1m/s

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90

What is the speed of saltatory propagation?

rapid

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91

What occurs during continuous propagation?

local current depolarizes the next segment; cycle repeats

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92

What occurs during saltatory propagation?

action potential appears to leap from node to node, skipping the intervening membrane surface

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93

How does information travel within the nervous system?

as propagated electrical signals (action potentials)

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94

What is the most important information within the nervous system carried by?

large diameter myelinated axons

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95

What is a synapse?

area where a neuron communicates with another cell

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96

What does a presynaptic cell do?

sends signal

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97

What does a postsynaptic cell do?

receives signal

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98

What are the two types of synapses?

electrical and chemical

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99

True or false: cells are in direct contact for a chemical synapse

false

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100

What are neurotransmitters?

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

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