Psyc121 Final Exam (copy)

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What is a paradigm?

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1

What is a paradigm?

a set of shared assumptions, agreed methods and ways of thinking commonly accepted by members of a group

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Who was the key figure involved in the psychodynamic perspective? What are its key principles/basic assumptions? Main contributions to modern psychology?

Sigmund Freud. Conscious + unconscious forces interact to control thoughts and behaviour. Awareness is like an iceberg, bulk of processes occur at an unconscious level. Obtain information through case studies of the client. Ego, superego and id. Main contributions: dreams, importance of childhood experiences.

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Differentiate the ego, superego and id in the psychodynamic perspective

ego: rational mind. superego: moral component. id: innate, pleasure principle.

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Criticisms of the psychodynamic perspective?

Unfalsifiable, uses qualitative data only.

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Who was a key figure involved with the behaviourist perspective? What are its basic principles/metaphors/findings?

B.F Skinner. Aims to understand how the environment shapes behaviour. Metaphor: Humans + Animals are mechanistic. This means certain responses can be elicited through environmental stimuli. Primary contributions: Classic conditioning (involuntary eg. pavlov's dog) and operant conditioning (voluntary, eg. teaching a dog to fetch with rewards).

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Criticisms of the behaviourist perspective?

Focus solely on nurture, dismisses internal workings of humans

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culture

The shared rules that govern behaviour, the filter through which we understand reality. Includes shared values, norms, behaviours, and beliefs that distinguish one group from another.

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cultural psychology

Examines how how cultural practices, norms, values, meanings, and social structures shape individuals. Does not assume universal properties to culture.

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cross-cultural psychology

focuses on how culture influences human behaviour, aiming to explain the similarities and differences in how people think, feel, and behave across cultures.

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emic perspective

A research approach that involves focusing on a specific cultural group and examining particular psychological aspects of that group. (cultural psychology)

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etic perspective

A research approach that involves the search for commonalities or differences across cultures. (cross-cultural psychology)

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cross-cultural comparison study

Research that involves comparing two or more different cultures in relation to a particular psychological variable.

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cross-cultural study

Research that examines whether a psychological variable in one culture can be applied and have meaning in another

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unpackaging study

Studies that try to explain why cultural differences occur, looking at the range of variables that might account for divergence in a particular aspect.

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three methods of cultural and cross-cultural research

  1. The study of individual cultures to determine relationships between the structures, values, belief sys- tems, language and practices of a culture and the behaviour of people living within that culture.

  2. The comparison of human behaviour across different cultures.

  3. The study of the interaction between cultures that co-exist in a larger societal context.

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challenges of cultural psychology

research methods, equivalent samples, interpreting results, researcher bias, sensitive issues, WEIRD

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WEIRD

White, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic

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individualism-collectivism continuum

the extent to which cultures favour individual goals compared to communal goals and how this influences psychological processes - most popular way of measuring cultural variability

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six dimensions of culture

time, emotion, interpersonal space, context, tight vs. loose, individualism vs. collectivism

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monochronic cultures

divide time into closely regulated, linear segments - people are expected to be punctual, and activities are scheduled at specific and regular intervals

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polychronic cultures

have a more fluid and less regulated perspective of time - people are not expected to be punctual, and pay less attention to observing strict deadlines or schedules

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emotion and culture

cultures differ in relation to rules on the appropriateness of displaying certain emotions in particular social circumstances

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interpersonal space and culture

intimate, social, and public zones of space. involves how people interact with spaces, and the cultural expectations of what distances are appropriate

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high-context culture

pay close attention to nonverbal signs and conversational differences to decode the true meaning behind words or actions - emphasise interpersonal relationships and rely more on intuition and interpretation over logic

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low-context culture

interpret what people say and do literally without regard for accompanying circumstances - rely on fact and logic, saying exactly what they mean

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tight culture

expect members to closely adhere to cultural norms and expectations, deviation from group norms is not tolerated

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loose culture

involve relaxed social norms where deviance to a degree is tolerated

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individualist culture

an emphasis on the primacy of the individual over the group - people define themselves in terms of individual attributes and view their individual identity and needs as more important than group identity and needs.

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collectivist culture

emphasise the group over individuals - people define themselves in terms of group attributes and see themselves primarily as part of a group and focus on the groups needs and identity

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colonisation

involves the invasion of an area by a new group who often takes control and asserts sovereignty over the area and its people. cultural, economic, and political control

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coloniality

refers to the continuation of the dynamics of colonialism in the present - ways of being, strategic relations of power, and the systems of knowledge that have roots in the colonial period and persist long after the end of colonial rule

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multiculturalism

where multiple cultures exist within a country, and where the number of inhabitants representing those minority cultures is significant

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pluralism

where there is a general acceptance not just of the existence of many different cultural and ethnic groups, but also their right to retain their cultural heritage and coexist

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culture shock

the feeling of disorientation and anxiety that occurs as people from one culture encounter and adapt to another culture's practices, expectations and rules.

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  1. honeymoon phase

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  1. disenchantment phase

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  1. beginning resolution phase

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  1. effective functioning stage

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acculturation

the changes that groups and individuals undergo when they encounter another culture - a process of integration where people adopt and adapt aspects of the new culture they enter, whilst retaining aspects of their cultural heritage

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assimilation

absorption of the receiving culture and abandonment of home culture

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integration

retaining home culture whilst also participating in the receiving culture

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separation

retaining home culture with minimal engagement with the receiving culture

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marginalisation

little connection with both the home and receiving culture

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ethnic identity

where members of an ethnic group identify 'us' in relation to 'them' using aspects of shared culture, language or religion - ethnicity involves a shared sense of personhood

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personal identity

the sense of who we are as individuals - reflects what we feel is unique about us and the combination of our personal values, traits, abilities, likes, aspirations, and life history

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social identity

sense that we are part of a larger social group with salient attributes including values, meanings and goals - it is common to have multiple social identities, and feel a shared sense of belonging within these social groups

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ethnocentrism

the tendency for a person's own culture to influence the way they view the rest of the world, people view the values, standards attitudes and behaviours of their culture as the 'norm' - a groups 'self-centeredness'

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xenophobia

the fear or hatred of foreigners, or anything foreign or unfamiliar - based on a broad stereotype about any cultures different from your own

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whiteness

'white' is a form of dominant expression of normative systems - whiteness represents a turn towards understanding power and privilege a how it is maintained in different domains

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prejudice

an unreasonable and negative stereotype about members of another group - negative assumption made on the basis of their group membership

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racism

the pervasive and systematic assumption of the inferiority of certain groups, and the different and unfair treatment of those groups on the basis of assumed inferiority

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discrimination

the behavioural manifestation of prejudiced attitudes

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a culturally skilled psychologist should:

be aware of their own cultural background, heritage and biases, and the differences that exist between themselves and those of other cultures. understand and respect the values, attitudes, and worldviews of other cultures, and the socio-political circumstances that impact certain groups

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cultural competence

effectiveness in communicating and behaving appropriately with people from another culture, both in terms of understanding and being understood

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contextual competence

requires considering the various other factors which might impact on health-related issues including the historic, family, economic and social contexts in which individuals are situated

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cultural safety

involves healthcare professionals delivering safe, accessible and responsive healthcare in culturally appropriate ways that are free from racism

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cultural responsiveness

critical reflexivity, anti-racism and cultural humility, which includes examining our own cultural beliefs, assumptions, privilege, power, and social location

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Key figures of the humanist perspective? What are the basic principles/metaphors?

Maslow+Rogers. Emphasises the uniqueness of the individual, and individuals are motivated towards self actualisation. People experience problems when there is a difference between their ideal self and self-concept. Free will+determination.

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Criticisms of the humanist perspective?

Are all people inherently good (eg. jails)? Rejection of lab methods - is it scientific? Do we even have free will?

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Describe the key features of the cognitive perspective.

Focus on how people process, store + retrieve information. metaphor of the mind like a computer (Information processing model). Uses experimental methods to INFER underlying mental processes (i.e. perception, attention, memory, learning, etc.)

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What are the basic principles/assumptions of the evolutionary perspective? What is a criticism of this theory?

Behaviours and mental processes evolved because they helped our ancestors survive + reproduce. Focus primarily on nature. Darwinian origins. A criticism of this theory is that we cannot go back in time and observe the process of evolutionary adaption.

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What are the two major debates in psychology paradigms?

Free will vs. Determinism, Nature vs. Nurture

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What is the modern 'paradigm' used in psychology now?

Biopsychosocial approach/model. Draws on positive aspects of individual paradigms and combines them eg. importance of childhood from psychodynamic theory.

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What is motivation

the driving force behind behaviour, leading us to pursue some things and avoid others.

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Psychodynamic perspective of motivation

Emphasis on the fulfillment of the basic drives of self-preservation (also referred to as aggression) and sex. Motives that reflect these drives can be unconscious.

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Behaviourist perspective of motivation

Motivation is the result of conditioning, when reinforcement and reward is desired. Primary drives that produce behaviours in order to fulfill them are hunger, thirst and sex. Secondary drives are learnt through conditioning, like wanting to earn money.

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Drive-reduction theory

Unfulfilled needs lead to drives, motivation stems from these drives.

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Cognitive perspective of motivation

Motivation is a result of what value an individual places on an outcome, and the extent to which they believe they can attain it.

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Humanistic perspective of motivation

People are motivated by the desire for personal growth. Emphasises the importance of Maslow's hierarchy of needs in motivation.

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Evolutionary perspective of motivation

Most motivated behaviour in humans is a result of instincts, that maximise reproductive success.

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What are psychosocial motives

Acheivement, power, self-esteem, affiliation.

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What is emotion

A positive or negative feeling that includes physiological arousal, subjective experience and behavioural expression.

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What is affect

A pattern of observable behaviour that expresses ones emotion

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What is the physiological component of emotion

Visceral and voluntary reactions to a stimulus.

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James-Lange theory vs the Cannon-Bard theory

James-Lange: Emotions originate in the peripheral nervous system responses, that the central nervous system interprets. Cannon-Bard: Emotion inducing stimuli elicits both an emotional and physiological experience simultaneously.

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What are the 5 areas of happiness (PERMA)

Pleasure, engagement, relationships, meaning, accomplishment

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What are the universally recognised emotions

Surprise, fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness

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What is positive affect

Pleasant emotions

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What is negative affect

Unpleasant emotions

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Role of hypothalamus in emotion

Converts emotional signals generated by the brain, into autonomic and endocrine responses.

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Role of limbic system (amygdala) in emotion

Sensory information is associated with a pleasant or unpleasant feeling. Also assists in detecting other people's emotions.

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Role of cortex in emotion

Considers whether a stimulus is safe or harmful.

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Psychodynamic perspective of emotion

People can be unconscious of their own emotional experience.

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Cognitive perspective of emotion

People's emotions reflect their subjective appraisals of a situation or stimuli.

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Evolutionary perspective of emotion

Emotions serve an adaptive purpose. They can be a powerful source of motivation.

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Neuron

Nerve cells. Carry information from cell to cell within the nervous system.

Sensory neurons: transmit information from sensory receptors to the brain.

Motor neurons: transmit commands from interneurons to the glands and muscles of the body, to perform actions and functions.

Interneurons: connect sensory and motor neurons in the spinal cord.

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Dendrite

Receive input from other nerve cells.

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<p>Soma</p>

Soma

Contains the nucleus, decision making centre of the neuron.

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<p>Axon and terminal buttons</p>

Axon and terminal buttons

The axon transmits information from the soma down to the collateral branches. Terminal buttons on these branches send signals from the neuron to other adjacent neurons, through the synapse.

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<p>Myelin sheath</p>

Myelin sheath

White matter, insulates the axon to increase speed of transmission.

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<p>Resting potential</p>

Resting potential

The membrane of the neuron is polarised, meaning the electrical charge is more negative on the inside.

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Graded potential

Stimulation from another neuron reduces the membranes polarisation, which excites the neuron. This is caused by an influx of sodium ions. Another neuron can also increase polarisation, which inhibits the neuron. This is caused by an outflow of potassium ions.

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Action potential

If the electrical current crosses a threshold, the neural membrane becomes totally permeable to sodium ions. This makes the charge inside the cell momentarily positive.

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Steps of transmission of information

  • the terminal buttons of the pre-synaptic neuron contain vesicles that carry neurotransmitters

  • when the neuron fires, some vesicles adhere to the membrane and release neurotransmitters into the synapse

  • these bind with receptors on the post-synaptic neuron

  • excitatory neurotransmitters depolarise the cell

  • inhibitory neurotransmitters hyperpolarise the cell

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Main neurotransmitters

Glutamate: primary excitatory neurotransmitter

GABA: primary inhibitory neurotransmitter

Dopamine: motivation, behaviour, mood

Seretonin: regulating mood

Acetylcholine: learning and memory

Endorphins: elevate mood, reduce pain

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Endocrine system

Glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

Pituitary gland: hormones it releases stimulate and regulate other glands

Thyroid gland: releases hormones that control growth and metabolism

Adrenal gland: secretes adrenaline

Gonads: influence sexual development by secreting testosterone and estrogens

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Peripheral nervous system

Throughout the body, consists of neurons that convey messages to and from the central nervous system.

Somatic: transmits sensory information to the central nervous system, and carries out motor commands.

Autonomic: conveys information to and from internal bodily structures that carry out basic life processes.

  • Sympathetic is activated when under threat

  • Parasympathetic maintains homeostasis

<p>Throughout the body, consists of neurons that convey messages to and from the central nervous system.</p><p>Somatic: transmits sensory information to the central nervous system, and carries out motor commands.</p><p>Autonomic: conveys information to and from internal bodily structures that carry out basic life processes.</p><ul><li><p>Sympathetic is activated when under threat</p></li><li><p>Parasympathetic maintains homeostasis</p></li></ul>
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Central nervous system

Consists of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord transmits information between the brain and the body. Within the spinal cord, nerves are called tracts. The neurons in the spinal cord produce reflexes.

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<p>Hindbrain</p>

Hindbrain

Links brain to spinal cord.

Medulla oblongata: controls vital physiological functions.

Pons: respiration, movement, sleep

Cerebellum: movement, sensory and cognitive processing

Reticular formation: consciousness and arousal

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Midbrain

Connection point between forebrain and hindbrain.

Colliculi: processing visual and auditory signals

Tegmentum: movement, pain and alertness

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