Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2022

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Anatomy

1 / 105

Tags and Description

106 Terms

1

Anatomy

the study of bodily structures

New cards
2

Physiology

the study of bodily functions

New cards
3

Order of Body Structure

molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

New cards
4

Anatomical Position

a person is standing up with feet slightly apart, arms at their sides, and palms facing forward; position is used to reference parts of the body with terminal directions

New cards
5

Homeostasis

the body’s ability to maintain a stable, constant, optimal internal environment; body’s cell needs are met and body activities occur smoothly

New cards
6

Positive Homeostatic Feedback

effector produces a response that enhances a stimulus

New cards
7

Negative Homeostatic Feedback

effector produces a response that opposes a stimulus (most common)

New cards
8

Receptor

structure that is sensitive to change or stimulus

New cards
9

Control Center

receives, processes, and responds to stimuli (brain)

New cards
10

Effector

organ/gland that opposes or enhances the stimulus

New cards
11

Axial

main axis of the body (head, neck, and trunk)

New cards
12

Appendicular

appendages (limbs)

New cards
13

Superior (cranial)

above

New cards
14

Inferior (caudal)

below

New cards
15

Anterior (ventral)

front

New cards
16

Posterior (dorsal)

back/behind

New cards
17

Medial

toward the midline of the body or on the inner side

New cards
18

Lateral

away from the midline or on the outer side

New cards
19

Proximal

closer to the point of attachment

New cards
20

Distal

away from a point of attachment

New cards
21

Superficial (external)

toward or at the boy surface

New cards
22

Deep (internal)

away from the body surface, inside

New cards
23

Sagittal

divides the body into left and right

New cards
24

Frontal

divdes the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back)

New cards
25

Transverse

horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (above) and inferior (below)

New cards
26

Dorsal Cavity

includes the cranial and spinal cavity (posterior side)

New cards
27

Ventral Cavity

includes the thoracic (chest), abdominal, and pelvic cavity (anterior side)

New cards
28

Axillary

armpits

New cards
29

Umbilical/Naval

belly button

New cards
30

Pollex

thumb

New cards
31

Cervical

back of neck

New cards
32

Scapular

shoulder

New cards
33

Orbital

eyes

New cards
34

Manus

hand

New cards
35

Cephalic

head

New cards
36

Tissues

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous

New cards
37

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

secretion, protection, absorption, transportation

New cards
38

Special Traits of Epithelial Tissue

have a basement membrane to attach to underlying tissues, protective lining to body cavities, line hollow organs, avascular (no blood cells), sometimes have a free surface in which cells are not in contact with other cells

New cards
39

Functions of Connective Tissue

joins, holds, and secures (ligaments and tendons), transportation (blood), framework (bone), reserve energy (adipose/fat)

New cards
40

Special Traits of Connective Tissue

most abundant, contain a moving, extracellular matrix, include Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and platelets

New cards
41

Functions of Muscle Tissue

contacts to produce movement or propel sbstances in the body

New cards
42

Special Traits of Muscle Tissue

can have striations and interclated discs

New cards
43

Skeletal Muscle

voluntary, multi

New cards
44

Cardiac Muscle

involuntary, single nucleus, striated, interclated discs

New cards
45

Smooth Muscle

involuntary, single nucleus, non

New cards
46

Nervous Tissue:

New cards
47

Function of Nervous Tissue

conducts electrical impulses throughout the body, receives stimuli, interprets stimuli, responds to stimuli

New cards
48

Arrector Pili Muscle

pulls on hair follicle making it stick straight up (goose bumps) to conserve heat when the body is cold

New cards
49

Melanocytes

produce cells responsible for giving skin its yellow to black color (melanin)

New cards
50

Melanin

responsible for producing pigmentation to the skin; act like a shield protecting the DNA within a cells nucleus from harmful UV rays

New cards
51

Karatin

a protective, hard protein; makes up hair and nails; what makes the skin waterproo

New cards
52

Individuals have the _________ number of melanocytes but produce ___________ amounts of melanin/pigment

same, different

New cards
53

Epidermis

made out of epithelial (stratified squamous) tissue; avascular; the most superficial layer of skin, consists of dead, keratinized cells

New cards
54

Dermis

provides structural strength, contains nerves and blood vessels, contains hair follicles and oil glands, and consists of collagen and elastic fibers

New cards
55

Hypodermis

bottom most layer of skin tissue, contains an insulating layer of adipose (fat) tissue

New cards
56

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Gland

secretes a liquid substance from dilated blood vessels and capillaries to keep the body cool via evaporation

New cards
57

Cutaneous Membrane

skin

New cards
58

Functions of the Skin

stays relatively dry, is considered to be the largest organ of the body, serves as the primary boundary for protecting internal organ systems, contain specialized cells to kill pathogens, serves as the site for the synthesis of vitamin D

New cards
59

4 Accessory Structures of the Integumentary System

hair, nails, sudoriferous glands (sweat) and sebaceous glands (oil)

New cards
60

Serous Membranes

thin/watery secretions; do not open to the outside

New cards
61

Mucous Membranes

thick/mucous like secretion; open to the outside

New cards
62

Melanoma

most dangerous form of skin cancer because they can metastasize the fastest

New cards
63

1st Degree Burn

like a sunburn; no permanent damage

New cards
64

2nd Degree Burn

most painful skin burn; appears in blisters

New cards
65

3rd Degree Burn

black and ashy appearance; not painful because nerve endings are damaged; most dangerous because of risk of infection and extreme loss of bodily fluids

New cards
66

Periosteum

layer of connective tissue that covers the bone and where osteogenic cells arise for growth, repair, and maintenance throughout a persons life

New cards
67

Osteon

bone cell

New cards
68

Lamellae

rings inside an osteon

New cards
69

Haversian Canal

the inside / direct middle of an osteon

New cards
70

Lacuna

multiple dots inside an osteon; houses osteocytes

New cards
71

Canaliculi

squiggly lines inside of an osteon

New cards
72

Flat Bone

thin and flat bones (sternum, scapula, ribs, most cranial bones

New cards
73

Long Bone

longer than they are wide, tend to have a long shaft, mostly located in the limbs (arm, hand, leg, and foot)

New cards
74

Irregular Bone

bone with a highly specialized shape (hip bones, vertebrae)

New cards
75

Short Bones

more of a cube shaped bone, more wide than long (wrist and ankles)

New cards
76

Shoulder Blade

scapula, flat, appendicular

New cards
77

Collar Bone

clavicle, flat, appendicular

New cards
78

Breast Bone

sternum, flat, axial

New cards
79

Shin

tibia, long, appendicular

New cards
80

Heel

calcaneous, short, appendicular

New cards
81

Knee Cap

patella, sesamoid, appendicular

New cards
82

Palm of Hand

metacarpals, long, appendicular

New cards
83

Wrist

carpals, short, appendicular

New cards
84

Tail Bone

coccyx, irregular, axial

New cards
85

Hip Bone

pelvis, irregular, appendicular

New cards
86

Mandible and Maxilla

bones in the skull in which teeth are located

New cards
87

Temporal Bone

where the external auditory meatus opening is locate

New cards
88

Wormian Bones

extra bones located within sutures of the skull

New cards
89

Mastoid Process

prominent bone projection located posterior to the ear

New cards
90

Fontanels

“soft spots” allowed for compression of the fetal skull during childbirth and the growth of the brain

New cards
91

Osteoblasts

bone forming cells

New cards
92

Osteoclats

bone destroying cells (clean up)

New cards
93

Red Marrow Function

hematopoetsis (red blood cell formation)

New cards
94

Yellow Marrow Function

energy reserve through fat

New cards
95

Axial Skeleton

skull, spine, chest, and rib cage

New cards
96

Appendicular Skeleton

arms, legs, clavicle, scapula, and pelvis/hip

New cards
97

Arrangement of Vertebrae

cervical (7), thoracic (12), and lumbar (5)

New cards
98

Fibrous Joint

immovable joint (cranial structures, teeth)

New cards
99

Synovial Joint

freely movable joint (elbow, knee shoulder)

New cards
100

Cartilaginous Joint

slightly movable joint (inter

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard110 terms
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)