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1

BL: which king were Huguenots fleeing

Louis XIV

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BL: Irish weavers came to Spitalfields in the 1730s seeking work after

the linen industry collapsed

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When was La Neuve Eglise built?

1743--

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what did BL become known as because of silk weavers

‘Weaver Town’

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Londoners develop taste for silk, allowing Huguenots to build large and distinct housing-- what happened next?

newly prosperous Huguenots left BL for suburbs

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Who took the place of Huguenots

Eastern European Jews - aftermath of assassination of Tsar in 1881, jews fled by million

Former church of Huguenots become Synagogue in 1897

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by 1930s, most of Jewish community had left for

leafier suburbs, exit hastened by war

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end of ww2 brought who to BL

Muslims from Bangladesh who had served in UKs merchant navy

Bengali muslims generally had poor english language skills

Today BL is curry capital fo London

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in 1976, 59 Brick Lane changed purpose again

former Huguenot Church, synagogue, became Brick Lane Jamme Masjid - Great mosque

in 2010- 29m minaret style tower added

newest change: gentrification - hipster cafes and cereal only cafe, pop up shops and bars - living costs rising and unlikely to see more immigrants in future

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built environment of BL

  • previously called WhiteChapel Lane

  • originally a field in countryside outsie city limits

  • built environment today developed in 1718-28- houses built by huguenots partially occupied by silk weaving

  • several floors, lofty attics, terraced housing

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socio-economic conditions of BL

new investment from large chain companies- Premier INn invested £21.4m- raised fears of ‘sanitisation’ of Brick lane and spitalfields - epople once attracted for individuality now put off.

Cereal Kilelr Cafe shut down-- some poeple feared it was gentrification, will lead to loss of community

others argue it is naturl diversification - protestors have no right to attack independent stores

independent shops bigger issue is property creep

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Second Home

offers rentable space to start-ups

The Hatch

big increase in these venues since the East London Tech city plan released by DC in 2010- gave tax breaks to companies looking to locate int he area

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knowledge economy

wealth creating activities that gather, store and analyse knowledge, such as manufacturing, finance, telecoms, education and health

could lead to more young workers in BL

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demographic of BL

most common age group- 25-29

not many retirees

SPitalfields and Banglatown- 41% Bangladeshi, 27% WB

compared to 81% WB average nationally

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cultural characteristics BL

41.5% muslim, compared to 5% nationally

18.4% chritian, compared to 59.4% nationally

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political characteristic BL

strong labour voting tradition

anti-establishment

political graffiti

voted RESPECT party in 2004-- protest war in Iraq

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Past connections Brick Lane

demographic- waves of immigration- huguenots, jews, muslim bangladeshis

built environ- huguenot silk weaving buildings, church est

socio-econ- gentrificaiton recently

political- 2004 vote for respect

connections to British Empire- immigrants more likey to be of these nationalities

connected to rest of london- good transport links

SE asia-- mass immigration, remittance flows, second gen migrants

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present connections BL

built environ- filled with independent stores, over 20 curry houses, on average 3 stories high - residences further up

political- still labour dominated, strong local resistance to development

socio-econ- recently opened up to devlopment, premier inn

demographic- prevailing young

natural- little green space

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when did apartheid begin

1948- prevented interracal marriage, made black people aliens in their own country, legally est white as superior - had white onyl zones and infrastructure- ANC oppose, Nelson Mandela elected and aparhteid ends in 1990

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District 6- past

eclectic mix of cultures- first a dutch colony, slavery operated here.

Port at Cape Town globally significant- brought a range of people

1948- separate communities act- declared a white area and District 6 expelled of native poeple

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how many families in D6 before removals

1700-1900

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how many people relocated to Cape Flats

60,000

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how far away are cape flats from d6

25km

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population of D6 in 1985

3500- mostly middle class, white

1600 scheduled to return from 2004, only 135 homes actually come back

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Cape Technikon takes up

50% of space.. onyl 42 Ha left to build on/150

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Culture in D6

past- residents of D6 mostly traders, immigrants, and freed slaves

influx of jews brought new traditions

immigration of freed slaves from Caribbean

many different religions and traditions celebrated - range of religions

present- jazz and lanagarm music

influenced by global toursist- 28mill in 2016

influneced by empire, remnants of apartheid still rpesent

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political characteristics in D6

past- apartheid laws, 1948.. demolished after 1950 group areas act

imperial rule-- little political control

ANC leading party, since Mandela in 1994- social democratic

present- republic, ‘Hands off D6 Committee’’ dont want redevelopment

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Demographics

past- different ethnicities during colonisation

dutch then british colony

1985-- mostly white

present-- still mostly hite middle class

median age now 36, 74% white

only 10% black

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Natural environment in D6

PAST- no green spaces, dense housing pre white area only act in 1966

now- many green spaces-- wasteland

42 Ha left to develop on, lots of grass and open spaces,

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socio-economic characteristics of D6

Forced removals of black and coloured people from central urban areas to create 'White Only Areas' under the Group Areas Act in 1950

District 6 is an almost vacant lot, with very little cultural identity.

Recent private construction firms has invested in the area - gentrification, new houses and apartments eg: Kalam construction firm

Investment from government

Tourism - 60,000 a year visit the district 6 museum

Nearby ports creating connections elsewhere

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Built environment in D6

past- areas of D6 remained undeveloped on as testament to Apartheid

present- University of Technology dominates built environment in an area that would have orignially been residential

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how many toursits visit cape town/ year

18.8million

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shifting flows

money, resources, ideas, people

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how many epopel visit d6 museum annually

60k, 50k international toursits

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space can accordingly be perceived differently by different people

Alcatraz- san fran, 336 prisoners max, usually 250ish

life for prison guards- place of safety, family live there, hade their own soda fountain shop, left doors unlocked.. had to limit some aspects fo life- e.g. knifes, razors, magazines, described as novel.. close knit

prisoners- some hated-- complained of conditions and harsh treatments, others prefered because it had strict one cell policy, clean

native americans- culturally signifciant, occupied in 1969.. used to be owned by first nation Ohlone people- occupied to take a stand agaonst why 500+ treaties had been dishonoured.. lived without food, shelter for 19 months until Nixon announced new legislation

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how emotional attachemnt influences bheaviours in a place

Twin Towers-

used for admin and finance, beacon that represents economic vibrancy

  • signture of US strength- anyone could identify it in city

  • testament ot US position at the center of the financial world

    • icon of corporate capitalism (Anderson, 2010)

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9/11

killed 3000, injured over 6000, 10bn in property damage

led to ‘war on terror’- invasion of afghanistan to depose taliban

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9/11 memorial

commemorates victims and located on former site of towers

names inscribed in waterfall

pool- loss of life

waterfalls- mute sound of city

400 sweet gum and white oak trees- space of reflection

survivor tree- plucked from debris and replanted 9

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9/11 museum

houses artefacts from 9/11

opened 2014

design resembles collapsed building

used to be in little syria- no reference to this

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One world trade centre

same name as north tower

height in feet- same as year of us declaration of independence- 1776

visual resemblance

china centre, lots of TNCs

base designed to protect from street level attacks Gro

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Ground 0 mosque

proposal for islamic centre

many muslims died in attacks

hoped to rpomote interfaith dialogue

2 blocks from ground 0- controversial

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time space compression

The friction of distance is the concept that the length of the journey (distance), and the difficulty of the journey (friction) affects the time needed to complete the journey (time). It can be expressed as follows:​

globalisation sped up rapidly in the past few hundred years

places feel closer together than in the past due to eased communication

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contianerisation

instead of individually unloading, just drive right on with boxes- would take 8 days both ends, saves time and money

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connections

smartphones, social media, airports

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TNCs

move for comparative advantage

  • skilled labour, low costs, materials, less regualiton

  • international division of labour

  • massive turnovers

  • long supply chains, low accountability

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time space compression affectong sense of place

some areas in the hubub- benefitting, however may lsoe sense of connection to locality

other isolated areas- feel further away - e.g. norfolk in UK, north england and south west

cultural homogeneity

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top 6% of earners in Cambridge take home

..19% of income

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bottom 20% of earnes in cambs take home

just 2%

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spatial effect of university-

colleges bring in 2.1bn - combined worth of colleges exorbitant nearly 12bn

transport links on edge of city criticised

cambridge science park- silicon fen

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clark fisher model

tertiary employment - services- increase

primary- farming decreases

secondary- industry

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structural unemployment

outsourcing - research and development in parent countries, labour is internaitonal division of labour

exacerbates inequalityint

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in the 1950s, what % of coventry pop was working in car factories

40%- jaguar landrover

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two kensingtons

liverpool-45% child poverty

london- £43million houses

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in 1952, how much national output was from manufacturing

1/3, employed 40% of workforce

today- accounts for just 10% GDP

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global shift

driven by TNCs, first wave- Asian togers in 1960s

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structural unemployment

Job losses caused through the change in type of industry in an area, e.g. from manufacturing to services.

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true or false- men see higher rates of redundancy than women

true

Men see a much higher redundancy rate than women, for example, especially following the 2008/2009 economic crisis men saw 15/1000 people redundancy rate compared to women who saw rate of 8/1000…. Nearly half the rate of redundancy

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gini co-efficient in cambridge

0.46- often think of 0.4 as threshold above which serious social probles startav

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average house in cambridge costs ?x mroe than high median wage

13

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immense economic growth- in 2017, most rapidly growing for

3rd year in a row

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since 2015 ?% increase in food distributions by food bank

50%

10 year estimated life expectancy difference betw

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% of homes with no central heating in QE- >1%.. in KH=

11%

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what % of workers in cambs are ‘knoweldeg workers’

61%

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digital divide in Cambridge-how mnay city council tenants say they dont have internet

nealry 40%- most state it is because they cannot afford it

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4/5 ssingle parent families are receiving benefits- what % of spf are headed up by women

90%

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8/ 10 top achieving schools in cambridge are?

independent

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in QE, less than 8% of children in LI families

in KH- more than 23.5%

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Nairobi- it has been estimated that the richest 10 percent of the population of Nairobi accrues 45.2 percent of income,

and the poorest 10 percent only 1.6 percent,” according to a 2009 study on urban poverty by Oxfam.

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The Kilimani-Langata road extension that bisects Kibera, estimated to have displaced over

11,500 people and destroyed over 598 structures, including schools and clinics. Of course this road helps alleviate the city’s traffic problem, but does it cause more problems than it will solve?

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Khat

cheap drugs- contribute to cycling poverty- stimulant to alleviate frustration with life

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in kenya, what % of poepl work in informal employment

80%- highly precarious

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One Africa Place

20 store luxury offices

many enormous TNCs have their offices in silicon savannah- google, world bank, mastercard

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at least 1/5 people in slums in Kibera are

HIV positive - as much as 50% in slums

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less than 1/5 have access to piped water in kibera, compared to

71% in whole city

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land use contributes to inequality

central business district

This is the centre for administration; it includes Parliament buildings, the Kenyatta International Conference Centre, commerce and shopping. It was originally established by the British as a major link for trade from the coast and therefore has become a really important economic hub in East Africa. As a result many international migrants work here. Lots of infrastructure remains from British

middle income residential

The southern sector of middle class housing was originally built for Asians who worked in the adjacent industrial zone. Proximity to work was key.

high income residential

Wealthy European colonists, and latterly affluent Asians immigrants live on these higher altitudes. Here in Nairobi Hill, Westlands and Highridge, the climate is cooler and the distance from the swampy malaria ridden land of the city below provides a much more pleasant quality of life. Demographics were originally decided by race (past colonialism kept wealthy whites and poorer Kenyan populations apart); today wealth is the biggest factor. It includes parks and a golf course.

shanty settlements / slum

Inadequate provision of housing by the government, rapid urbanisation and a corrupt land allocation process (complete disregard for regulations and planning standards) led to the emergence of many squatter settlements. These settlements have grown up away from the CBD on land that had previously been considered marginal and unusable: the swampy, narrow floodplains of the Rivers Mathare and Ngong. It is also within easy access of the industrial area, to allow economic opportunity. By 1993, informal settlements housed about 55 per cent of the city’s population. In Nairobi the main zones of poor housing are Mathare Valley, Kariobangi and Kibera.

low income residential

The eastern part of the city is generally flat land with black cotton soils, which tend to swell and shrink with cycles of heat and moisture, making it poor for foundations, and less attractive to residential development. However, these areas include flats, 3-5 storeys in height and council built, and former shanty settlements to which the council has added a water supply, sewerage and electricity to. These ‘Eastlands’ predominantly home the African working class.

site and service scheme housing

Dandora, home to over 120,000 people, owes its being to the government led ‘site and services’ scheme begun in 1977. This scheme encouraged local people to become involved in self-help projects. The council provided basic amenities and at a cheap price, building materials. People bought plots of land and built up houses. The council then installed a tap and a toilet in each courtyard and added electricity and roads to the estate. Whilst this was a good idea in theory the quality of houses is poor and it is located next to Nairobi’s rubbish dump. The living environment is therefore relatively poor.

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reducing inequality: progressive taxation

more a person earns the more tax they pay as a percentage - to reduce income inequality, reduce the economic strain on low income households

The progressive taxation system retains incentive to attain higher paying jobs

Up to 12.57k no tax, any income between 12.57 and 50.27 is taxed at 20% and any higher at 40%

  • is this enough and does it encourage people t simply move abroad

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pupil premiums

Money given to schools by the government to improve the attainment rates of disadvantaged children

Schools use this money to afford one to ones or small group activities for these children, fund trips, and provide music lessons

Given 1.3k for each child who has received free school meals in the last 6 years

£1900 per child who has been under local authority care for more than one day

however can be spent however school sees fit-- does it miss children just above threshold?

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reducing inequality- levelling up

Aims to increase funding outside the South East, give areas outside London more autonomy over local investment and reduce regional social inequality

ncrease funding outside the South East by 40%

Have 22,000 civil servants outside of London by end of the decade.

NOT BEEN ACHIEVED YET-- SOME RESISTANCE

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enforcing inequality- uneven transport investment

n 2016 the Conservative government analysis found that over the next four years the gov't will only spend £280 per person in the North of England compared to £1870 per person in London

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reinforcing inequality rising uni costs

The cost of tuition is increasing as well as interest on tuition fees and maintenance which leaves a longer financial shadow on young people, creates a bigger gap in socio-economic divide as poorer families can't afford to go to university

Student loan debt in 2017 was £76bn in 2017 compared to £34bn in 2011

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cuts to NHS- reinforcing inequality

gp funding cut, nhs ordered to cut 22bn by 2020 but no direction where - waiting list increase-- affects those who cannot afford private the most

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role of gov’t in cambs

  • Anti Poverty strategy- spent 1,6mill on targeted initiatives

  • Living Wage campaign- increased number of employers accredited to 75, incl ARU - £1 more an hour

  • CAB funded to run outreach programme- supporting those experiencing mental health issues as a result of financial debt issues at GP surgeries

  • council constructed 162 new affordable homes as part of new affordable programme

  • ahve paid rent for foodbank

  • An estimated £6.3m of Government and City Council funding was used to providing 6500 residents in Cambridge a council tax reduction in 2016. Following the abolition of Council Tax Benefit by the national government, the Council introduced its own local Council Tax Reduction scheme in April 2013 to protect as many vulnerable people as possible from reductions in council tax support and ensure that they do not have to find extra money towards their Council Tax at a time of other cuts in welfare benefits.

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govenrment decreasing inequality in cambs- cbg north

in chesterton- 50 mill, howeevr could price out locals

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govenmrent reinforcing inequality in Nairobi- charities

quite simply act as if kibera doesnt exist. dont allow charities to help… think it will encourage more to live there

prevent social mobility and endorce poverty- maintains negative status quor

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reinforcing inequality in Nairobi- demolitions

building anew major road - will decrese congestion in centre but will demolish 10 schools in slums, homes, churches,

tried to do site and service scheme housing- miserable failure

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EU influencing economic change- player

biggest trader partenr, also criticisms that it preveneted dealings with china and emerging players

single market- flows of people, goods, services ad capital improved - no tariffs

restrictions and checks- have to meet eu standards

funded research and farming

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MNCs,

MNCs- operate in multiple countries - international division of labour… huge incomes- apple, more gdp than Portugal

footloose- control terms of negotiations , can move for comparative advantage

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IMF and World Bank

IMF- foster monetary co-operation… facilitate internaitonal trade, promote high employment and sustainable econ growth

money from member states- pay proportionally

World Bank- aim to end extreme poverty, reduce number of poeple living on >1.90$ a day to no more than 3%

promote economic growth in bottom 40%

invest in education, health, infrastructure

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player

an individual or organisation with an interest and/or influence in actions, decisions or operations​. Places are influenced by a range of players operating at different scales.

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structural economic change in Birmingham

1166- de Bermingham family purchases royal charter to hold a market

Matthew Boulton- key player in moving industrial base of the town forward. Established the first factory in the world in 1761, bringing 700 employees under one roof.

19th century - brought industrial growth, the gun, jewellery, button and brass industries dominated.

Cadbury factory sets up Bourneville village and factory for workers on south east side of the city

Midland Terminus of Railway from London to Birmingham was opened in 1883.

Engineering industries began to develop, including the Austin Car plant, which opened 1906.

1917- Dunlop tyre company, founded in Birmingham, established a large factory, employing 10,000 people.

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1950s Birmingham

secondary employment in metalworks key- employs half of population

overwhelmingly white ethnic origin- employment dominated by men- 60% in skilled jobs

from 50s, increasing in migration internationally to inner city areas

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how did external forces influence economic change in Birmingham in the second half of the 20th century

Birmingham was caught up in the global recession of the 1970s, in which the oil crisis of 1973 was the most significant. Arab-Israeli war meant oil prices soared as a result of trade embargo. Birmingham's traditional industries were struggling as a result of competition from TNCs abroad who had cheaper production costs. By the 70s, Britain's vehicle industry was in decline as foreign based TNCs began to dominate the English market, particularly from Japan. Central government gave grants that influenced foreign factories to establish factories, but not in the midlands. Strikes were common in the 70s and managers and their unions were key players involved in the decline of the affected industries, making Birmingham less attractive to potential investors. Small and medium sized enterprises had made up Birmingham's manufacturing industry,

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socio-economic in B before economic change

Large areas of terraced housing to accommodate workers who commuted short distances to factories. Development of a middle class.

Inner city areas comprised of low quality, high density housing such as in Aston and Handworth. A prosperous city for most of the 50s and 60s, with unemployment below 1%

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largest socio-econ change

Industrial decline in the 70s and 80s led to vast unemployment. As manufacturing was increasingly outsourced to foreign companies where labour was cheaper, the traditional industries such as metalworks that had comprised the economic structure of the midlands disappeared, and the factories that had employed vast proportions of workers shut. The global recession of the 1970s coupled with the trade embargo on oil added impetus to the already struggling industries here.

led to strikes, unemplyment-19.4% in 1982

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cultural birmingham now

- Increase in number of mosques and temples in the urban environment

-Ethnic food shops established

-Birmingham is much more ethnically diverse than wider England. In 2011, 53.1% of people living in Birmingham identified as White British, compared to 79.8% in England. In Birmingham, 13.5% of people were Pakistani, compared to 2.1% in England.

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environemtnal birmingham

before- Birmingham was highly industrialised. Cramped terraced housing dominated the inner city, and pollution from factories was high in surrounding rivers and air.

during/after- 400 tower blocks constructed, construction fo a green belt has prevented urban sprawl

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rebranding

developments aimed at changing negative perceptions of a place making more attractive for investment.

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why did B’ham need rebranding?

  • industrial decline- contraction in CBD, poorly constructed post war buildings age poorly - discourage investment

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Placemaking

is a multi-faceted approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. It is about improving people’s lives and about how society and the environment will benefit.

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BIG CITY PLAN <3

Launched- 2010

covers 20 years

predicted cost- £10bn

will make city core +25% larger

5000 new homes, 50k new jobs

should bring 2bn to centre every year

new and enhanced cycling and walking routes-28km

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