World History Unit 7 Test

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60 million, 3, Soviet Union

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134 Terms

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60 million, 3, Soviet Union

The long-term consequences of WWII included death tolls of over *,(*% of the world’s population) with ___ having the most causalities

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infrastructure, physical environment, Great Britain, France, Germany, Soviet Union, crop production

___ and the ___ were destroyed in WWII, especially in ___, ___, ___, and the ___, leading to a decrease in ___

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3

United States, Soviet Union, decolonization, India, civil war

After WWII, the ___ and ___ were found on top because Britain felt the effects of ___ which included losing ___ and China began the ___ again

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4

non-aggression pact, France, communism, capitalism

After WWII, the US was still upset over Stalin’s ___ and Stalin blamed the allies for not invading ___ before 1944, and the opposing ideologies of ___ and ___ increased tensions

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5

Yalta Conference, February 1945, USA, Great Britain, Soviet Union, occupation zones, Japan, free elections

A post WWII plan was discussed at the ___ in ___ where the Big 3, ___, ___, and ___ divided Germany into ___, FDR urged Stalin to declare war on ___, and Stalin promised countries in Eastern Europe would have ___

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6

Charter of the United Nations, international peace, General Assembly, Security Council, US, Britain, China, Russia, France, Geneva Conventions, prisoners of war

In 1945, 51 countries signed on to the , which had the main goal of maintaining ___ and consisted of the ___ and the ___ (, ___, ___, ___, and ___) with the ___ determining how ___ should be treated during wartime

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capitalist, communist

The USA was a ___ country while the Soviet Union was ___

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8

invasion, west, Yalta, communist

The major goal of the Soviet Union after WWII was to shield from ___ from the ___ and so Stalin ignored the ___ agreement and installed ___ governments in countries along its border

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Potsdam, free elections, refused, communism, capitalism

Truman, Stalin, and Churchill met in ___, Germany, where Truman pressed Stalin to permit ___ but Stalin ___ and declared ___ and ___ could not exist in the same world

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10

eastern, German Democratic Republic

The ___ part of Germany was controlled by the Soviets, and was named ___

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11

iron curtain

Churchill nicknamed the Soviet take over of neighboring countries as establishing an ___

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12

containment, Soviet, communism, alliances, countries, Soviet

President Truman adopted a foreign policy called ___, which was directed at blocking ___ influence and stopping the expansion of ___, and included forming ___ and helping weak ___ resist ___ advances

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13

Truman Doctrine, communism

The ___ supported countries that rejected ___

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14

George Marshall, Marshall Plan, rebuild, Czechoslovakia

US Secretary of State ___ proposed the US aid to needy European countries, which formed the ___ to ___ western Europe, and after communists seized ___, Congress immediately approved the plan

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15

divided, US, Britain, France, withdrew, nation, West Berlin

The Soviets wanted to keep Germany ___ but ___, ___, and ___ ___ from the country to allow a ___ to form, and in response the Soviets held ___ hostage

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16

West Berlin, Soviets, 11, Soviets

USA and Britain flew food and supplies to ___ while it was being held hostage by the ___ for ___ months until the ___ admitted defeat

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17

Point Four program, agriculture, public health, education

The ___ provided technical assistance to build up ___, ___, and ___ in non-European nations affected by the war

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18

political, 1949, alliances

The Cold War was a struggle over ___ differences and began in ___, influencing world ___

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Berlin blockade, United States, Canada, NATO

The ___ caused 10 western European nations to form a military alliance with the ___ and ___, called ___

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Warsaw Pact, India, China

After the formation of NATO, the Soviet Union created its own alliance, the ___, but some countries like ___ and ___ did not choose to align with either side

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Organization of American States (OAS)

The ___ wanted peace and security for member nations and wanted to increase economic and social cooperation

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22

H-bombs, A-bombs, fusion, splitting, Edward Teller, Los Alamos New Mexico, coral islands, Pacific

___ were more powerful than ___ because the power came from the ___ of atoms rather than the ___, and ___ was the leading proponent in these bombs, with his team based in ___ and exploded the first bomb on a group of ___ in the ___

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23

Dwight D. Eisenhower, John Foster Dulles, anti-communist, brinkmanship, air force, nuclear weapons, arms race

___ became US president in 1953 and appointed ___ as secretary of state who was very ___ and was known for his ___ that led the US to strengthen the ___ and stockpile ___ which started the ___

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24

intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), Sputnik, unmanned, Wehrner von Braun

In August 1957 the Soviets announced the ___ which was used to push ___, the first ___ satellite, and led to ___ driving the US opponent

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fly, nuclear attack, refused, CIA, U-2s, Francis Gary Powers

Eisenhower proposed the US and SU be able to ___ over territories to guard against surprise ___, but the SU ___, so the US ___ started secret high-altitude flights in ___, but in May 1960 pilot ___ was captured after his plane was shot down by the SU

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26

Third World, Latin America, Asia, Africa

The ___ consists of developing nations not aligned with either superpower and were located in ___, ___, and ___

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27

United States, Soviet Union, China, Third World, wars, CIA, KGB, assassinations, military

The ___, ___, and ___ tried to gain influence in the ___ by backing ___, having the / spy or attempt ___, and providing ___ aid

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28

Indonesia, Bandung Conference, third force, nonaligned nations

___ hosted leaders from Asia and Africa at the ___ to form the “___” of ___

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29

Latin American, democracy, military, revolutionary movements, military, economic, anti-Communist

___ countries often alternated between ___ and harsh ___ rule, and the Soviets supported ___ while the US provided ___ and ___ assistance to ___ dictators

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30

unpopular, Fulgencio Batista, US, Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro, Castro, social, economy, dictator

In the 1950s, Cuba was ruled by ___ dictator ___, who had ___ support but the ___ led by lawyer ___ overthrew him and though ___ brought ___ reforms and improved the ___, he was a harsh ___

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nationalized, sugar mills, refineries, Eisenhower, embargo, Soviets

After FIdel Castro ___ US-owned ___ and ___, President ___ ordered an ___ on trade with Cuba so Castro turned to the ___ for economic and military aid

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32

CIA, Cuban, Bay of Pigs, air support, defeated

In 1960 the ___ began training anti-Castro ___ exiles and they invaded in April 1961 at the ___ but the US did not provide ___ so Castro easily ___ the invaders

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33

Nikita Khrushchev, missile sites, Cuba, spy plane, Kennedy, threat, removal, naval blockade, Cuba, Khrushchev, invade, Cuba

Soviet leader ___ secretly began building 42 ___ in ___ but an American ___ discovered them and President ___ declared them a ___, demanding ___ and annoucing a ___ on ___, but ___ agreed in return for the US promise to not ___ ___

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34

Soviet, Latin America, Africa

Fidel Castro completely depended on ___ support and backed Communist revolutions in ___ and ___

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35

Nicaraguan, Anastasio Somoza, Sandinista, Daniel Ortega, US, SU, Marxist, El Salvador, Contras, El Salvador

The US funded the ___ dictatorship of ___ and family since 1933, but Communist ___ rebels toppled the dictatorship and leader ___ was originally funded by both the ___ and ___ but once the rebels gave assistance to ___ rebels in ___, the US supported anti-Communist forces called ___ to help the ___ government

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civil war, Ortega, free elections, Violeta Chamorro, 2006

After a ___ in Nicaragua for more than a decade, President ___ agreed to hold ___ and ___ beat him but he returned to power in ___

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Jacobo Arbenz, land reform, communist, Eisenhower, Allen Dulles, Arbenz, propoganda, rebellion, Carlos Castillos Armas, coup

The people of Guatemala elected president ___ who began a ___ program and nationalized ___, which made the US government concerned the government might turn ___, so ___ and CIA director ___ devised a strategy to overthrow ___ which involved ___ and ___, and ___, the US chosen leader of the military ___, assumed control

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38

Japanese, 38th parallel, Soviet Union, United States

After WWII, on the Korean penninsula, ___ troops surrendered north of the ___ to the ___ and south to the ___

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June 25, Soviet Union, South Korea, Truman, communism

On ___ 1950, North Korea launched a ___-backed surprise attack against ___, but ___ resolved to help fight against ___

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40

United Nations, Soviet Union, Nationalist China, Taiwan, Communist China, Douglas MacArthur

After the North Korean invasion, South Korea asked the ___ to intervene, and because the ___ was absent because of a protest against the admission of ___ (___) instead of ___, 15 nations participated in the fight under General ___

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North Korea, Pusan, UN, North Korean, Inchon, surrendered, retreated

By September 1950, ___ controlled the entire Korean penninsula except for an area around ___, and the ___ forces met ___ forces landing in ___, so half ___ and the other half ___

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42

Yalu River, Chinese, Chinese

The UN forces on the Korean Peninsula pushed the North Koreans almost to ___ at the ___ border, but the ___ felt threatened and sent 300,000 troops to North Korea

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Chinese, Seoul, MacArthur, nuclear attack, China, Truman, MacArthur, Congress, press, Truman, command

The ___ forces sent to North Korea pushed troops out and captured the capital of South Korea, ___, so General ___ called for a ___ against ___ but ___ viewed the decision as reckless. Nevertheless, ___ tried to take his case to ___ and the ___, but ___ removed him from ___

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44

UN, North Korea, ceasefire, 38th parallel, 4 million

In 1953, the ___ forces and ___ signed a ___ agreement and set the border near the ___, but ___ lives were lost to the war

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Kim II Sung, Kim Jong II, nuclear

North Korean Communist dictator ___ established collective farms, heavy industry, and military and his son ___ developed ___ weapons but had severe economic problems

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46

dictators, democratic constitution, free elections

In South Korea, a series of ___ ruled until the 1987 adoption of a ___ which led to the establishment of ___

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47

containment, communism, foreign policy

The involvement of the US in Vietnam stemmed from the Cold War ___ policy, with stopping ___ as the principle goal of US ___

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48

France, Southeast Asia, French Indochina, Ho Chi Minh, communists, independence, Indochinese Communist Party, French

In the early 1900s, ___ controlled most of resource-rich ___ (___) and Vietnamese nationalist ___ turned to ___ to help him with his ___ movement so during the 1930s the ___ led revolts and strikes against the ___

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49

protesters, Ho, exile, Japan, Vietminh (Independence) League

After the Vietnamese revolted, the French jailed ___ and sentenced ___ to death who fled in ___ but returned a year later when ___ seized control in WWII, and founded the ___

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50

nationalists, communists, French, cities, Vietminh, countryside, hit-and-run, Dien Bien Phu, surrendered

Vietnamese ___ and ___ joined to fight against the ___, who held major ___, but ___ had support in the ___ and used ___ tactics to confine the French, and after the French suffered a defeat at ___, they ___

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51

domino theory, communism

After France surrendered to Vietnam, Eisenhower described the fallout in Asia as a possible ___, because the fall of one to ___ would lead to the fall of others

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International Peace Conference, Geneva Switzerland, Indochina, Vietnam, Ho, Ngo Dinh Diem, United States, France

At an ___ in ___, the future of ___ was discussed and ___ was divided at 17 degrees north latitude, where the north was led by ___ and the south by ___ backed by ___ and ___

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Ngo Dinh Diem, dictator, guerrillas, Vietcong, assassinated, unpopular

___ ruled South Vietnam as a ___, and communist ___ called ___ gained strength and had him ___ in 1963, but new leaders were still ___

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54

Proxy War

a conflict where a major power plays a major role in supporting and directing a party to a conflict but does only a small portion of the actual fighting itself

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socioeconomic, imperialism, traditionalist, modern Western, oil

The existing issue in the middle east was the ___ imbalance caused by ___ and was normally ___ vs ___ and fueled by the ___ industry

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56

Shah Reza Pahlavi, western, oil, nationalists, alliances, Muhammed Mossadeq, British, oil, Shah, Coup d’etat, USA CIA, British MI6, Shah

After WWII, ___ took control of Iran, embracing ___ governments and wealthy ___ companies but Iranian ___ resented the foreign ___ so Prime Minister ___ nationalized a ___-owned ___ company and forced the ___ to flee, leading to the 1953 ___ which was organized by the ___ and the ___ and restored the ___ to power

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westernized, literacy, women, superficial westernization, religious oppression, poverty, ayatollahs, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Shah

In Iran, the Shah ___ the country, increasing ___ rates and giving ___ rights but it was ___ and led to ___, and millions still lived in ___, but the shah tried to limit the influence of the ___ which failed when ___ led riots in 1978 and forced the ___ to flee in 1979

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ayatollahs

islamic leaders who opposed western influence

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59

Islam, US, US Embassy, hostages, Islamic Movement

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s domestic policy was a strict adherence to ___ and foreign policy was a hatred of the ___ and so in 1979 the ___ is seized and held 60 ___, which inspired the ___

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60

secular, Saddam Hussein, both sides, oil, Iraq, ceasefire

During the Iran-Iraq war, Iraq was ___ and led by ___, and the US provided support to ___ because they wanted ___ access either way, but the Soviet Union supported ___ and the UN negotiated a ___ in 1988

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61

Philippines, economy, naval, air bases, bases, Filipinos

In 1946, the US gave the ___ independence and promised to help rebuild the ___ in return for allowing the US to have ___ and ___ on the island, but in 1992 the US left the ___ because many ___ wanted them closed

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62

Ferdinand Marcos, president, dictator, millions, Corazón Aquino

From 1966 to 1986, ___ led the Philippines, and was elected as ___ but ruled as a ___, and after stealing ___ of dollars from the country and losing the election to ___, he refused to leave office but was forced down

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Moros

Muslims known as ___ have been trying to separate from the Filipino government for decades

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64

Malay Peninsula, ethnic conflict, Malays, Chinese, Malaya, Singapore, city-state

After WWII, the British moved back into the ___ and tried to form a country but ___ between ___ and ___ stopped them and in 1957 independence was given to ___ and ___, which later declared independence as a ___

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Sukarno, Japan, Suharto, daughter, democratic

___ led an independence movement in Indonesia while ___ held the country and after gaining independence, a general named ___ took control and was criticized but his ___ took over and made ___ reforms

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Palestine, Palestinians, Jews, Jewish, Israel

The United Nations divided ___ into two parts for the ___ and the ___, which led to the declaration of the existence of the ___ stated of ___

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Islamic, Israel, Israel, Arab-Israeli war, United States

On May 15, 1948 six ___ nations invaded ___ and ___ won the first ___ with strong support from the ___

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68

Egypt, British, Suez Canal, Israeli, French, British, Egypt

When the new leader of ___ attacked the ___-controlled ___, the ___ army and ___ forces helped the ___ retake control but the peace settlement gave it away to ___

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Six-Day War, Egypt, Israel, Israel, Egypt

The ___ broke out in 1967 when ___ and other nations threatened ___ but ___ defeated ___ as well as Iran, Jordan, and Syria

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Palestinian Liberation Organization, PLO, Yasir Arafat, Arab Palestinian, Israeli

The ___ (___), led by ___, became the leading group in a struggle for an ___ state on ___ land

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Camp David Accords, Menachem Begin, Arabs, assassinated

In 1977, Egyptian leader Sadat singed a peace agreement, the ___, with Israeli Prime Minister ___, which angered many ___ and Sadat was ___

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PLO, Lebanon, Palestinians, intifada

In 1982, Israel responded to ___ attacks by invading ___, and many ___ in Israel began a revolt called the ___

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Oslo Peace Accords, Yitzhak Rabin, Jewish extremist, peace deal

In the early 1990s, Israel agree to give Palestinians the Gaza Strip and town of Jericho, which was known as the ___, but the Israeli leader, ___, was killed by a ___ who opposed giving in to Palestinians, and since then no ___ has been reached

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74

Afghanistan, Muslim

___ is one of the least developed countries in the world, with most of the population being ___

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75

Russia, Britain, independent, monarchy, democratic government, reform program, democratic system

During the 1800s, ___ and ___ competed for Afghanistan but Afghanistan declared itself ___ and established a ___ and a constitution wanted to establish a ___ but officials could not agree on a ___ so the ___ failed to develop

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76

neutral, both superpowers, Soviet, rival group, communism, Islam

Afghanistan chose to remain ___ during the cold war but received aid from ___, but in 1973 ___ leaders seized the country and 5 years later a ___ took power, but the population didn’t like the association to ___, which they felt conflicted with teachings of ___

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77

mujahideen, United States, Soviet Union

After the communist takeover, groups known as ___ banded together in Afghanistan and were assisted by the ___, so 10 years later the ___ withdrew troops

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78

Taliban, Northern Alliance, Taliban, positive, order

After the Soviet Union left Afghanistan, the ___ emerged from the battle for control, and only the ___ held territory that wasn’t controlled by this group, and the ___ were originally viewed as a ___ force as they brought ___ to the war torn nation

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terrorist groups, Osama bin Laden, US, refused, power

The Taliban were accused of housing ___ and providing refuge for leaders like ___, so when the demand for him to be turned over to the ___ was ___, military action began and the Taliban were driven from ___

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80

Hamid Karzai, NATO, Abdullah Abdullah, Ashraf Ghani, compromise

After the Taliban were driven from power, Afghan officials selected ___ to lead the country, and when the Taliban reemerged, ___ troops overtook military operations but troops were withdrawn in 2014 and both ___ and ___ declared victory, but they worked out a ___

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81

Indian National Congress, Congress Party, Muslim League, independence, Britain

Two nationalist groups emerged in India, the ___ (___) and the ___, both of which worked to gain ___ from ___

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82

Partion of Bengal, Hindus, Muslims, independence, British

The 1905 ___ in India led to the division of ___ and ___, which made the call for ___ harder, but in 1911 the ___ took back the order

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83

self-government, nationalists, violence, Rowlatt Acts, jail, trial, western-educated, individual rights

After WWI when Britain didn’t fulfill their promises of ___ to India, radical ___ carried out ___ in response and Britain passed the ___ which allowed the government to ___ protesters without ___ for up to two years, but ___ Indians knew this violated ___

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84

Amritsar, public meetings, firing, Amritsar Massacre, nationalists, independence

At a festival to protest the Rowlatt Acts, a British commander at ___ thought people were openly defying the ban on ___ and started ___ into the crowd for 10 minutes, and the news of this ___ changed loyal British subjects to ___ who demanded ___

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85

Mohandas K. Gandhi, religious, Mahatma

___ emerged as a leader of the Indian independence movement and took a deeply ___ approach, leading him to be called “___”

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86

Indian National Congress, noncooperation, civil disobedience, nonviolence

Gandhi urged the ___ to follow the policy of ___ and in 1920 the party endorsed ___ and ___ to achieve independence

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87

cloth, Salt March, Salt Acts

Gandhi was successful in boycotting British ___ and led the ___ to defy the ___

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88

Government of India, self government, democratic elections, independence, Hindus, Muslims

In 1935 the British Parliament passed the ___ act which gave India local ___ and limited ___ but not total ___, and fueled tensions between ___ and ___

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89

Congress Party, Hindus, Muslim League, Muslim, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslims, Congress Party

The ___ contained mostly ___, while the ___ was founded in competition to protect ___ interests, and the leader ___ insisted ___ resign from the ___

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90

war debts, India, Muslims, Hindu, partition, British House of Commons, Pakistan, India

British ___ from WWII made them rethink the colony of ___, but ___ resisted attempts to be included in a ___ dominated government so a ___ was proposed and the ___ passed an act that granted ___ and ___ independence in a month

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91

Kashmir, Hindu, Muslim, India, Pakistan, UN, ceasefire

The ruler of ___ was ___, but it had a mostly ___ population so ___ and ___ battled for the region until the ___ arranged a ___ in 1949

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92

Lord Mountbatten, Jinnah (Muslim), Nehru (Hindu), Gandhi

The last viceroy was ___ who met with ___, ___, and ___ over the partition of India

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93

India, Jawaharlal Nehru, prime minister, Gandhi, neutral, daughter, Indira Gandhi

___ became the world’s largest democracy on August 15, 1947, and ___ became the first ___, and as one of ___’s most devoted followers founded an alliance of ___ countries in the cold war, and when he died in 1964, his ___ ___ was elected as prime minister,

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94

Golden Temple, Amritsar, Sikhs, authority, Golden Temple, Sikh, kill

During Indira Gandhi’s time as prime minister, the ___ at ___ was the religious center for the ___, who would attack symbols of ___, so the Indian army overran the ___ which caused the ___ bodyguards of Gandhi to ___ her

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95

Bharatiya Janata Party, Narenda Modi, pro-Hindu

After the Congress Party led India from 2004-2014, the ___ candidate ___ was voted into office as a ___

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96

East Pakistan, West Pakistan, West Pakistan, East Pakistan, East Pakistan, West Pakistan, West Pakistan

___ had a larger population than ___ but ___ had the central government and often ignored ___, so when in 1970 a cyclone and tidal wave hit ___ and ___ did not give immediate aid, protesters called for an end to all ties with ___

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97

East Pakistan, Bangladesh, civil war, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan

On March 26 1971 ___ declared independence and renamed itself ___, and a ___ followed but when ___ sided with ___, ___ surrendered

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98

Ali Bhutto, military coup, executed, daughter, Benazir Bhutto, assassinated

After the first governor-general of Pakistan died shortly after independence, ___ took control but a ___ removed and ___ him and his ___ ___ was twice elected prime minister but was exiled and when she returned she was ___

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99

al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, Pakistan, denied

In 2011 US forces located ___ leader ___ in ___ but officials ___ it until a military operation killed him

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100

one-party state, assassinated, democratic

The first prime minister of Bangladesh declared it a ___, but was later ___ by military leaders, and after that the government tried to be more ___

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