SCIENCE FINAL 6TH 2ND SEMESTER

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204 Terms

1

trait

specific characteristic of an individual

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2

gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

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3

DNA

the chemical code that controls your thoughts

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4

Heredity

Passing of traits from parents to offspring

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5

Hybrid

plants produce by crossing purebred parent plants that each have a different form of the same trait

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6

dominant trait

characteristic shown in the hybrid generation

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7

recessive trait

hidden in the hybrid generation and appears in later generations only when no dominant factor is inherited

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8

Phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism

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9

Genotype

genetic combination

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10

Purebred

plants that show the same trait for many generations when pollinated naturally

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11

Codominant

both genes are expressed

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12

incomplete dominance

genes seems to blend in one generation

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13

Pedigree

traces a particular trait

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14

genetic engineering

changing a gene or moving an organism into another organism

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15

Relationship between chromosomes, DNA, and genes

Genes are small sections of DNA. DNA is the chemical code. Chromosomes contain DNA.

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16

Examples of inherited traits

Traits like eye color, hair color, height, or structural body parts.

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17

Contributions of James Watson and Francis Crick

discovered the shape of the DNA molecule

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18

Structure of DNA molecule

double helix

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19

Contributions of George Mendel

he experimented with purebred plants.

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20

Mendel's experiments with peas-

he did cross and self-pollination

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21

Differences between dominant and recessive genes-

Dominant is always there. Recessive is rarer.

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22

Using Punnett squares-

How can doctors calculate the probability of a child inheriting a disease?

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23

Filled in Box- male w/ trait or disease

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24

Examples of sex-linked traits

color blindness and hemophilia

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25

Characteristics and examples of genetic diseases

sickle cell anemia, down syndrome

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26

Advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering

Advantages : Helps provide insulin for diabetics, animals grow faster, gene therapy, plants require less water. Disadvantages: Plants taste bad, animals could get diseases

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27

sickle cell anemia

red blood cells assume an abnormal sickle shape

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28

cystic fibrosis

mucus in lungs

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29

Down Syndrome

when a chromosome makes a copy of itself which causes genetic disabilities

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30

aurora

energy emitted in the form of beautiful colors of light

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31

chromosphere

the sun's atmosphere

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32

photosphere

sun's surface

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33

corona

the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere/ "the crown"

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34

ISS

International Space Station/ 16 different countries

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35

Outer Planets

The gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)

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36

Inner Planets

Terrestrial Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

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37

Probe

an unmanned research spacecraft sent beyond Earth's orbit

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38

satellite

Any object that orbits around another object in space

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39

space shuttle

A reusable spacecraft designed to transport people and cargo between Earth and space.

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40

Stars _____ their own light

produce

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41

A planet must orbit the _________

Sun

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42

A planet must be big enough for its own _________

Gravity

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43

a planet must keep the shape of a _________

Sphere

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44

sunspots

dark spots on the photosphere of the sun

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45

Kuiper Belt

small, icy objects including Pluto

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46

Rotation

a complete spin on an axis

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47

revolution

each orbit a planet makes around the sun

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48

Solar eclipse

when the moon passes between the Earth and the Sun

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49

lunar eclipse

moon passes through the shadow of the Earth

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50

Wernher von Braun

helped develop rockets for space travel

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51

Neil Armstrong

first man to walk on the moon

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52

Robert Goddard

launched the first liquid-fueled rocket

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53

What determines the seasons on Earth?

the tilt of the Earth as it revolves around the sun

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54

Mercury

planet closest to the Sun

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55

Venus

planet closest to Earth

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56

Venus

called Earth's twin

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57

Jupiter

Known for its Great Red Spot

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58

Saturn

Known for its Rings

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59

Mars

Planet most like Earth

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60

Neptune

planet with the most violent weather

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61

asteroid belt

area between Mars and Jupiter

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62

gravity

keeps the planets orbiting around the Sun

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63

moon's phases

different areas of the moon's surface lighted

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64
  1. they are spherical / mostly round

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65

differences between a dwarf planet and a planet

dwarfs planets share an orbit while planets do not

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66

Why is Pluto not a planet?

It does not orbit the sun.

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67

magnitude

the brightness of a star

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68

apparent magnitude

the brightness of a star when viewed from Earth

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69

absolute magnitude

how bright a star actually is

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70

Light-year

The distance that light travels in one year

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71

Parallax

the apparent change in position of a star in relationship to other stars

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72

Variable star

stars that regularly or repeatedly change in magnitude

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73

nebula

a cloud of dust, gases, and debris

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74

neutron star

may occur when a supergiant collapses to a very dense core

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75

pulsar

a neutron star that spins rapidly on its axis

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76

black hole

supergiant star that collapses and disappears from space

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77

constellation

a group of stars that form a pattern

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78

circumpolar constellations

constellations that revolve around the North Star

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79

astronamy

the study of stars and planets

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80

Redshift

shift of light to a longer wavelength as it moves away

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81

binary system

2 stars held together by gravity

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82

multiple star groups

three or four stars held together by gravity

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83

star cluster

a large group of stars held together by gravity

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84

galaxy

a huge star system that covers many light-years of space

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85

asteroid

irregularly shaped pieces of rocks, metal, and dust

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86

meteoroid

a rocky object in space that is smaller than an asteroid

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87

meteor

when a meteoroid enters earths atmosphere

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88

meteorite

A meteoroid that has hit earth's surface.

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89

comet

An icy chunk of frozen gases, water, and dust that continually orbits the sun.

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90

How do stars produce light?

nuclear fusion

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91

relationship between stars an their colors and temperatures

blue-color of the brightest stars

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92

Types and sizes of stars

dwarfs, giants, supergiants

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93

Difference between eclipsing and pulsating stars

eclisping- 2 pairs are rotating each other

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94

pulsating- stays on its own axis & pulse

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95

What causes a nova?

one stars gravity pulls gases from the other star

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96

Problems with astrology

People find guidance in stars but the should rely on God instead

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97

Identify and describe instruments used to study stars

Reflecting telescope - uses mirrors to effect light to make objects appear bigger

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98

Relationship of the Milky Way to Local Group

he local group is a cluster of galaxies traveling together through space. the Milky Way is one galaxy in the local group.

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99

If you use a horoscope are you a real christian?

No because you should rely on God not stars.

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100

mechanical energy

the ability to make something move

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