radiology final exam

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1

cathode

source of electrons and directs them toward the anode

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2

anode

serves as a target for the electrons and draws heat from target area

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3

___% is heat and ___% is x-ray

99 ; 1

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4

the anode is

positive

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5

the cathode is

negative

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6

what type of radiation are x-rays

electromagnetic

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7

mAs controls the number of

electrons produced

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8

kVp controls _____ of electrons across the tube

acceleration

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9

what determines the grid ratio for an x-ray machine

the height of the lead strips in the grid compared to the width of space between them

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10

for a lateral view:

place marker dorsal or ventral indicating the side (closest/farthest) from the table top

closest

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11

VD/DV

place the market to indicate the

left or right side of the patient

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12

Craniocaudal etc.

place marker on _____ aspect of limb indicating left or right

lateral

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13

lateral view to position rads on screen:

head on viewers ____; _____ aspect towards the top of the view box

left; dorsal

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14

DV/VD - position rads on screen:

head towards ___ of view box; left on viewers ____

top; right

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15

bone and joint rads- position on screen

____ aspect toward top of view box; ___ on viewer’s right

proximal ; left

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16

anode heel effect

variation in number of x-rays

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17

if SID decreases →

anode heel effect increases

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18

X-ray field size ____ → anode heel effect increases

increase

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19

_____ decreases → anode heel effect increases

anode angle

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20

magnification

when anatomy is not positioned as close to image receptor as possible

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21

foreshortening

anatomy is not positioned as close to image receptor as possible and is not parallel with image receptor

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22

elongation

x-ray beam not properly centered

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23
<p>what type of geometric distortion is this </p>

what type of geometric distortion is this

magnification

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24
<p>what type of geometric distortion is this </p>

what type of geometric distortion is this

foreshortening

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25
<p>what type of geometric distortion is this </p>

what type of geometric distortion is this

elongation

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26

what technical error is most common

motion

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27

3 rules for ALARA

time -

distance -

shielding -

shortest

greatest

maximum

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28

PPE protects you from what

secondary and scatter radiation only

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29

SID is always

40 inches

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30
<p>what type of view </p>

what type of view

lateral view

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31

radiographic density

darkness or brightness of a given area on a film

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32

radiographic contrast

difference in radiographic density between two areas on a film

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33

highest to lowest radiographic densities

air/gas

fat

soft tissue

bone

metal

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34

radiographic contrast (highest to lowest)

metal

bone

soft tissue

bone

air

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35

the relationship between tissue density and radiographic density is

indirect

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36

mAs controls

density

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37

kVp controls

contrast

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38

relationship between tissue density and radiographic contrast is

direct

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39

image too bright - tissues penetrated -

increase mAS

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40
<p>would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp) </p>

would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp)

increase mAs

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41

film too bright - tissues not penetrated

increase kVp

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42

image too dark - tissues penetrated too much

decrease mAs

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43

image too dark - tissues penetrated the right amount

decrease kVp

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44
<p>would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp) (tissues are not overpenetrated)</p>

would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp) (tissues are not overpenetrated)

decrease mAs

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45
<p>would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp)</p>

would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp)

increase kVp

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46
<p>would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp)</p>

would you (increase/decrease) (mAs/kVp)

decrease kVp

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47

purpose of technique charts

eliminates retakes

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48

subtract ___ kVp for each cm thickness less than 9cm

2

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49

add 2 kVp for each increase in cm thickness up to

80 kVp

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50

if less than 10 cm - place image receptor

on tabletop

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51

if 10 cm or greater - place image receptor

in bucky

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52

sante’s rule

kVp = (2 X tissue thickness cm) + SID

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53

if trying to find mAs when given mA

multiply by seconds

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54

multiply by grid ratio after what thickness

after 9cm

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55

for thorax chart

divide abdominal mAs by half

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56

for skull and extremities chart

double abdominal mAs

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57

what can you not see in a thoracic rad unless abnormal

esophagus

lymph nodes

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58

the ___ lung fields are fully visible only on the right lateral view

left

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59

the right lung lobes are only visible on the

left lateral view

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60

standard 2 - view (thoracic)

R lateral

VD

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61

cardiac 3 - view

DV

VD

lateral

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62

lung 3 - view

R lateral

L lateral

VD

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63

thorax lateral view centering

caudal to scapula

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64

thoracic lateral view

collimation

thoracic inlet to last rib

entire dorsal and ventral aspect

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65

centering for thoracic VD view

caudal to scapula

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66

collimation for VD thoracic view

thoracic inlet to last rib

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67

take thoracic films on peak

inspiration

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68

only visible if abnormal - abdominal rads

gallbladder

adrenal glands

lymph nodes

pacreas

ureters

urethra

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69

summation

overlap of two structures radiographically

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70

standard abdominal 2 view

lateral

VD

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71

vomiting 3 view

R lateral

L lateral

VD

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72

GDV. 1 view

L lateral

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73

Male urinary tract 3 view

lateral

lateral - flexed

VD

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74

lateral - abdominal

centering

caudal to last rib

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75

lateral abdominal collimation

cranial to xiphoid process

caudal to greater femoral trochanters

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76

VD abdominal centering

caudal to last rib

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77

collimation VD abdominal

cranial to xiphoid process

caudal to greater femoral trochanters

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78

take abdominal films on peak

expiration

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79

bones and joints in dorsal recumbency

scapula, scapulohumeral joint, humerus

pelvis, coxofemoral joint, femur

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80

pelvis standard 2 view

VD extended

lateral

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81

trauma 2 view - pelvis

VD frog leg

lateral

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82

centering - pelvis

VD extended

midline at ischiatic tuberosities

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83

VD extended pelvis collimation

cranial - wings of ilium

caudal - stifles

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84
<p>what view is this </p>

what view is this

VD extended of the pelvis

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85

VD frog leg

centering

midline at ischiatic tuberosities

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86

collimation

VD frog leg

cranial - wing of ilium

caudal - mid-diaphysis of femur

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87
<p>what view is this </p>

what view is this

VD frog-leg

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88

centering

lateral view of pelvis

midline over greater femoral trochanters

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89

collimation

lateral view of pelvis

cranial - wing of ilium

caudal - ischiatic tuberosities

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90
<p>what view is this </p>

what view is this

lateral pelvis

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91

shallow acetabulum, flat femoral head, thick femoral neck, displacement of femoral head, increase in joint space width are signs of

hip dysplasia

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92

standard body cavity view - bird

lateral

VD

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93

wing 2 view

mediolateral

caudocranial

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94

VD view

body cavity (bird)

centering

midline over keel

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95

mediolateral view

centering

midline between body wall and tip of wing

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96

caudocranial view

centering

midway between scapulohumeral joint and metacarpals

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97

standard views - mammals

Lateral

DV

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98

lateral view - small mammal

centering

caudal to xiphoid process

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99

DV small mammal

centering

midline caudal to xiphoid process

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100

turtle standard 3 view

Lateral with horizontal bean

DV

craniocaudal

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