ORGB Chapter 1-5 Midterm Stuff

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227 Terms

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organizational behaviour

The study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations

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organizations

Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose.

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Key Features of Organizations

1) they are collective entities

2) their members have a collective sense of purpose

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organizational effectiveness

The extent to which an organization has a good fit with its external environment, effectively transforms inputs to outputs through human capital, and satisfies the needs of key stakeholders

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open systems

The view that organizations depend on the external environment for resources, affect that environment through their output, and consist of internal subsystems that transform inputs to outputs.

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human capital

The knowledge, skills, abilities, creative thinking, and other valued resources that employees bring to the organization

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stakeholders

Individuals, groups, and other entities that affect, or are affected by, the organization's objectives and actions.

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values

Relatively stable evaluative beliefs that guide a person's preferences for out- comes or courses of action in a variety of situations.

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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Organizational activities intended to benefit society and the environment beyond the firm's immediate financial interests or legal obligations.

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Anchors of Organizational Behaviour Knowledge

- Systematic research anchor (Study organizations using systematic research methods)

-multidisciplinary anchor, (Import knowledge from other disciplines, not just create its own knowledge)

-multiple levels of analysis anchor (Understand OB events from three levels of analysis: individual, team, organization)

-Contingency anchor (Recognize that the effectiveness of an action may depend on the situation)

-practical orientation anchor (Ensure that OB theories are useful in organizations)

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Systematic research anchor

study organizations using systematic research methods

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multidisciplinary anchor

the field should develop from knowledge in other disciplines

(e.g., psychology, sociology, economics), not just from its own isolated research base.

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multiple levels of analysis anchor

understand OB events from three levels of analysis: individual, team, organization

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Contingency anchor

-recognize that the effectiveness of an action may depend on the situation

-need to consider that there will be different consequences in different situations

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practical orientation anchor

ensure that OB theories are useful in organizations

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evidence-based management

The practice of making decisions and taking actions based on research evidence

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inclusive workplace

a workplace that values people of all identities and allows them to be fully themselves while contributing to the organization

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surface-level diversity

differences such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure

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deep-level diversity

Differences in the psychological characteristics of employees, including personalities, beliefs, values, and attitudes.

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Challenges of Diversity

- Team take longer to perform effectively together

- Higher dysfunctional conflict, lower info sharing and morale

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work-life integration

The extent to which people are effectively engaged in their various work and nonwork roles and have a low degree of role conflict across those life domains.

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Pros of remote working

- Better employee work-life integration

- Attractive benefit for job applicants

- Low employee turnover

-Higher employee productivity

-Reduced greenhouse gas emissions

-Reduced corporate real estate and office costs

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Cons of Remote Work

-More social isolation

-Lower team cohesion

-Weaker organizational culture

-More stressful due to home space and roles

-Harder to recognize promotions

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Traits of successful Remote Workers

-higher self-motivation

-self-organization

-need for autonomy,

-information technology skills

-fulfill social needs more from sources outside the workplace.

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direct employment

Full-time, permanent jobs

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MARS model

motivation, ability, role perceptions, situational factors

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motivation

the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way.

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Direction

a course along which someone or something moves.

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intensity

the amount of effort allocated to the goal.

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persistence

the length of time that the individual continues to exert effort toward an objective.

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ability

the natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task.

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Role Perceptions (MARS)

the degree of understanding of the specifics, importance & preferred behaviors to achieve the task.

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role clarity

understanding job requirements

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task performance

The individual's voluntary goal-directed behaviours that contribute to organizational objectives

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Three types of task performance

1. Proactive task performance

2. adaptive task performance

3. Proficient task performance

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Proficient task performance

performing the work efficiently and accurately. It involves accomplishing the assigned work at or above the expected standards of quality, quantity, and other indicators of effectiveness.

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Adaptive task performance

how well employees modify their thoughts and behaviour to align with and support a new or changing work process or work setting. Essentially, adaptive task performance is about how well employees respond to change in the workplace and in their job duties.

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Proactive task performance

how well employees take the initiative to anticipate and introduce new work patterns that benefit the organization. Proactive behaviours bring about change in oneself, co-workers, and the workplace to achieve what is perceived to be a better future for the organization

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organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs)

Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the organization's social and psychological context.

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Examples of organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs)

-assisting co-workers with their work problems

-adjusting your work schedule to accommodate co-workers,

-showing genuine courtesy toward co-workers

-sharing your work resources (supplies, technology, staff) with co-workers.

-supporting the company's public image,

-offering ideas beyond those required for one's own job,

-attending events that support the organization, and keeping up with new developments in the organization

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Pros of organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs)

High-OCB employees receive more support from co-workers which, in turn, supports their own task performance. OCBs also increase team performance because members depend on one another.

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Cons of organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs)

OCBs take time and energy away from perform- ing tasks, so employees who give more attention to OCBs risk lower career success in companies that reward task per- formance. Also, employees who frequently perform OCBs tend to have higher work-family conflict because of the amount of time required for these activities.

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counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs)

Voluntary behaviours that have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organization.

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Examples of counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs)

-harassing co-workers

-creating unnecessary conflict

-deviating from preferred work methods (e.g., shortcuts that undermine work quality)

-being untruthful, stealing

-sabotaging work

-wasting resources.

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Cons of Employee Turnover

loss valuable knowledge, skills, and relationship.

Lose Money Training replacements

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Pros of Employee Turnover

Open Positions

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absenteeism

when an employee doesn't show up for work

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Presenteeism

when employees show up but are sick or otherwise in no condition to work productively

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Personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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Nature vs. Nurture

Heredity vs. Environment

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When does personality stabilize?

Around 30 years old

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Five-Factor (Big Five) Model of Personality

The five broad dimensions representing most personality traits: conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and extraversion.

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Conscientiousness

how dependable, responsible, achievement-oriented, and persistent one is

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Agreeableness

how trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and soft-hearted one is

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Neuroticism

anxiety, insecurity, emotional instability

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openness to experience

how intellectual, imaginative, curious, and broad-minded one is

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Extraversion

A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive

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Dark Triad

Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy

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Machiavellianism

A personality trait of people who demonstrate a strong motivation to achieve their own goals at the expense of others, who believe that deceit is a natural and acceptable way to achieve their goals, who take pleasure in outwitting and misleading others using crude influence tactics, and who have a cynical disregard for morality.

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narcissism

A personality trait of people with a grandiose, obsessive belief in their superiority and entitlement, a propensity to aggressively engage in attention-seeking behaviours, an intense envy of others, and tendency to exhibit arrogance, callousness, and exploitation of others for personal aggrandizement.

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psychopathy

A personality trait of people who ruthlessly dominate and manipulate others without empathy or any feelings of remorse or anxiety, use superficial charm, yet are social predators who engage in antisocial, impulsive, and often fraudulent thrill-seeking behaviour.

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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types

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Sensing (S)

perceiving information directly through the five senses; it relies on an organized structure to acquire factual and preferably quantitative details.

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intuition (n)

insight and subjective experience to see relationships among variables.

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Carl Jung's personality theory

sensing (S) vs intuition (N)

thinking (T) vs feeling (F).

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Thinking (T)

"Thinking individuals focus on objectivity and rationality, prioritizing logic over emotions. They tend to hide their feelings and see efficiency as more important than cooperation."

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Feeling (F)

"Feeling individuals are sensitive and emotionally expressive. They are more empathic and less competitive than Thinking types, and focus on social harmony and cooperation."

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Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)

Judging types want control and prefer order and structure. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.

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value system

a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity

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personal values

personal standards by which one lives

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shared values

values held in common by several people

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Schwartz's values circumplex

universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, and self-direction

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Schwartz's Values Model

1. Openness to change - motivation to pursue innovative ways

-self-direction (creativity, independent thought)

-stimulation (excitement and challenge)

-hedonism (pursuit of pleasure, enjoyment, gratification of desires)

2. Conservation -- motivation to preserve the status quo

-conformity (adherence to social norms and expectations),

-security (safety and stability),

-tradition (moderation and preservation of the status quo)

3. Self-enhancement -- motivated by self-interest

-achievement (pursuit of personal success)

-power (dominance over others)

-hedonism (pursuit of pleasure, enjoyment, gratification of desires)

4. Self-transcendence -- motivation to promote welfare of others and nature

-benevolence (concern for others in one's life)

-universalism (concern for the welfare of all people and nature).

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Values Congruence

Similarity of a person's values hierarchy to another source

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four ethical principles

utilitarianism, individual rights, distributive justice, ethic of care

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Utilitarianism

idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people

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Individual Rights

This principle says that everyone has the same set of natural rights, such as freedom of speech, freedom of movement, the right to physical security, and the right to fair trial. The individual rights principle extends beyond legal rights to human rights that everyone is granted as a moral norm of society. One problem with this principle is that some individual rights may conflict with others. The shareholders' right to be informed about corporate activities may ultimately conflict with an executive's right to privacy, for example

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Distributive Justice

the benefits and burdens of similar individuals should be the same; otherwise they should be proportional.

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Ethic of Care

everyone has a moral obligation to help others within their relational sphere to grow and self-actualize

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moral intensity

the degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical principles

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moral sensitivity

a person's ability to recognize the presence of an ethical issue and determine its relative importance

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Factors of moral sensitivity

-Expertise or knowledge of prescriptive norms and rules

-Previous experience with specific moral dilemmas.

-Ability to empathize with those affected by the decision

-A strong self-view of being a morally sensitive person.

-A high degree of situational mindfulness

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Mindfulness

Being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activities and tasks.

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Individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

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Collectivism

giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly

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uncertainty avoidance

the degree to which societies are willing to tolerate uncertainty and risk

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power distance

Reluctant to disagree with or contradict the boss; managers are expected and preferred decision makers; perception of dependence (versus interdependence) with the boss.

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achievement-nurturing orientation

Focus on outcomes (versus relationships); decisions based on contribution (equity versus equality); low empathy or showing emotions (versus strong empathy and caring).

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Five Cross-Cultural Values

1. Individualism

2. Collectivism

3. Power Distance

4. Uncertainty Avoidance

5. Achievement Orientation

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self-concept

our understanding and evaluation of who we are

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3 characteristics of self concept

1. Complexity

2. Consistency

3. Clarity

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complexity

the number of distinct and important roles or identities that people perceive about themselves.

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Consistency

the degree to which a person's identities require similar personal attributes.

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clarity

the degree to which a person's self-concept is clear, confidently defined, and stable

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Self-concept high complexity pros

protects our self-esteem when some roles are threatened or damaged.

helps people adapt,

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low complexity cons

suffer severe loss when they experience failure because these events affect a large part of themselves.

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self-enhancement

A person's inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept (and to have others perceive them favourably), such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important.

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self-enhancement positives

tend to experience better mental and physical health when they amplify their self-concept. Overconfidence also generates a "can do" attitude (which we discuss later) that motivates persistence in difficult or risky tasks.

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self-enhancement negatives

overestimate future returns in investment decisions and to engage in unsafe behaviour (such as dangerous driving). It also motivates executives to repeat ineffective decisions (because they ignore negative feedback), launch misguided corporate diversification strategies, and acquire excessive corporate debt.

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self-verification

A person's inherent motivation to confirm and maintain their existing self-concept.

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