Chapter 35 - Vascular plant structures growth and development

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Hierarchical organization:

organs> tissues> cells

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a cell is the …

fundamental unit of life

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tissue

a group of cells consisting of one or more cell types that together perform a specialized function

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organ

consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions

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Vascular Plant Organs

Roots, Stems, & Leaves

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basic morphology of vascular plants reflects adaptations to draw nutrients from…

above & below ground

  • take up CO2 & light from above ground

  • take up water & minerals from below

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3 basic organs evolved to facilitate efficient resource acquisition.

Roots, Stems, & Leaves

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Roots, Stems, & Leaves are organized into a …

root system & shoot system

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a root

organ with important functions: – anchoring the plant– absorbing minerals and water– storing carbohydrates

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primary root

the first to emerge from the seed

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lateral roots

branch off from the primary root improving anchorage & water absorption

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Absorption primarily occurs in the __

tips of the lateral roots

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tall plants with large shoot masses generally have a…

Taproot system

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taproot

usually develops from the primary root & functions in anchoring the plant in the soil

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fibrous root system

small or trailing vascular plants have these

  • primary root dies doesn’t form a taproot

  • adventitious roots arise from the stem & give rise to many branching lateral roots

  • function in prevent soil erosion by holding topsoil in place

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root hairs

absorption of water & minerals typically occurs through these that grow near the root tips

– finger-like extensions of epidermal cells, increase the absorptive surface of the root

-Mycorrhizal associations, symbiotic interactions with soil fungi, increase mineral absorption in most plants

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Stem

  • plant organ bearing leaves & buds

  • consist of an alternating system of nodes & internodes

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Nodes

the points at which leaves are attached

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Internodes

the stem segments between nodes

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Growing shoot tip

apical bud, causes elongation of a young shoot

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axillary bud

  • a structure that has the potential to form a lateral branch, thorn, or flower

  • primary function= elongate & orient the shoot to maximize photosynthesis

  • Many plants have modified stems that perform alternate functions

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leaf

  • main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants

functions= intercept light, exchange gases, dissipate heat, & defend against herbivores & pathogens

  • generally consists of:

    • –  a flattened blade

    • –  petiole, the stalk which joins the leaf to the stem

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monocots & eudicots differ in the arrangement of…

Veins:

  • –  Most monocots= parallel veins

  • –  Most eudicots= branching veins

  • Leaf shape, arrangement of veins, & spatial pattern of leaves can help with plant identification

  • Leaf shape may be simple or compound

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Most monocots have

parallel veins

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Most leaves are…

Specialized for photosynthasis

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Roots, stems, and leaves (organs) are composed of..

Three types of tissue

dermal, vascular, & ground tissues

  • Each forms a tissue system that is continuous throughout the plant

  • characteristics of the tissues & their spatial relationships vary in different organs

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Dermal Tissue

  • serves as a protective outer coating

  • In nonwoody plants, usually a single tissue

    layer called the epidermis

  • waxy cuticle covers the epidermis & protects

    leaves & most stems from water loss

  • A protective layer called the periderm replaces the epidermis in older regions of woody stems and roots

–  Guard cells-- specialized dermal cells that facilitate gas exchange in shoots

–  Trichomes-- hair-like outgrowths of epidermal cells that help reduce water loss, reflect light, & defend against insects

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Vascular Tissues

facilitates the transport of materials through the plant and provides mechanical support includes xylem & phloem:

–  Xylem*-- conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots*

–  Phloem*-- transports sugars from where they are made (primarily leaves) to actively growing parts of the plant or storage structures* vascular tissue of a root or stem is collectively called the stele

angiosperms—

–  stele of the root is a solid central vascular cylinder of xylem & phloem

–  stems & leaves its divided into vascular bundles, which are separate strands of xylem and phloem

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Ground Tissues

  • Tissue that are neither dermal nor vascular = ground tissue:

–  internal to the vascular tissue is pith

–  outside the vascular tissue is cortex

  • includes cells specialized for storage, photosynthesis, support, & short-distance transport

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Plant cells undergo cell differentiation…

specialization in structure & function, during development

– structural adaptations of various types of plant cells make their specific functions possible

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The major types of plant cells are…

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parenchyma cells

thin & flexible primary walls

  • –  generally lack secondary walls

  • –  have large central vacuole

  • –  retain ability to divide & differentiate

  • –  function: perform most of metabolic functions

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collenchyma cells

-grouped in strands & help support young parts of the plant shoot

–  unevenly thickened primary cell walls

–  living at maturity

– function= provide flexible support without restraining growth

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sclerenchyma cells

rigid cells with secondary cell walls containing lignin, a strengthening polymer, for support

– many are dead at maturity

-rigid cell walls remain to support the plant (function)

<p>rigid cells with secondary cell walls containing lignin, a strengthening polymer, for support</p><p>– <em>many are</em> dead at maturity</p><p>-rigid cell walls remain to support the plant (<em>function</em>)</p>
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water-conducting cells

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sugar-conducting cells

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Meristems

generate new cells for primary & secondary growth

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indeterminate growth

plants grow throughout its life

– this continuous growth possible due to meristems-- undifferentiated tissues composed of dividing cells

-most animals & some plant organs cease to grow at a certain size (determinate growth)

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Growth occurs @ 2 main types of meristems

-apical meristems- elongation of shoots & roots for primary growth

–  lateral meristems- located at the tips of roots and shoots, for stems & roots of woody plants to grow in circumference-- secondary growth

– 2 types of lateral meristems

  1. Vascular cambium adds vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem

  2. Cork cambium replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher periderm

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cells in apical & lateral meristems…

divide frequently during growing season

– Initials (stem cells), are new cells that remain in the meristem & produce more cells

– Others differentiate & are incorporated into tissues & organs

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Lateral meristems

give rise to secondary growth in woody plants have stem cells, which give rise to secondary growth.

– primary growth extends woody shoots, & secondary growth increases the diameter yearly upon parts formed in the previous years

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Cells displaced from the meristem give rise to…

3 primary meristems that will produce mature tissues:

  1. protoderm produces dermal tissue

  2. ground meristem produces ground tissue

  3. procambium produces vascular tissue

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Flowering plants can be categorized based on…

the length of their life cycle,

  • Annuals-- complete their life cycle in a year or less

  • Biennials-- require two growing seasons

  • Perennials-- live for many years

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root cap

covers the root tip to protect the apical meristem & polysaccharide slime lubricates the passage as the root pushes through soil

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growth occurs just behind the tip, in 3 zones:

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primary growth of roots produces epidermis, ground tissue, & vascular tissue:

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Between protoderm & procambium is ground meristem, produces…

ground tissue – ground tissue, mostly parenchyma cells, makes up region between vascular tissue & epidermis called the Cortex

■ innermost layer of the cortex is called endodermis-- regulates passage into & out of the vascular cylinder

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procambium

innermost primary meristem; it gives rise to the central vascular cylinder

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vascular cylinder

has a solid core of xylem & phloem surrounded by a cell layer called the pericycle

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eudicots

  • xylem has a starlike appearance in cross section with phloem between the “arms”

  • vascular tissue consists of vascular bundles arranged in a ring

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monocots

  • core of parenchyma cells surrounded by alternating rings of xylem & phloem

  • vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue

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lateral (branch) roots arise from the…

pericycle and destructively push through the outer tissues

■ branching is a form of primary growth

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shoot apical meristem

dome-shaped mass of dividing cells at shoot tip

  • leaf primordia of the apical bud protect the meristem

  • axillary buds develop from meristematic cells left at bases of leaf primordia

  • gives rise to 3 primary meristems— protoderm, ground meristem & procambium

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axillary buds are kept dormant by…

chemical communication from the apical bud

-the closer an axillary bud is to the active apical bud, the more inhibited it is

  • –  axillary buds are released from this apical dominance if the shoot tip is removed or shaded

  • –  lateral shoots emerge from axillary buds that have been released from dormancy

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stem is covered by the…

epidermis & a waxy cuticle

-ground tissue is composed primarily of parenchyma cells

– collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells strengthen and support the stem

-Unlike lateral roots, emerging shoots do not damage stem tissues

- Lateral shoots arise from axillary bud meristems on the stem surface

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apical dominance

The phenomenon where the central stem of a plant inhibits the growth of lateral buds.

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leaf primordia

Leaves develop from these along the sides of the shoot apical meristem

■ Unlike roots & stems, secondary growth in leaves is minor or nonexistent

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The waxy cuticle coating the leaf epidermis reduces water loss except where interrupted by…

Stomata, pores in the epidermis, allow exchange of CO2 & O2 between the surrounding air and photosynthetic cells inside the leaf

– Each stoma is flanked by two guard cells, which regulate its opening and closing to reduce water loss

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mesophyll

  • ground tissue in a leaf: sandwiched between upper & lower epidermis

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  • eudicots has two layers:

  • palisade mesophyll (upper layer) are rich in chloroplasts to maximize light capture

  • spongy mesophyll (lower layer) are loosely packed to create air spaces for gas exchange

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vascular bundles

veins of the leaf, provide structural support for leaf

  • vascular tissue of each leaf is continuous with vascular tissue of the stem

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Leaf veins are enclosed by a protective…

Boundle sheets that regulates movement of substances between the vascular tissue and the mesophyll

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land plants display…

secondary growth= the growth in thickness produced by lateral meristems

– In woody plants, primary & secondary growth occur simultaneously

– occurs in gymnosperms & many eudicots, rare in monocots

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vascular cambium

adds secondary xylem (wood) toward the interior & secondary phloem toward the exterior of the stem

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cork cambium

produces a tough covering to protect the stem from water loss and pathogen invasion

  • gives rise to cork cells that accumulate to the exterior of the cork cambium

  • before dying, cork cells deposit waxy suberin in their walls, creating a water & gas impermeable barrier

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___ is wholly responsible for the production of secondary vascular tissue

vascular cambium

  • typical woody stem– its located outside the pith & primary xylem & to the inside of the primary phloem & the cortex

  • typical woody root– it forms exterior to the primary xylem & interior to the primary phloem and pericycle

  • cross section, the vascular cambium appears as a ring of meristematic cells

  • Cell division increases the vascular cambium’s circumference and adds secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside

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Elongated stem cells are oriented…

parallel to the axis of the stem or root– give rise to tracheids, vessel elements, fibers of xylem, sieve-tube elements, companion cells, axially oriented parenchyma, & fibers of the phloem

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Shorter stem cells are oriented…

erpendicular to the axis of the stem or root – produce vascular rays—radial files of parenchyma cells that connect secondary xylem & phloem

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Secondary xylem accumulates

as wood:

–  Early wood- formed in spring in temperate regions, has thin cell walls to maximize water delivery

–  Late wood- formed in summer, has thick-walled cells and contributes more to stem suppor

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  • Dendrochronology

the analysis of tree ring growth patterns, can be used to study past climate change

– thick rings indicate a year with warm or wet growing conditions; thin rings indicate a cold or dry year

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as a tree or woody shrub ages, the older layers of secondary xylem the ___ no longer transport water & minerals

heartwood

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outer layers of a tree are known as…

Sapwood

  • transport materials through the xylem

  • Older secondary phloem sloughs off and does not accumulate

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periderm

Cork Cambium, a layer that replaces the epidermis

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Bark

  • all the tissues external to the vascular cambium, including secondary phloem & periderm

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Lenticels

  • pores in the periderm that allow for gas exchange between living cells of the stem or root and the outside air

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Despite having a common genome, cells can…

  • synthesize different proteins & diverge in structure & function

  • Cellular differentiation depends on gene expression, but is determined by position

  • Positional information is communicated through cell interactions

  • Gene activation or inactivation depends on cell-to-cell communication

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Flower formation involves a

phase change from vegetative growth to reproductive growth

– triggered by a combo of environmental cues & internal signal hormones

■ Flower production stops primary growth of that shoot– transition to flowering is associated with the switching

on of flower-inducing genes

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Several genes encode transcription factors that regulate development of floral pattern:

- Positional info determines which genes are expressed in a particular floral organ primordium

–  mutation in a flower-inducing gene can cause abnormal floral development

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In the hierarchy of biological organization, what is the shoot?

A system

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A root hair is __________.

an extension of an individual cell that absorbs water from soil

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Leaves occur at intervals along the plant stem. What is the region where a leaf is attached to the stem?

Node

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Leaves consist of __________.

a blade and a petiole

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What is the difference between the root epidermis and the shoot epidermis?

Only the shoot epidermis produces a waxy cuticle.

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The plant tissue system most analogous to our circulatory system is the __________.

vascular tissue

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Which of the following cells are dead at functional maturity?

Tracheids and vessel elements

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Collenchyma cells can be identified by __________.

their unevenly thickened cell walls

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If you wanted to plant a flowering plant in your yard that would bloom every spring, which of the following should you choose?

A perennial

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A region of dividing cells in a plant is called a __________.

meristem

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Which example below is the site of primary growth that results in the plant’s increasing in height?

Apical meristems

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Which of the following is a lateral meristem?

Vascular cambium

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Some plants grow by primary and secondary mechanisms. Choose the correct description of a mechanism and its result.

Primary and secondary growth are required to produce woody plants.

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Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in specialized __________ cells called the __________.

parenchyma; mesophyll

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Why does pinching off the top of a plant make it bushier?

Removing the apical meristem stimulates growth in the axillary buds, thus making the plant bushier.

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The layer that covers the apical meristem of a root is called the __________.

root cap

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Root tips are pushed farther into the soil mainly by __________.

elongation of cells

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A cross section of a plant part exposes epidermis, a thick cortex, and a central cylinder of xylem and phloem. This part is a __________.

root

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Which of the following is closest to the center of a buttercup (eudicot) root?

Xylem

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Lateral roots in seed plants are initiated by cell divisions in the __________.

pericycle

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