Biology Unit 1

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Science

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Biology

152 Terms

1

Science

The organized study of the structure & behavior of the physical & natural world through observation, experimentation, & the testing of theories against the evidence obtained (scientific method)

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Scientific Method

Have to observe, ask people (experts), create hypothesis, experiment, get data from experiment & learn if it supports the hypothesis, after finding data you draw conclusions, then find others to look over the data & the conclusion you got from your experiment

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Observations

A description, measurement, or record of any object or phenomenon

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Hypothesis

An informed, logical, plausible, & testable explanation of the natural world

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Independent Variable

The variable you manipulate (is fixed & uses x-axis)

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Dependent Variable

What changes as a result of the control (what is measured & uses y-axis)

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Controls

Have to compare to see what is more effective (taking something we already know about to compare it to something new to see what is more effective)

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Experiment

A repeated manipulation of an aspect of the natural world (designed to test the validity of a hypothesis)

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9

Fact (Evidence)

an indisputable observation of a natural or social phenomenon. We set out to gather evidence to see if our hypothesis is supported

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10

Scientific Theory

Theory about what we think is happening or causes something to

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11

Peer Review

Have to have others to look over what we got in our experiments to get other opinions

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12

Biology

The scientific study of life & its interactions

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13

Levels of Biological Organization

Atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, biosphere

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Scientific Fact

It is the evidence obtained about the natural world using the scientific process & rendered to extensive peer-review

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15

Atom

The smallest unit of an element & the basic structural unit

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16

Element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

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17

Chemical Reaction

A process that forms & breaks chemical bonds that hold atoms together in molecules

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18

Protons

Positively charged subatomic particles

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19

Neutrons

Uncharged subatomic particles

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Electrons

Negatively charge subatomic particles

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21

Atomic Nucleus

The central part of an atom that contains protons & neutrons

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22

Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus

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23

Atomic Mass

The total mass of all the protons, neutrons, & electrons within an atom

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Atomic Model

A model used to describe the structure & makeup of an atom

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25

Periodic Table

Organizes the elements according to their atomic numbers & chemical characteristics

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26

Chemical Bond

An attraction between two atoms or molecules that tends to hold them together. Types of bonds include covalent, ionic, & hydrogen

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Molecule

A particle composed of one or more atoms held together by chemical bonds; the smallest particle of a compound that displays all the properties of that compound

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Ionic Bond

Bond between the opposite electrical charges of positively & negatively charged molecules or ions

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29

Covalent Bond

Electrons are shared between atoms (Ex. The 2 Hydrogen atoms of Hydrogen gas (N₂), The Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms of a water molecule (H₂O))

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30

Hydrogen Bond

Attractions occur between polar molecules in which hydrogen is bounded to oxygen or nitrogen. The slightly positive hydrogen attracts the slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen of a nearby polar molecule (Ex. Occurs between water molecules, slightly positive charges on hydrogen atoms attract slightly negative charges on oxygen atoms of nearby molecules)

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31

Cohesion

The tendency of water molecules to stick together (produces surface tension)

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32

Adhesion

The tendency of water molecules to cling to other substances (result is capillary action: movement of water into very narrow spaces)

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33

Specific Heat

The amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of a substance by 1 °C

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34

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat needed to cause a substance to evaporate

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35

Hydrophobic

Regions of lipids that repel water

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36

Hydrophilic

Region of lipids that do not repel water

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37

Solvent

A substance that completely surrounds & disperses the atoms or molecules of another substance

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38

Solute

What is dissolved

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39

Solution

A substance with 1 or more dissolved substances

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40

Acid

Solutions in which H⁺ exceeds the OH⁻

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Base

Increases the OH⁻ concentration when dissolved in water

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42

pH Scale

Measures how acidic or basic a solution is based on the concentration of H⁺

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43

Buffer

A molecule that helps maintain a solution at nearly a constant pH

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44

Organic

Made by living things (has carbon & hydrogen)(has a carbon backbone)

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45

Inorganic

(Doesn’t have carbon & hydrogen) (Ex. Water only has hydrogen but no carbon)

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46

Biological Molecules

All molecules produced by living things (Ex. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, & nucleus acids)

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47

Monomer

Composed of one molecule

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48

Polymer

Composed of many molecules. A molecule composed of 3 or more smaller subunits called monomers

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49

Dehydration Synthesis

The joining of two carbon molecules or chains with the release of a water molecule

<p>The joining of two carbon molecules or chains with the release of a water molecule</p>
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50

Hydrolysis

Breaks apart carbon chains into parts incorporating parts of a water molecule into each of the broken chains

<p>Breaks apart carbon chains into parts incorporating parts of a water molecule into each of the broken chains</p>
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51

Carbohydrate

A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen, with the approximate chemical formula (CH₂O); includes sugars, starches, & cellulose

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52

Monosaccharide

Single sugar (glucose)

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53

Disaccharide

2 linked sugars (sucrose)

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54

Polysaccharide

Many sugars linked (starches)

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55

Starch

(Insoluble) but can be broken down by enzymes in saliva & taste “sweet”

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56

Glycogen

Short-term storage in animals

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Cellulose

(Structural in plants) a component of the cell wall

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58

Chitin

(Structural in animals) highly branched chains of glucose - supports soft bodies of arthropods

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Proteins

A polymer composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

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60

Enzymes

Proteins that regulate metabolic chemical reactions in cells

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61

Amino Acids

Central carbon, amino group, carboxyl group, and a hydrogen

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Disulfide Bond

The covalent bond formed between the sulfur atoms of 2 cysteines in a protein; typically causes the protein to fold by bringing otherwise distant parts of the protein close together

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Peptide Bond

Joining 2 amino acids together

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64

Peptide

2 amino acids bonded together

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Primary Structure

Sequence of amino acids in a protein

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Secondary Structure

Helix or pleated sheet (hydrogen bonded together)

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Tertiary Structure

Folding of helix or pleated sheet (hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds)

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Quaternary Structure

Individual peptides linked together (hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds)

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Denatured

When proteins normal structure is destroyed

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70

Nucleotide

Phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, nitrogen carrying base

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Nucleic Acid

Nucleotides linked together

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72

DNA

Deoxyribose nucleic acid, contains the genetic information of all organisms

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73

RNA

Ribonucleic acid, it is involved in converting the genetic information obtained from DNA into a protein

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74

Lipids

One of a number of organic molecules containing large non polar regions composed solely of carbon & hydrogen, which make them hydrophobic & insoluble in water; includes oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids, & steroids

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Fatty Acids

Long chains of mostly carbon & hydrogen

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76

Fats

(Saturated) composed of all single carbon-carbon bonds (solid at room temperature)

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77

Oils

(Unsaturated) contain some carbon-carbon double bonds, liquid at room temperature

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78

Triglyceride

Composed of a glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains

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79

Saturated Fatty Acids

Referring to a fatty acid with as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon backbone (therefore, has no double bonds in its carbon backbone)

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80

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Referring to a fatty acid with fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to its carbon backbone (therefore, has one or more double bonds in its carbon backbone)

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81

Waxes

Similar to fats (higher melting point, more brittle), highly saturated

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82

Phospholipids

Major component of cell membranes, composed of glycerol, a phosphate group & 2 fatty acid chains

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83

Steroids

Contain four fused carbon rings, 2% of you brain matter

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84

Cell

The smallest unit of life, consisting, at a minimum, of an outer membrane that encloses a watery medium containing molecules, including genetic material composed of DNA

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85

Cell Theory

The scientific theory stating that every living organism is made up of one or more cells; cells are the functional units of all organisms; & all cells arise from preexisting cells

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86

Light Microscope

A tool that can identify, observe & magnify objects by transmitting light through a string of lenses

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87

Electron Microscope

An instrument in which a beam of electrons is used to produce an enlarged image of a very small object

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88

Prokaryotic

Organisms that lack membrane bound organelles (Ex. Bacteria & Archaea Bacteria)

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89

Eukaryotic

Organisms that contain several membrane bound organelles (Ex. Protists, Fungi, Plants, & Animals)

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90

Nucleus

A large organelle that contains genetic material (DNA, RNA)

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91

Plasma Membrane

The outer membrane of the cell, a selectively permeable phospholipid belayer imbedded with proteins

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92

Cytosol

The fluid portion within the plasma membrane

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93

Cytoplasm

All the material contained within the plasma membrane of the cell (except the nucleus)

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94

Protoplasm

The colorless material comprising the living part of a cell, including the cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleus, & other organelles

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95

Cytoskeleton

A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm that gives shape to the cell, holds & moves organisms, & typically involved in cell movement

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96

Nucleoid

Contains a single circular chromosome; it is not surrounded by a membrane

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97

Plasmids

Small rings of DNA that is exchanged between bacterial cells

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98

Cell Wall

Composed of peptides that link chains of sugars that have amino functional groups that protect & give shape to cells (rod-shaped (bacclli), spherical (cocci), spiral-shaped (spirilla))

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99

Pili

Surface proteins projecting from the cell wall; they may be short & numerous (attachment pili) or long & few (sex pili)

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100

Flagellum

A whip-like structures that rotate to propel a bacteria through fluid environment

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