Unit 1: Diet and Energy

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114 Terms

1

Energy

the ability to do work (transfer energy b/w forms)

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Everything your body does requires...

energy. Including staying warm, moving, and thinking (the "work" in question).

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Heterotroph

an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition

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Solar Energy

energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy. Every single organism on earth depends on solar energy for life

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Mechanical Energy

  1. Kinetic- energy of movement

  2. Potential- stored energy

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Chemical Energy

energy stored in chemical bonds

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Food is a form of...

Chemical energy. When you digest food, you break the bonds and harvest the energy to run your cellular processes

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First Law of Thermodynamics

• Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change forms

• Photosynthesis is not creating energy, it is converting light energy from the sun to chemical energy in the plant

• All energy in the universe existed when it first began

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Second Law of Thermodynamics

Energy conversions are inefficient and some energy will ALWAYS be lost

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Third Law of Thermodynamics

  • Energy flows from higher (more ordered or efficient) forms to lower (less ordered or efficient) energy forms

  • Disorder, or entropy, increases over time

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Solar energy is converted into...

chemical energy by plants (plant sugars). Animals eat plants or other animals to convert plant sugars into ATP (energy for now) and/or stored chemicals (energy for later)

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How do cells fuel chemical reactions?

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Energy Conversions

  • Solar Energy is converted into chemical energy by plants (plant sugars)

  • Animals eat plants (or other animals) to convert plant sugars into ATP (energy for now) and/or stored chemicals (energy for later)

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Cells store energy in the bonds of...

ATP

<p>ATP</p>
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Organic Nutrients

• AKA Biological Macromolecules

• Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to Carbon

• Carbon is the backbone of organic molecules necessary for life- forming long chains of hydrogens and carbons − Hydrocarbon Chains

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Carbon

• Most versatile element on earth • Four valence electrons means many covalent bonds

<p>• Most versatile element on earth • Four valence electrons means many covalent bonds</p>
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Functional Groups

  • Functional groups are attached to hydrocarbon chains to provide chemical reactivity to organic molecules

  • Different functional group means the molecule has a different job

<ul><li><p>Functional groups are attached to hydrocarbon chains to provide chemical reactivity to organic molecules</p></li><li><p>Different functional group means the molecule has a different job</p></li></ul>
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Building Blocks of Organic Nutrients

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Dehydration Synthesis

Joining monomers to form a polymer by removing a water molecule

<p>Joining monomers to form a polymer by removing a water molecule</p>
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Hydrolytic Reaction (Hydrolysis)

Breaking polymers down into monomers by adding a water molecule

<p>Breaking polymers down into monomers by adding a water molecule</p>
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Carbohydrates

  • Chains of sugar molecules (carbon rings with 3-7 carbons)

  • Quickly accessed as an energy source (preferred energy source)

  • Can form long polymers that are easily broken down by digestive enzymes

<ul><li><p>Chains of sugar molecules  (carbon rings with 3-7 carbons)</p></li><li><p>Quickly accessed as an energy source (preferred energy source)</p></li><li><p>Can form long polymers that are easily broken down by digestive enzymes</p></li></ul>
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Monosaccharide

Single carbohydrate units, AKA simple sugars (Ex: glucose, galactose, fructose)

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Disaccharide

Combinations of two monosaccharides, one of which is usually glucose (Ex: maltose, lactose, sucrose)

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Polysaccharide

Long chains of glucose molecules, may be either branched or unbranched

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Sugars in your blood: 3 fates

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Depending on their structure, dietary carbohydrates can...

Lead to quick-but-brief or slow-but-persistent increases in blood sugar.

<p>Lead to quick-but-brief or slow-but-persistent increases in blood sugar.</p>
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Lipids

Non-polar molecules that do not dissolve in water

<p>Non-polar molecules that do not dissolve in water</p>
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Saturated fats raise...

Bad cholesterol in the bloodstream which can create blockages and heart disease

<p>Bad cholesterol in the bloodstream which can create blockages and heart disease</p>
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Trans Fats

  • Man-made fats

  • One of the worst things you can eat

<ul><li><p>Man-made fats</p></li><li><p>One of the worst things you can eat</p></li></ul>
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Structure of Fats

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Sterols

• Carbon arranged in four rings instead of chains

• Cholesterol: Component of animal cell membranes−In blood, can attach to vessel walls, causing blockage

• Steroid Hormones−Regulate sexual development, maturation, and sex cell production −Estrogen: Memory/Mood −Testosterone: Muscle growth

<p>• Carbon arranged in four rings instead of chains</p><p>• Cholesterol: Component of animal cell membranes−In blood, can attach to vessel walls, causing blockage</p><p>• Steroid Hormones−Regulate sexual development, maturation, and sex cell production −Estrogen: Memory/Mood −Testosterone: Muscle growth</p>
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Phospholipids

  • Compose the membrane of all living cells

<ul><li><p>Compose the membrane of all living cells</p></li></ul>
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Proteins

• Amino group and carboxyl group bound to a chain of amino acids • Order, identity and number of amino acids determine protein function

<p>• Amino group and carboxyl group bound to a chain of amino acids • Order, identity and number of amino acids determine protein function</p>
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Protein Diversity

  • Structure (hair, nails)

  • Protection (fight invading microorganisms, coagulate blood)

  • Regulation (control cell activity, hormones)

  • Contraction (allows muscles to contract, heart to pump)

  • Transportation (carry molecules around body)

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Protein Structure

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A change in protein shape =

A change in function

<p>A change in function</p>
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Hair Protein

Keratin

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Amino Acids are...

Essential. You cannot make these and you have to obtain them from food or you will die!

<p>Essential. You cannot make these and you have to obtain them from food or you will die!</p>
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Pathway of Energy

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Functions of Digestive System

  1. Break down incoming nutrients to be transported to cells of the body

  2. Supply cells with water

  3. Remove undigested waste material

<ol><li><p>Break down incoming nutrients to be transported to cells of the body</p></li><li><p>Supply cells with water</p></li><li><p>Remove undigested waste material</p></li></ol>
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Mechanical Digestion

  • Physically breaking food down to increase its surface area

  • Mouth and stomach

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Chemical Digestion

  • Break down nutrient molecules using enzymes to harvest energy

  • Small intestine

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Digestive Tract Organs

Mouth – breaks up food by mechanical and chemical digestion

Esophagus – transports food to stomach

Stomach – mechanical mixing of food

Small intestine – major organ of digestion and absorption

Large intestine – eliminates indigestible materials, reabsorbs water

<p>Mouth – breaks up food by mechanical and chemical digestion</p><p>Esophagus – transports food to stomach</p><p>Stomach – mechanical mixing of food</p><p>Small intestine – major organ of digestion and absorption</p><p>Large intestine – eliminates indigestible materials, reabsorbs water</p>
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Accessory Organs

Salivary glands – lubricates food and provides enzymes

Liver – produces bile, processes and stores nutrients

Pancreas– produces digestive enzymes for the small intestine, regulates blood sugar levels

Gallbladder – stores bile

<p>Salivary glands – lubricates food and provides enzymes</p><p>Liver – produces bile, processes and stores nutrients</p><p>Pancreas– produces digestive enzymes for the small intestine, regulates blood sugar levels</p><p>Gallbladder – stores bile</p>
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Small Intestine

Folds, Villi: Increase surface area to maximize nutrient absorption

Capillaries inside villi connect small intestine to circulatory system

Lacteals inside villi transport fat-soluble molecules to lymphatic system

<p>Folds, Villi: Increase surface area to maximize nutrient absorption</p><p>Capillaries inside villi connect small intestine to circulatory system</p><p>Lacteals inside villi transport fat-soluble molecules to lymphatic system</p>
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Enzymes

Metabolic catalyst that speed up chemical reactions or allow them to occur at all

Activation Energy: The amount of energy required to make a chemical reaction occur

Enzymes lower activation energy

<p>Metabolic catalyst that speed up chemical reactions or allow them to occur at all</p><p>Activation Energy: The amount of energy required to make a chemical reaction occur</p><p>Enzymes lower activation energy</p>
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How Enzymes work

  1. Substrate (nutrient) binds to active site of enzyme

  2. Enzyme changes shape, which changes the shape of the nutrient molecule (thus lowering reaction activation energy)

  3. Once reaction is complete, nutrient unbinds from enzyme

<ol><li><p>Substrate (nutrient) binds to active site of enzyme</p></li><li><p>Enzyme changes shape, which changes the shape of the nutrient molecule (thus lowering reaction activation energy)</p></li><li><p>Once reaction is complete, nutrient unbinds from enzyme</p></li></ol>
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Enzyme Regulation

Conditions can change the shape of the active site and its ability to interact with its substrate

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Feedback Inhibition

  • Product of the enzyme pathway tells enzyme to stop working

  • Only the needed amount of product will be produced

<ul><li><p>Product of the enzyme pathway tells enzyme to stop working</p></li><li><p>Only the needed amount of product will be produced</p></li></ul>
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Digestive Enzymes

Break down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids into molecules that can move into circulatory or lymphatic system

<p>Break down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids into molecules that can move into circulatory or lymphatic system</p>
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Amylases

  • Break down carbohydrates

  • Sends simple sugars to blood stream

<ul><li><p>Break down carbohydrates</p></li><li><p>Sends simple sugars to blood stream</p></li></ul>
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Peptidases

  • Break down proteins

  • Sends amino acids to blood stream

<ul><li><p>Break down proteins</p></li><li><p>Sends amino acids to blood stream</p></li></ul>
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Lipases

  • Break down fats

  • Sends simple fats (monoglycerides) to lymphatic system

<ul><li><p>Break down fats</p></li><li><p>Sends simple fats (monoglycerides) to lymphatic system</p></li></ul>
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Cells

The smallest unit that still displays all the properties of life

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All cells have...

Cytoplasm, Plasma Membrane, DNA, Ribosomes

<p>Cytoplasm, Plasma Membrane, DNA, Ribosomes</p>
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Prokaryotic Cells

  • Simple, single-celled (unicellular) organism

  • Lacks a nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle

  • DNA is found in the nucleoid

<ul><li><p>Simple, single-celled (unicellular) organism</p></li><li><p>Lacks a nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle</p></li><li><p>DNA is found in the nucleoid</p></li></ul>
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Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea

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There are how many cells in the body?

  • 30 trillion human cells

  • 39 Trillion bacteria, archaea, and fungi cells

  • That’s more cells than there are stars in the milky way galaxy

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Eukaryotic

Nucleus and membrane bound organelles

<p>Nucleus and membrane bound organelles</p>
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Eukaryotic Cells & Membrane Bound Organelles

  • Membrane-bound compartments inside cells with specific functions

  • What is the advantage of compartmentalization?

<ul><li><p>Membrane-bound compartments inside cells with specific functions</p></li><li><p>What is the advantage of compartmentalization?</p></li></ul>
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Mitochondria

  • Act as all-purpose energy converters

  • Harvest energy to be used for cellular functions

<ul><li><p>Act as all-purpose energy converters</p></li><li><p>Harvest energy to be used for cellular functions</p></li></ul>
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Mitochondria Structure

  • “Bag-within-a-bag”

  • Two areas inside: Intermembrane space, Mitochondrial matrix

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Origin of Mitochondria

  • Symbiosis: Individuals of two different species live in physical contact, often for mutual benefit

  • Endosymbiosis: Occurs when an individual of one species lives inside an individual of another species

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Endosymbiosis
 Hypothesis

Mitochondria originated from bacterial cell that took up residence inside another cell (developed by Lynn Margulis)

<p>Mitochondria originated from bacterial cell that took up residence inside another cell (developed by Lynn Margulis)</p>
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Plasma Membrane

  • Defines the boundary of the cell

  • Determines the nature of its contact with the environment

  • Can exclude, allow in, or remove different substances

  • Regulates internal environment of cell

  • Made of a phospholipid bilayer

<ul><li><p>Defines the boundary of the cell</p></li><li><p>Determines the nature of its contact with the environment</p></li><li><p>Can exclude, allow in, or remove different substances</p></li><li><p>Regulates internal environment of cell</p></li><li><p>Made of a phospholipid bilayer</p></li></ul>
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Phospholipid Bilayer Structure in a Cell

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Fluid-Mosaic Model

  • Describes the structure of the plasma membrane as a mosaic of components that are able to flow and change position, while maintaining the basic integrity of the membrane

  • Phospholipids

  • Cholesterol—regulates fluidity based on temperature

  • Proteins—serve as channels or pumps, enzymes, structural attachments

  • Carbohydrates—on exterior of cell surface

<ul><li><p>Describes the structure of the plasma membrane as a mosaic of components that are able to flow and change position, while maintaining the basic integrity of the membrane</p></li><li><p>Phospholipids</p></li><li><p>Cholesterol—regulates fluidity based on temperature</p></li><li><p>Proteins—serve as channels or pumps, enzymes, structural attachments</p></li><li><p>Carbohydrates—on exterior of cell surface</p></li></ul>
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Molecules must move across membranes

  • Cells take in food/nutrients, export wastes, and communicate with their environment

  • Passive Transport: No energy required

  • Diffusion (simple or facilitated)

  • Osmosis (water only)

  • Active Transport: Energy Required

  • Bulk Transport: Special vesicles used to move large quantities at the same time

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Passive Transport: Diffusion

  • Solute: What molecule is being dissolved

  • Solvent: What molecule is dissolved in

  • Concentration Gradients: Differences in number of molecules solute per mL solvent across a membrane

<ul><li><p>Solute: What molecule is being dissolved</p></li><li><p>Solvent: What molecule is dissolved in</p></li><li><p>Concentration Gradients: Differences in number of molecules solute per mL solvent across a membrane</p></li></ul>
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Concentration Gradient

  • Molecules will move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration until the concentrations are the same

  • This happens without input of energy

<ul><li><p>Molecules will move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration until the concentrations are the same</p></li><li><p>This happens without input of energy</p></li></ul>
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Passive Transport: 
Simple Diffusion

Small molecules that carry no charge can pass directly through the membrane

<p>Small molecules that carry no charge can pass directly through the membrane</p>
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Passive transport:
 Facilitated Diffusion

Large or charged molecules must pass through a channel or carrier molecule to get across PM

<p>Large or charged molecules must pass through a channel or carrier molecule to get across PM</p>
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Osmosis

  • Passive transport of water

  • Water diffuses across a membrane via channel molecule to equalize the concentration of solute inside and outside the cell

<ul><li><p>Passive transport of water</p></li><li><p>Water diffuses across a membrane via channel molecule to equalize the concentration of solute inside and outside the cell</p></li></ul>
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Osmosis Part 2

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Active Transport

  • Movement of molecules across the plasma membrane that requires energy

  • Molecules being pumped against their chemical gradients

<ul><li><p>Movement of molecules across the plasma membrane that requires energy</p></li><li><p>Molecules being pumped against their chemical gradients</p></li></ul>
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Sodium-Potassium Pump

  • Important active transport example

  • Creates a charge gradient (or resting potential) that helps maintain cell conditions

<ul><li><p>Important active transport example</p></li><li><p>Creates a charge gradient (or resting potential) that helps maintain cell conditions</p></li></ul>
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Bulk Transport:
 Endocytosis

  • A type of active transport that moves large particles into a cell

  • The plasma membrane of the cell forms a pocket around the target particle

  • The pocket pinches off from the membrane

  • The particle becomes contained in a newly created vacuole formed from the plasma membrane

<ul><li><p>A type of active transport that moves large particles into a cell</p></li><li><p>The plasma membrane of the cell forms a pocket around the target particle</p></li><li><p>The pocket pinches off from the membrane</p></li><li><p>The particle becomes contained in a newly created vacuole formed from the plasma membrane</p></li></ul>
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Once Molecule is inside the cell

  • Cellular respiration converts sugar molecules to ATP

  • Needs Oxygen

  • Releases water and Carbon Dioxide

<ul><li><p>Cellular respiration converts sugar molecules to ATP</p></li><li><p>Needs Oxygen</p></li><li><p>Releases water and Carbon Dioxide</p></li></ul>
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Three steps of cellular respiration

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Glycolysis Step 1

  • Step 1: ATP is used to destabilize a glucose molecule.

  • Makes energy in bonds easier to harvest

<ul><li><p>Step 1: ATP is used to destabilize a glucose molecule.</p></li><li><p>Makes energy in bonds easier to harvest</p></li></ul>
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Glycolysis Step 2

  • Step 2: Glucose broken in to two pyruvate molecules.

  • Energy stored in ATP

  • Electrons stored in NADH

<ul><li><p>Step 2: Glucose broken in to two pyruvate molecules.</p></li><li><p>Energy stored in ATP</p></li><li><p>Electrons stored in NADH</p></li></ul>
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Glycolysis uses...

  • Uses 2 ATP

  • Results in 4 ATP (2 Net ATP) and 2 NADH and 2 Pyruvate

  • For small organisms, this is all they do!

  • Larger organisms must harvest more energy from the pyruvate

<ul><li><p>Uses 2 ATP</p></li><li><p>Results in 4 ATP (2 Net ATP) and 2 NADH and 2 Pyruvate</p></li><li><p>For small organisms, this is all they do!</p></li><li><p>Larger organisms must harvest more energy from the pyruvate</p></li></ul>
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Prep Reactions:
 Acetyl-CoA production

  • Before proceeding to the citric acid cycle, the molecules needed for that process must be modified

  • This occurs in the mitochondrion before the citric acid cycle begins

<ul><li><p>Before proceeding to the citric acid cycle, the molecules needed for that process must be modified</p></li><li><p>This occurs in the mitochondrion before the citric acid cycle begins</p></li></ul>
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Acetyl-CoA production Step 1

  • Step 1: Break down pyruvate, and in the process donate two electrons to NAD+, creating NADH

<ul><li><p>Step 1: Break down pyruvate, and in the process donate two electrons to NAD+, creating NADH</p></li></ul>
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Acetyl-CoA production Step 2

  • Step 2: CO2 is formed and released

  • The CO2 diffuses out of the cell into the blood stream, and you eventually breathe it out

<ul><li><p>Step 2: CO2 is formed and released</p></li><li><p>The CO2 diffuses out of the cell into the blood stream, and you eventually breathe it out</p></li></ul>
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Acetyl-CoA production Step 3

Step 3: A molecule called coenzyme-A attaches itself to the remaining portion of pyruvate

<p>Step 3: A molecule called coenzyme-A attaches itself to the remaining portion of pyruvate</p>
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What results from Acetyl-CoA production?

  • Resulting molecule, called Acetyl – CoA, is sent to the Citric Acid Cycle

  • This happens twice per original glucose molecule

<ul><li><p>Resulting molecule, called Acetyl – CoA, is sent to the Citric Acid Cycle</p></li><li><p>This happens twice per original glucose molecule</p></li></ul>
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Citric acid cycle (krebs cycle)

  1. acetyl-CoA molecule enters the cycle and binds to oxaloacetate, creating a six-carbon molecule.

  2. The six-carbon molecule donates electrons to NAD+, creating NADH. Two carbon dioxide molecules are released into the atmosphere.

  3. The remaining four-carbon molecule is rearranged to form oxaloacetate. In the process, ATP is formed, and electrons are passed to NADH and FADH2.

<ol><li><p>acetyl-CoA molecule enters the cycle and binds to oxaloacetate, creating a six-carbon molecule.</p></li><li><p>The six-carbon molecule donates electrons to NAD+, creating NADH. Two carbon dioxide molecules are released into the atmosphere.</p></li><li><p>The remaining four-carbon molecule is rearranged to form oxaloacetate. In the process, ATP is formed, and electrons are passed to NADH and FADH2.</p></li></ol>
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Mitochondrial electron transport chain

Recall:

  • Glycolysis stores high-energy electrons in NADH

  • The Citric Acid Cycle stores high-energy electrons in NADH and in FADH2

  • How to extract that energy?

Transport chain used to harvest energy stored in electrons in NADH and FADH2

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Mitochondrial electron transport chain Step 1

At each step in the electron transport chain’s sequence of handoffs, the electrons fall to a lower energy state, releasing a little bit of energy.

<p>At each step in the electron transport chain’s sequence of handoffs, the electrons fall to a lower energy state, releasing a little bit of energy.</p>
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Mitochondrial electron transport chain Step 2

The energy is used to power proton pumps, which pack hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space.

<p>The energy is used to power proton pumps, which pack hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space.</p>
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Mitochondrial electron transport chain Step 3

At the end of the chain, the lower energy electrons are handed off to oxygen, which then combines with free H+ ions to form water.

<p>At the end of the chain, the lower energy electrons are handed off to oxygen, which then combines with free H+ ions to form water.</p>
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Mitochondrial electron transport chain Step 4

The protons rush back to the mitochondrial matrix with great kinetic energy, which can be used to build ATP

<p>The protons rush back to the mitochondrial matrix with great kinetic energy, which can be used to build ATP</p>
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How much ATP per glucose molecule?

36-38 total

<p>36-38 total</p>
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Alternative pathways of energy acquisition

  • Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen

  • Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) does not require oxygen

  • Cells performing anaerobic respiration must use another molecule as the final electron acceptor

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What happens if our bodies fall behind in delivering oxygen?

Lungs ➡ Bloodstream ➡ Cells ➡ Mitochondria

  • Many organisms have a backup method for breaking down sugar when oxygen is not present

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Alternative 
energy pathways

Lactic acid build up in muscles causes cramping and burning

<p>Lactic acid build up in muscles causes cramping and burning</p>
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Fermentation in Yeast

  • Sugars from grapes yields wine

  • Sugars from barley yields beer

  • Sugar from potatoes yields vodka

  • Sugars in dough yields bread

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Alternative energy 
sources

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Energy drinks contain...

  • No carbohydrates, proteins or fats

  • contain vitamins, minerals, food additives, and stimulants

  • NOT considered food by the FDA

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