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Physical Geography

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69 Terms
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Physical Geography

Study of spacial characteristics of various elements of the physical environment, including landforms, bodies of water, climate, ecosystems, and erosion.

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Human Geography

study of spatial characteristics of humans and human activities; learn about politics, populations, area, and economics

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Spatial Models

looks like stylized maps, and shows theories about spatial distribution, developed for agriculture and urban land use

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Non-spatial Models

show theories using words, graphs, or tables; shows changes over time rather than across space with more accuracy

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Time-Distance Decay

further away two phenomena, the less amount of interactions there are between the two

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Spatial Patterns

arrangement of phenomena occurring over space

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Quantitative Data

information that can be recorded using numbers

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Geospatial Data

quantitative data with spatial aspect, including countries, cities, zip codes, etc.

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Reference Maps

designed for people to refer to for info

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Political Maps

maps that show/label human credated boundaries and designations, including countries, states, cities, etc.

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Physical Maps

maps that show/label natural features, like mountains, rivers, and deserts.

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Road Maps

maps that show/label highways streets and alleys

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Plat Maps

maps that show/label property lines and details of land ownership

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Thematic Maps

maps that show spatial aspects of information or a phenomenon

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Choropleth Maps

use various colors, shades of one color, or patterns to show the location and distribution of spatial data

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Dot-Distribution Map

maps show the specific location/distribution of something across a map

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Graduated Symbol Map

symbols of different sizes indicate different amounts (largers = more)

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Isoline Map

maps using lines that connect points of equal value to depict data across space

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Topographic map

map that shows different levels of elevation

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Cartogram

map where sizes of areas represents a specific statistic

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Small-scale maps

maps that show larger amount of area (less detail)

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Large-scale maps

maps that show smaller amount of area (more detail)

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Scale

a ratio of size

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Absolute Location

precise location of something based of a system

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Absolute Distance

distance measured in units (ex. feet, meters, miles, etc.)

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Relative Location

location in relation to something else, like Salt Lake City south of the Salt Lake

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Relative Distance

distance in terms of connectability (roads) or accessibility (interaction)

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Elevation

distance above sea level

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Clustered Distribution

phenomena spread over a concentrated area

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Dispersed Distribution

phenomena spread over a large area

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Linear Distribution

arranged in a straight line, like houses on a road

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Map Projection

Earth (or a portion of Earth) projected on a flat surface

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Distortion

weaknesses within map projections

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Landscape Analysis

defining and describing land

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Field Observation

physically visiting a location, place, or region to get firsthand information

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Aerial Photography

professional pictures captured from planes within atmosphere

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Media Reports

portrayal of information to a large audience

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Travel Narratives

log of a traveler's experience of a location

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Policy Documents

formal document that regulates company's use of info

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Photographic Interpretation

examining of photos in order to gather information

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GPS

uses information from satellites to find and record exact location

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GIS

computer system with info from geospatial data sets or digital maps

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Remote Sensing

use of cameras on an aircraft to collect images/video of Earth's surface

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Census Data

Data from a US government survey given every year

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Space

the area between two or more phenomena

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Place

refers to human/physical characteristics of a location

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Site

characteristics at an immediate location

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Situation

the location relative to its connection to other places

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Sense of Place

human's perception of place based on personal beliefs

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Toponyms

names for places (general provides insight about a place)

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Time-Space Compression

shrinking of time-distance due to increasing methods of transportation

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Flow

patterns and movement of ideas, people, products, and other phenomena

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Pattern

repetition of a phenomena, general arrangement of something

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Human-Environment Interaction

exchange between people and the natural world

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Natural Resources

items that are found in nature/the natural world

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Sustainability

use of resources in a way that allows it to be used in the future

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Land Use

how land is modified and organized

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Environmental Determinism

Landforms/climate are the most powerful for shaping human behavior and societal development

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Possibilism

acknowledges environmental effects but focuses more on cultural impacts

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Scale of Analysis

helps geographers look at different scales to learn more on different levels

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Global

scale of analysis for the whole world

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Regional

Portion of a country

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National

Scale of a country

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Local

scale of a province, state, city, or county

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Aggregation

geographers organizing data into different scales

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Formal Region

regions that are united by trait(s)

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Functional Regions

regions organized around of a focal point

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Perceptual Region

informal sense of place perceived by people

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Subregion

shares characteristics with a larger region but distinctive in some ways

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