exam 3 review

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What are the characteristics of smooth muscle?

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1

What are the characteristics of smooth muscle?

Involuntary, no striations, uninucleate

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2

What are the characteristics of cardiac muscle?

Involuntary, striated, uninucleate

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3

What are the characteristics of skeletal muscle?

Voluntary, striated, multinucleate

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4

What is contractility?

Ability to shorten, never pushes

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5

What is elasticity?

Recoil ability, go back to original position

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6

What is extensibility?

Stretch ability without damaging tissue

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7

What is excitability?

Responding to stimuli, activation ability

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8

What is acetylcholine (ACh)?

Neurotransmitter for muscle fibers, activates sarcolemma

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9

What is actin?

Thin, troponin, tropomyosin, I band

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10

What is myosin?

Thick, heads, power stroke

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11

What is sarcolemma?

Plasma membrane, muscle fibers

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12

What is endomysium?

Covering for muscle fibers, areolar CT

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13

What is perimysium?

Covering, fascicles, dense irregular CT

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14

What is epimysium?

Covering, entire muscle, dense irregular CT

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15

What is a sarcomere?

Functional unit, myofibrils

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16

What is the A band?

Dark part, H zone, zone of overlap, sarcomere

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17

What is the H zone?

Thick, myosin, 'heavy' part, sarcomere

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18

What is the I band?

Thin only, actin, sarcomere

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19

What are Z discs?

Ends/beginning, sarcomere

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20

What is the M line?

Supportive proteins, H zone, middle

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21

What is the overload principle?

Gaining/building muscle, fatigue

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22

What is the cross-bridge cycle?

Calcium, troponin, tropomyosin, actin, myosin

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23

What is excitation-contraction coupling?

Sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin

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24

What is the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)?

Synapse, motor neuron, ACh, action potentials

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25

What is an action potential?

NMJ, neurons, depolarize, repolarize, RMP

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26

What is a fascicle?

Group, perimysium, muscle fibers

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27

What is a T-tubule?

Attached to sarcolemma, communication

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28

What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)?

Release calcium, troponin

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29

What are muscle fibers?

Cells, endomysium, sarcolemma

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30

What is troponin?

Calcium, actin, tropomyosin

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31

What is tropomyosin?

Myosin-binding sites, actin, troponin

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32

What is calcium?

Sarcoplasmic reticulum, contraction, troponin

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33

What are myofibrils?

Proteins, muscle cells, sarcomere

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34

What is a motor unit?

Neuromuscular junctions, connectivity

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35

What is isotonic?

Length change, contraction

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36

What is isometric?

No length change, deadlifts

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37

What is muscle tone?

Constant stimulation, slight contraction

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38

What is concentric?

Isotonic, shortening

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39

What is eccentric?

Isotonic, elongating

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40

What is a twitch?

One action potential, latent, contraction, relaxation

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41

What is the latent period?

Sarcolemma excitation, sarcoplasmic reticulum

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42

What is the contraction period?

Troponin with calcium, cross-bridge cycle

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43

What is the relaxation period?

Troponin without calcium, original position

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44

What is summation?

Multiple action potentials, frequency

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45

What are fast glycolytic fibers?

Fatigable, quick powerful actions

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46

What are fast oxidative fibers?

Slightly fatigable, anaerobic or aerobic

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47

What are slow oxidative fibers?

Cellular respiration, slow but steady, fatigue resistant

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48

What is myoglobin?

Holding oxygen, aerobic exercise

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49

What is sarcopenia?

Age associated, loss of cells

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50

What is the frontalis muscle?

Frontal bone, eyebrows

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51

What is the orbicularis oculi muscle?

Eyes, closes eyelids

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52

What is the zygomaticus muscle?

Corners of mouth, smiling

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53

What is the orbicularis oris muscle?

Circles mouth, closes lips

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54

What is the mentalis muscle?

Wrinkles chin

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55

What is the buccinator muscle?

Sucks in cheeks

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56

What is the sternocleidomastoid muscle?

Turns head laterally

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57

What are the rotator cuff muscles?

Infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis

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58

What are the internal intercostals?

Exhalation, condenses thoracic cage

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59

What are the external intercostals?

Inhalation, expands thoracic cage

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60

What is the deltoid muscle?

Shoulder, arm abduction

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61

What is the trapezius muscle?

Scapula, shrugging

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62

What is the latissimus dorsi muscle?

Arm adduction, arm extension

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63

What is the pectoralis major muscle?

Arm flexion

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64

What is the biceps brachii muscle?

Forearm/elbow flexion

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65

What is the triceps brachii muscle?

Forearm/elbow extension

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66

What is the palmaris longus muscle?

Flex hand and fingers, not present in all people

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67

What are the quadriceps muscles?

Thigh flexion, knee extension

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68

What are the hamstrings?

Thigh extension, knee flexion

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69

What is the sartorius muscle?

Longest muscle, thigh flexion

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70

What is the gluteus maximus muscle?

Largest muscle, thigh extension

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71

What is the tibialis anterior muscle?

Dorsiflexion

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72

What are the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles?

Plantar flexion, achilles tendon

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73

What is an aponeurosis?

Sheet, indirect attachment

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74

What is a tendon?

Rope-like, indirect attachment

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75

What is the origin?

Starting point, non-moving

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76

What is the insertion?

Ending point, moving portion

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77

What are agonists?

Main movers of a movement

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78

What are antagonists?

Muscles that do the opposite of the agonist, activated while agonist is inactive

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79

What are synergists?

Helpers of main movers, usually around main mover

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80

What is the central nervous system (CNS)?

Brain and spinal cord, interneurons, integration

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81

What is the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

Outside of brain and spinal cord, sensory and motor neurons

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82

What are astrocytes?

CNS, monitor, blood brain barrier

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83

What are microglia?

CNS, immune cells, phagocytosis

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84

What are ependymal cells?

CNS, cerebrospinal fluid

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85

What are oligodendrocytes?

CNS, myelin, multiple axons

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86

What are satellite cells?

PNS, monitoring, astrocyte-like

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87

What are Schwann cells?

PNS, myelin, one area of axon

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88

What are neurons?

Thinking, action potentials

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89

What is the soma (or cell body)?

Nucleus, neuron, control center

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90

What are dendrites?

Listening, receptors, neurons

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91

What is an axon?

Track for action potentials, myelin

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92

What is the axon hillock?

Create action potentials, soma to axon

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93

What are axon terminals?

Neurotransmitters, calcium, NMJ

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94

What are myelin sheaths?

Insulation, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells

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95

What are nodes of Ranvier?

Gaps between myelin, strengthening action potentials

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96

What are afferent neurons?

Sensory, PNS, unipolar

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97

What are interneurons?

CNS, integration, multipolar

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98

What are efferent neurons?

PNS, motor, multipolar

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99

What are unipolar neurons?

One process, sensory neurons, structural

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100

What are bipolar neurons?

Smell and vision, two processes

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